Volume 9, Issue 1, January 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Abscisic acid: A mean of Glycemic homeostasis. []

Abscisic Acid has lately emerged as one of the primary contenders to tackle diabetes and maintain glycemic conditions appropriate for the body. It is a plant hormone but is also found in other organisms like Metazoans. Dietary intake of abscisic acid results in abscisic acid being present in humans. However, some claim that ABA might be produced inside humans itself. Abscisic acid plays an important role in managing our internal environment. Moreover, recent studies have found that it binds to a receptor called Lanthionine synthetase C-like 2 which further helps the facilitated diffusion of glucose molecules into cells. Vitamin D is also directly responsible for ABA functioning and maintaining homeostasis. This review has been formulated based on accounts and research papers of people who have done in depth analysis on the topic. It summarizes the functioning and origin of abscisic acid and how it can be used as a way of controlling glucose concentration in the blood. It also aims to provide a scalable solution to a common metabolic disorder that is diabetes.

Addressing Sexual Violence and Harassing Women’s Mobility in Public Transport System in Dhaka City : The Ways to Address the Issue from Sociological Perspective []

The study has been carried out to understand violence against women in public transport in our society. This study mainly focuses on the current scenario of violence occurring against women in public transportations,patterns of such violence/harassment, further reactions and effects on victims as well as ways to address the issue. Qualitative data was collected through in-depth interview from the female respondents who travel in public transports. To make this research more specific, ex positive and informative focused group discussion and in depth interviews have been used as data collection technique as part of qualitative study. Study exposed that, violence against women in our society is not an uncommon affair, especially in public transports in multiple forms which creates an enormous psycho-social impact on victims and their surroundings. Therefore, the findings of this study will also work for analyzing the jeopardized condition of women who travel by public transports frequently and for implementing recommendations for a constructive change in our society.

210Po radioactivity measurements from mussels in the coastal sites of Dakar region (Senegal) []

This work aim to assess the 210Po radiation in the coastline by analyzing the radioactivity of the 210Po incorporated in the mussels (Mytilus Galloprovincialis) whose consumption is part of the eating habits of riparian populations.Mussels samples have been collected from 15 different sites of Dakar (Senegal) coast. The results of 210Po activity concentrations of 10 mussel samples (P1 to P10) around the Iles Madeleines (touristic islands) located at 3 km from the Dakar coast were found to vary between (44.68±13.25) Bq.kg-1 dry weight and (156.07±15.93) Bq.kg-1 dry weight giving a mean value of (123.74±14.10)Bq.kg-1.. From 5 others coastal sites (P11 to P15) which are wether under freshwater discharges or under strong influence of domestic and industrial discharges, the radioactivity concentrations are more high with a mean value of (177.03±14.24) Bq.kg-1.


The attainment of sustainable development through achieving the 17 sustainable development goals (SDGs) calls for a robust and inclusive talent pool in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) with innovative capacities to relentlessly harness current and future opportunities (National Academy of Sciences, 2006). Whilst it is acknowledged that women represent an under-tapped resource and lost opportunity for the STEM sector, the persistent gender gap, particularly in Africa, is not helping the situation. At an estimated average of 24% participation in STEM-based programmes and careers, the full potential and contribution of African women and girls is yet to be realised in all STEM sub-disciplines, sectors and levels. Cognisant of the multiplicity of causal factors to the status quo, closing the participation gap requires holistic interventions from government, industry, academia and the wider society. The paper leverages on the success of the Women’s University in Africa in mainstreaming gender, resulting in an 86.2% female participation rate in programmes offered by the University to draw lessons that can be used to increase the participation of women in STEM. The WUA case demonstrates “what can work” regarding building and sustaining female representation in STEM. Critical lessons learnt from the WUA case include innovative and dedicated leadership, targeted curriculum, flexible programme offerings and mentorship to instil the courage and confidence so needed by females to succeed.

The impact of Chilapalapa language of Northern Rhodesia on Zambian local languages []

This paper examined the impact of Chilapalapa, the pidgin language of Southern Africa on some Zambian local languages. The paper also discussed how the language came about. The study, which was limited to two research areas (Kabwe and Lusaka districts), revealed that the Chilapalapa language was created and designed by colonial masters to demean, brutalise and oppress Africans. The other reason for the introduction of Chilapalapa was to classify Africans to a lower social class as allowing Africans to use English was viewed by Whites as putting an African on an equal social standing with Whites. The study also revealed that Chilapalapa, though obsolete, left a great impact on the lexical and morphological characteristics of many Zambian languages. A good number of Chilapalapa words are being used in most of Zambian local languages today. Consequently, these familiar Chilapalapa words have to some extent created some near intelligibility among Zambian local languages. Key words: Language death, native languages, Language attitude, Derogatory, Pidgin, Chilapalapa.

The effects of Inbreeding on quantitative characters []

It means the hybrid between two person have a high degree of affinity. The degree of affinity different between the degree of affinity different between the intermarried individuals it result of self -pollination and it is a high kind of the inbreeding in plant or between others… etc The research has shown the inbreeding lead to in the most of the time to the depression in the kind qualities and appearance of many of harmful genes effects such as :lethal and semi-lethal genes.

Securing Interactive data-driven PHP Web applications []

There is a rising tendency of moving away from desktop applications towards interactive web applications in seeking for robust and effective enterprise solutions. A key setback to this is the inherent security challenges that characterise the Web. This paper presents an overview of the potential risks of SQL injection and other threats faced by PHP Web applications and briefly describes simple coding techniques that help to avoid them. The work is based on experience in developing an interactive students’ portal for a large university in Nigeria

Awareness of Proper Posture Among Talisay Malayan Academy High School Students []

Spinal pain and postural deviation are common due to the lack of awareness of students in observing proper posture upon performing daily activities. This research sought to determine the level of awareness of proper posture among high school students. 70 students were gathered and were asked to answer the Q-BAPHYP to assesses the level of awareness of high school students when it comes to their posture. The respondents are frequently aware of their posture with a mean ranging from 2.3-3.5 with a standard deviation ranging from 0.4-1.1. Students lack the awareness of observing the proper posture.

Stability Analysis Of Rectangular CCSS and CCCS Isotropic Rectangular Plates using 3rd Order Energy Functional []

This paper covers the buckling tendency of rectangular Isotropic CCSS and CCCS plates using (odd functional)Third Order Energy Functional. The third order strain energy was formulated from the summation of the product of the stress and strain at every point in the plate within the plate domain. This strain energy was further added to the external load to obtain the Third order total potential energy functional. This was achieved by adopting the direct variation method by making buckling load the subject of the expression. Their shape functions were considered at the major X and Y axis . For the derivation of shape function, the deflection and 1st derivative of deflection were considered for clamped support, while the deflection and the second derivative of deflection where considered. Upon the derivation of the shape functions of the various boundary conditions , their differential values were integrated , to obtain the needed stiffness coefficients . These values were finally substituted in to the critical buckling load equation to obtain their various coefficients. Graphically, it was shown that as the of the aspect ratio increases , critical buckling load coefficients.


Devices in Internet of Things (IoT) network are connected in a systematic way to transfer data over the network. In automation it is required to process and schedule response without human or high processing power computer assistance. Devices in IoT network have unique identification (UID) and they are compact with other objects, people or animal. Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) supports the topology and transfer of information. Nodes are connected to the gateway and some cases there are same type nodes to perform same type functionality. In some automation there are huge tasks in same domain. Scheduling of tasks and response from the right node ensure performance of the network. Group of selecting sensors can participate for censing to produce better throughput. Using optimal resource in wireless sensor network is also a challenge. In this paper we propose combination Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and priority scheduling algorithm optimal resource planning and job scheduling in wireless sensor network.

Mobile app-controlled motorized walker For Parkinson’s disease a revised proposed design []

Introduction: Parkinson’s disease could lead to the development of a festinating gait pattern characterized by a progressive increase of speed. This study aimed to develop a mobile application that could be used to remotely control the movement and speed of a motorized walker. The researchers were able to develop a mobile application with simple command buttons that could be used to remotely control a motorized walker with external cue devices. Methods: This study utilized the developmental method of research. With the assistance of an engineer, the researchers created a mobile application that could remotely control a motorized walker using an Arduino software program and a Bluetooth HC-03 module. The mo-bile application was designed at a private non-commercial facility in Cebu City. There were no respondents for this research. Results: The researchers were able to develop a mobile application with simple command buttons that could be used to remotely control a motorized walker with external cue devices. Conclusion: The mobile application was not tested by experts nor by actual patients. This study will serve as a groundwork for further research on assistive devices for patients with Parkinson’s disease.

Extracting suitable suitable sowing window for groundnut (arachis hypogaea l.) Varieties under kharif season and find out interaction effect between sowing windows and varieties in kharif season. []

Groundnut, also known as peanut, is an annual crop and belongs to Fabaceae family. The genus, Arachis contains about 80 species including Arachis monticola. Differing from other flowering plant genera, this genus produces fruits below the ground but flowers, leaves and stems from above ground (Krapovickas and Gregory 1994). The experiment entitled,Extracting suitable suitable sowing window for groundnut (arachis hypogaea l.) Varieties under kharif season and find out interaction effect between sowing windows and varieties in kharif season was conducted in split plot design with three replications during kharif 2019 The treatments comprised of four varieties viz., V1: JL-776 (Phule Bharati), V2: RHRG-6083 (Phule Unnati), V3: JL-501 and V4: KDG-160 (Phule Chaitanya) as main plot and four sowing windows viz., S1: 23rd MW (04th to 10th June), S2: 25th MW (18th June to 24th June), S3: 27th MW (02nd to 08th July) and S4: 29th MW (16th to 22nd July) as sub plot treatments. Among all the sowing windows 25th MW (S2) sowing window recorded the highest growth attributes. The leaf spot and rust of groundnut was observed throughout the kharif season 2019, normally 30 days after sowing and then up to the harvesting. The disease intensity was higher mostly in the month of October. Among all sowing windows studied, the average leaf spot and rust intensity level were higher in 25th MW (S2) sowing followed by 29th MW (S4). Sowing of groundnut during 23rd MW (S1) and 25th (S2) recorded lower incidence of thrips, whereas, crop sown during 29thMW (S4) recorded with maximum incidence. Among the varieties, higher incidence was recorded with KDG-160 and minimum was recorded on JL-776 followed by RHRG-6083 and JL-501.Higher GDD and HUE were observed in 25th MW sowing window in variety JL-776 (1809) and (0.74) respectively, as well as the highest HTU and HTUE observed in 25th MW sowing window in variety JL-776 (6911) and (2.64) respectively, while the highest PTU (22640) and PTUE (12.50) were observed under 25th MW sowing window (S2) in variety JL-776. The light use efficiency is also observed maximum during 25th MW sowing window in variety JL-776 (12.56).


Microbiological quality of selected herbal preparation used in the treatment of typhoid fever sold in Gombe metropolis, Gombe State, Nigeria was determined. The herbal Preparation were selected based on the interview with some people of the community and also the producers of the preparations. Five (5) herbal preparations were selected and tested namely; Med-bunch, Al-muwafaqa, Mau’shifa, Yellow cassia, and Addawau’l humma and compare with the standard drug Ciprofloxacin using standard disc diffusion method. Phytochemical Screening reveals the presence of metabolite such alkaloid, tannin, flavonoid, glycoside, saponin and steroid. There is no significance difference between Addawa’ul humma and the standard drug Ciproflxacin (P<0.05), and between the Addawa’ul humma when compared with the rest of the four herbal preparation. Addawa’ul humma was recorded to have much anti-typhoid activity. The physicochemical analysis result of Addawa’ul humma shows that it has the highest concentration of phosphate and sulphate (0.72 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg respectively) while Al-mufaqa has the least concentrations (0.09 mg/kg and 1.09 mg/kg). The Organoleptic result shows that only Ma’u Shifa has the offensive odour but the rest are fruity in smell, all the samples are bitter with only Med Bunch and Yellow cassia that are not turbid. Results of FT-IR indicated that the preparations have several functional such as alkanol and carboxyl group. The result of this studies advocate for continuous use of these preparations in the treatment of typhoid, but with extra care for dosage and purity

Cupping therapy increases swim speed of competitive swimmers with symptomatic myofascial shoulder pain []

The researchers aim to determine the effects of MCT among swimmers with symptomatic shoulder myofascial pain. In this study, there were twenty-four (n=24) swimmers ages ranging from 14-55 years old who had experienced shoulder pain were assessed for the presence of MPS and were given a therapeutic intervention once a week for 4 weeks. Measurements include ROM, Numeric Pain Scale, swim speed test and a one-way ANOVA was used to calculate all the gathered data. There is a significant decrease in pain severity, improvement of ROM and decrease in swim speed among the both groups. However, the experimental group showed statically better results in pain and ROM. Although statistically insignificant, experimental group exhibit more decreased swim speed than the control group. Myofascial Cupping Therapy can be used as treatment for shoulder MPS and decrease in ROM. However, there is a need for further studies to validate its effects on swim speed.


Aloe Vera is the most established therapeutic plant ever known and the most applied restorative plant around the world. Concentrates of Aloe Vera are demonstrated skin healer. Aloe Vera help to mitigate skin wounds caused by burning, skin aggravations, cuts and creepy crawly nibbles, and its bactericidal properties ease tingling and skin swellings. It is known to help hinder the presence of wrinkles and effectively fix the harmed skin cells that cause the obvious indications of maturing. Aloe is an incredible detoxifier, germ-free and tonic for the sensory system. It likewise has anti-viral properties. As a general wellbeing tonic. Aloe Vera is a great source of nutrients. Aloe Vera Gel contains a huge scope of nutrients - even nutrient B12, Vitamin A, contains B-Group nutrients, Vitamin C, Nutrient E and folic corrosive. Aloe Vera Gel contains significant ingredients including 19 of the 20 amino acids required by the human body and seven of the eight basic ones that just can't be made.


Since old period natural treatment stayed as medication's spine which is monetary, more secure and effectively accessible to the majority of individuals in world. Among assorted natural fortune, Neem is a profoundly regarded tree with a few advantageous properties and applications particularly known for its fantastic helpful, ethno medicinal values for mankind. It has been utilized in various medication frameworks: Ayurveda, Unani, Homeopathy, people medication and subsequently considered as cynosure of present day medication. Each and every part of neem have some organic and therapeutic properties subsequently an important source of characteristic restorative items. Neem has indicated antiviral, anti-fungal and anti-bacterial properties. It is utilized in instances of incendiary skin conditions. Generally, Neem has been utilized for skin and blood cleaning conditions. Neem not just treats infections and diseases, but it additionally gives us the strength of battling sicknesses by improving our immunity


Triphala (tri = three and phala = natural products), is an ayurvedic formulation made out of three equivalent extents of natural organic products local to the Indian subcontinent: viz.Terminalia chebula, Phyllanthus emblica, and Terminalia belerica. Triphala is a tridoshic rasayana having an adjusting and reviving impact on the three established components that administer the human existence.

Kali Mirach - A Review []

The Black pepper (Piper nigrum L) plant and its concentrates have been utilized as a folk medication by society and are the wellspring of the most usually utilized flavour around the world. The substance piperine is a significant bioactive segment present in black pepper (and white pepper too) that has various detailed physiological and medication like activities. The study gives proof that black pepper may have medical advantages, especially in improving digestion issues. Black pepper contains anti-cancer oxidant and anti-microbial properties.

A Systematic Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy along with its Causes []

Hypertension is one of the highly observed medical diseases, which considerably affects maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Hypertension is the most common medical disorder encountered during pregnancy. Hypertensive disorders are one of the major causes of pregnancy-related maternal deaths. There is a progressive increase in the incidence of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy worldwide. However, provision of blood pressure at a level sufficient to preserve maternal end organs plays key role in pregnancies progressing with high blood pressure. Here, we discuss types, risk factors, diagnosis, and management strategies of hypertensive disorders in pregnancies in the light of current guidelines. Moreover, we review hypertension related preeclampsia and eclampsia. The purpose of this review is to present the new staff statement and new definitions as well as management approaches for each of the hypertensive disorders during pregnancy. Finally, we review current management guidelines, treatment goals, and describe the potential risks and benefits associated with different classes of antihypertensive drugs.

Sleeve Gastrectomy []

Obesity has been accompanied many diseases such as hypertension, arteriosclerosis, diabetes and respiratory problems for many years. These diseases could lead to a risk of early death especially when a person's cannot lose weight whether by following a diet or by exercises and this might be surgery an option to treat these cases. Sleeve gastrectomy originally performed as a restrictive component of a duodenal replacement procedure. Partial vertical gastrectomy helped reduce stomach capacity and initiate weight loss in the short term while the malabsorption component in the operation provides long-term weight loss. However, some patients were unable to undergo gastric bypass, and early investigations found that significant weight loss occurred with SG alone. The sleeve then evolved into a risk management strategy for older or high-risk patients who would not tolerate a longer or more serious procedure. A patient may advised to have sleeve gastrectomy. However, whether to go through this surgery or not is always the patient’s decision.


There is no adequate research on the validity of rowing ergometers in measuring paddling performance of Paradragon Boat paddlers. This study then aimed to determine the validity of a specific rowing ergometer in measuring paddling performance. This study used a prospective correlational research design. The study was conducted in a sea channel and a university gym. Ten paddlers in a non-profit organization paddled on a rowing ergometer and in-boat on actual seawater. The time duration, number of strokes, and speed of each subject per 200 m, 500 m, and 2000 m were recorded. Pearson Correlation Coefficient was used to determine the correla-tional relationship between paddling parameters in-land and in-boat. Validity coefficients showed strong positive relationship be-tween ergometer and in-boat performance in all assessed technical parameters: time (200 m: r = 0.89; 500 m: r = 0.90; 2000 m: r = 0.84), number of strokes (200 m: r = 0.88; 500 m: r = 0.91; 2000 m: r = 0.82), and speed (200 m: r = 0.87; 500 m: r = 0.89; 2000 m: r = 0.82). Therefore, the rowing ergometer is a valid tool in assessing paddling performance of Paradragon boat paddlers.


A study aimed at assessing the temporal effect of Deltamethrin 1% in controlling tsetse flywas carried out in two Kebel of Gamo zone south rift valleyfrom October 2019 to April 2020.The objective of the study was to assess the temporal effect of Deltamethrin 1% in controlling tsetse fly.The strategy followed to accomplish the study was by implementing pre-intervention phase (entomology and parasitology) and intervention phase by applying insecticide (Deltamethrin 1%) pour-on’ on cattle at a rate of 1 ml/10 kg body weight on quarterly in Fura Kebel and monthly ‘in Kanchama Kebel. During The intervention phase hematological and entomological results in each Kebele was monitored on a monthly basis. The results indicated that in Fura Kebel the relative abundance of tsetse fly (Glossina pallidipes) there was no significant effectof Deltamethrin were seen p (0.870) in pre-intervention and lastmonitoring time(2.1 flies per trap per day to 1.73 flies per trap per day)and there was no significant effect of delthametrin were seen p (0.385)inthe incidence of Trypanosomosis during first and last monitoring time (5.5%first monitoring) to 4.7%last monitoring.In Kanchama Keble there was significant effectof Deltamethrinwere seenp (0.000)in the relative abundance of tsetse flies revealed during pre-intervention and last monitoring time (17.73 flies per trap per day to 8.867)).There was also significant effect ofDeltamethrin were seen p (0.006)in the incidence of Trypanosomosis in cattle’s also declined from first monitoring (9.6%) to last monitoring (3.2%). This work finally disclosed that monthly application of Deltamethrin 1% has effect in controlling tsetse and Trypanosomiosis. Wet and dry season has no significant effect on controlling tsetse flies, however further research should be required to give concrete recommendation. Keywords:Delthamethrinv1%;Fura, Kanchama,pour-on,Trypanosomosis; Tsetse fly,

Evaluation of Nurses’ Knowledge and Current Practice of Drug Administration in Admitted Patients with Swallowing Difficulties and Those with Feeding Tube []

Administering oral medication to patients with swallowing difficulties and those with enteral feeding tubes is a challenging patient care concern and surrounded by many errors. It has been found in certain researches that nurses’ knowledge of correct administration of medication, knowledge of control release medication code, Knowledge of possible interactions with enteral feed or feeding tube and correct crushing of solid preparations are very low. In addition, nurses’ adherence to proper drug administration through enteral feeding is questioned. This can result in medication errors, tube obstruction, reduced drug effectiveness, and increase risk of toxicity. Methods The research was using an ethnographic design using unstructured interview and structured observation method. Results: The prescriber stated the route of administration via NGT tube in the drug chart in 42 % of the prescriptions only. During the preparation of the medication to be administered by the patients, 87.5% of the prescriptions with more than one medication were crushed or opened all together by nurse. The tube was not flushed between each medicine and afterwards with at least 15ml of water in 91% of the prescriptions with more than one medication. 90% of nurse has low knowledge about the pharmaceutical dosage forms with the direct interview group. Most of the nurses stated that they can dissolve any medicine in water then administered through feeding tube. Most of Them stated that they should not wait for 30 minutes before administering medication after food. 60% of them stated that Medication should be mixed with enteral feeding formula and the Medication can be prepared and administered together with other medications through feeding tube. Conclusion: This study showed that nurses do not have sufficient baseline knowledge about rules of drug administration via enteral feeding tubes. However, integrated educational program by clinical pharmacists that focus on promoting correct administration of drugs via enteral feeding tube will improved knowledge and practice of nurses. A theory–practice gap was found in this study that may be related to the authority of physicians not nurses in ordering rules for medication administration through enteral tube. The pharmacist should have a role in medication administration to admitted patient especially those with swallowing difficulties. The nurse study curriculums should be revised and updated. Administrating guideline should be available. The pharmacist should have a role in medication administration to admitted patient especially those with swallowing difficulties. The nurse study curriculums should be revised and updated. Administrating guideline should be available.


The paper examines the role of Women in Informal Cross-Border Tra,ding (WICBT) in Africa. Women continue to be visible at exit and entrance points in Africa involved in various cross-border transactions. There have been efforts at regional economic community (REC) level by COMESA to integrate the so called informal cross-border trade and women to be specific although there have been minimal efforts on the implementation which resulted in the premature death of the initiatives. The paper seeks to assess how many have fared in trading across borders under the COMESA Customs Union. This will assist in the policy initiatives which can be adopted at continental level to support these women. The ultimate goal of the study is to contribute to the body of literature on gender and regional trade policies which can be used by academic and professional in furthering women empowerment under regional integration. As regional integration seeks to contribute to economic development it is critical to have engendered regional trade policies which contributes to all inclusive economic growth which takes into account gender differentiated needs of African people. The paper identifies major challenges which need to be addressed if women in ICBT are to contribute to African intra-continental trade. The policy initiatives to address these challenges at continental level require the involvement of women at policy design and formulation to ensure the policies are gender sensitive and gender responsive. RECs


For adult learners, it is important to make meaning of their lives through a critical worldview to better construe the world around them. Therefore, transformative learning posits a better position to explain adult learning processes where adults construct and interpret their experiences to validate their fidelity and to make appropriate decisions. Another aspect of the practice of meaningful and useful learning in the adult classroom is creative learning. Its main objective is to help adults open themselves to new possibilities, to play with ideas, to experiment, and to modulate their reactions to fast-changing environments. The purpose of this article is to portray that the implementation of transformative and creative learning is an admirable approach to offer potential personal growth among adult learners. First, the nature of transformative and creative learning is discussed. Then the barriers and practice of two learning strategies in classrooms are explored. Finally, implications and suggestions are provided.

Relation of Knowledge and Practice of Proper Body Mechanics among Nurses on the Prevalence of Low Back Pain []

Background: Low back pain is a common problem among the nursing profession. The high prevalence of back pain injuries for nurses is supported by many studies. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship of the knowledge and practice of proper body mechanics on the prevalence of low back pain among nurses. Conclusion revealed that there is significant influence between the knowledge and practice of body mechanics on the low back pain among nurses. The study should be replicated on large samples and different hospital settings in order to generalize the results. Methods: Research Design: A descriptive quantitative research Research Respondents: A Non-random purposive sample of 50 staff nurses Methodology: Results: The results revealed that about two third of them 65% had low back pain. There was a highly statistically significant difference regarding total knowledge and practice of proper body mechanics on the prevalence of low back pain among nurses. Conclusion: It is concluded that knowledge and practice of proper body mechanics has a significant influence on low back pain prevalence among nurses. Keywords: Low back pain, nurses, body mechanics

Causes of Construction Project Delays in Pakistan []

Construction project failure becomes an immense problem in all around the globe and same it also spark the construction industry of Pakistan which are also facing failure in very large number from last few decade. The purpose of this article is to highlight the major factor which causes failures to project, According to PMBOK the project success and failure defend on the three core factor which are time, cost and scope. The causes are investigated through different research paper review, interview session and survey based questionnaire distributions. The paper is carryout by studying various related research paper which had identified the causes as well as carrying out questionnaire based interview and survey for identifying the major causes which are directly associated with the project triple constraint factor i.e. time, cost and scope. To analyze the data, we applied a statistical formula to calculate the RIR value for importance of causes of failure, Around 35 major causes were selected from literature review, interview session and questionnaire based survey. Often which the top ten causes were highlighted and explain with logical evaluation which if followed by the project stakeholder will result in the project success in define triple constraint. The data help us in the identification of top ten causes of construction project failure in Pakistan: Incompetent Contractor, Change in Government Tenure/ Change in interest, Insufficient data collection and survey before design, Lack of Risk Planning, Lack of Management support for the project, Inaccurate Project Schedule & Incompetent Project Team, Organizational Changes, Pandemic, Delays in payments to Contractors, Delays in Design Phase. Keywords: construction projects, Project Failure, causes of Failure, Pakistan


In urea plant ammonium carbamate solution is very corrosive; all metals have corrosion problems with ammonium carbamate and the corrosion problems increase with temperature, a ten degree Celsius rise in temperature doubles the corrosion rate to the point where the duplex steel is no longer acceptable. The material plays a very important role in Urea plants. The space between the reactor liner and the shell is most often empty and employs various methods of detecting a leak ranging from conductivity measurements. Vacuum leak detection system, pressure leak detection system etc. Titanium, SS316L (urea grade), 2 RE-69 etc.) Over the years that can resist ammonium carbamate corrosion. Materials plays very important role in any industry. Selection of material is vital at design stage itself ,Wrong selection of material may lead to catastrophic failures and outage of plants & even loss of Human lives, Right selection of material leads to long life of plant. In the latest plants specialty duplex materials are used for liner. The actual reactor has been constructed using a variety of materials, e.g. Zirconium, Vessel inside a protective liner. This paper intended study of number of leakage in the HP loop vessels, e.g. Reactor, Stripper, Carbamate condenser etc. How to detect leakage and troubleshooting during detection and attending the leakages.