Volume 9, Issue 1, January 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Mariculture Potential In Indonesia: A Review []

Marine aquaculture(mariculture)is the cultivation of marine organisms in their natural habitat, usually for commercial purposes, and is the cultivation of plants and animal organisms both at sea and in the brackish waters. Marine cultivation is not widely practiced in Indonesia, while natural resources are very adequate and the availability of marine fish for various needs is still insufficient. The purpose of writing this review paper is to determine what potential commodities from the mariculture sector can be developed in Indonesia and the challenges that must be faced by cultivators in the mariculture sector. Several commodities in Indonesia have supported marine cultivation, including seaweed, where Indonesia is one of the producers of the species of seaweed Kappaphycus and Eucheuma which are used as the main material for making carrageenan. Also, in mollusk cultivation, Indonesia is more focused on pearl oyster cultivation, while others focus on abalone cultivation. In crustacean cultivation, in Indonesia, there is lobster cultivation which is known for its high value with a lot of market demand. In finfish cultivation, there are several consumption fish cultivated in Indonesia such as grouper (Epinephelus sp.) seabass (Lates calcarifer), red snapper (Lutjanus campechanus), cobia fish (Rachycentron canadum), star pomfret fish (Pampus argenteus), and others which of course have a high enough selling value. However, marine cultivation also has challenges, including the limited supply of seeds, a production system that requires a high capital requirement, feed that still relies on ‘Rucah’ fish because it is relatively cheaper than artificial feed (pellets), and environmental impacts that result of the poor system management and the competition in the market.


Purpose - The study aimed at evaluating the level of awareness, causes and attention given to real property insurance by property owners in the protection of their premises against peril in Osogbo. It is done to expose the factors responsible for real property owners' apathy, their level of awareness of the need to take policy cover against perils and the attention accorded real property insurance in the study area. Design/methodology/approach- As an exploratory study, structured questionnaires were administered on five top insurance companies operating in the state and 350 property owners who were picked through systematic random techniques in the three study locations in Osogbo. The study locations are Iwo-Okefia Road; Isiaka Adeleke Freeway and Obafemi Awolowo way. Every first building fronting arterial road/street in the study locations was randomly selected, and after that, every fifth building constituted the subsequent unit of investigation. The data collected and analysed using statistical tools were presented for ease of understanding in tables as Frequency Distribution, Mean, percentages and Likert Scale. Findings - The results revealed that 97% of respondents agreed that they are aware of property insurance and its importance. Though, 2% of the respondents claimed to have insurance cover on their properties. It also found five fundamental factors (economic, social, religion, traditional and suspicion) are responsible for client apathy in the study area. The study further found that property insurance issues in the study area are negligible as there is suspicion between the insured and the insurer and government has done nothing substantial to enforce real property insurance on property owners. Practical implications - The paper suggested creating an enabling environment by the government as a subtle means for boosting real property owner's confidence and the enforcement of real property insurance in the country. Originality/value - The study is one of the few attempts at investigating the level of awareness, causes and attention accorded real property insurance in the Nigeria real property market. Keywords: Real Property, Property Insurance, Awareness, Causes, Attention, Osogbo


Cloud Computing is an emerging technology, which is adopted by most of the organizations and IT firms. Cloud computing permits organ-izations to gain access to the computing resources without bearing the pain of capital investment. It means “Pay for What You Use”. The cost of having large amount of data on local storage is a headache for most of the organizations as it needs huge capital investment. Cloud environment is considered untrusted as it is accessible through internet. Therefore, users have security and integrity concerns about the data stored in cloud storage. To overcome these hurdles a method is presented, which encourages to develop application to store and retrieve data to the cloud, furthermore, it also uses cryptographic and hashing algorithms to enhance the security and integrity of data stored in cloud storage. Major of the research conducted in this area lacks confidentiality and integrity mechanism at application level. The purpose of this research is to propose a new method for storing data in to the cloud storage through application and testing the efficiency of the proposed method.

Effects of The Model of Human Occupation on the Contemplation of Exercise Engagement []

Motivation on Human Occupation (MOHO) intervention has effects in the progression on the stages of change for employees contemplating on regular exercise engagement. The study aimed to determine if MOHO can influence the progression based on the stages. This study is a quasi-experimental comparative design as it assesses the effectiveness of MOHO intervention in the stages of change on employees contemplating to engage in regular exercise. The subjects of the research who signed up for the exercise program grouped randomly into groups A (without MOHO intervention) and Group B (with MOHO intervention). The effects of MOHO in the stages of change will be measured through the exercise log. The effectiveness of the treatment in the experimental group from that of the control group was also measured using the t-test. The p-value of 0.002 was recorded which was clearly less than the level of significance at 0.05; hence we conclude that the difference between the controlled and experimental group was significant. The results of the study concludes that the effects of MOHO intervention on the stages of change (action to maintenance stage) of employees contemplating regular exercise engagement are more predominating that that of the employees contemplating regular exercise engagement but did not receive MOHO intervention.


Abstract- Decentralisation has been a critical issue on the Government of Zimbabwe’s agenda since attaining independence in the early 1980s. In a unitary state devolution or decentralisation of power stimulates the improvement of effectiveness and efficiency in governance as well as in the delivery of public services, but it can be drawn from this article that there are concerns over the government’s implementation efforts apart from the government’s several structural reforms, little or no effective power has been decentralised. This article describes Zimbabwe’s various decentralisation efforts and effects including fiscal decentralisation, sectoral decentralisation, local political and institutional structures and local economic development and poverty reduction. The paper will also analyse the constitutional provisions stipulated in Chapter 14 Section 264 of the Constitution as well as the dynamics involved in its implementation. A number of conclusions can be drawn from this experience. Firstly, decentralisation is part of a wider process of national political and economic change and cannot be planned independently; moreover, decentralisation for the wrong reasons can be worse than no decentralisation at all and, if the political environment is not right, the problems of decentralisation can be exacerbated by external funding agencies. Secondly, decentralisation must be accompanied by capacity building, and the capacity of local institutions depends to a significant extent on the individuals involved. Thirdly, decentralisation must be seen as a learning process; consequently, despite the relatively little effective decentralisation to date, those involved have learnt valuable lessons.

The Influence of Ibrahim Khafaji as Arabic Lyric Poet []

This paper attempts to clarify some literary features of contemporary Arabic poetry in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia as an illustration of the prominence of Arabic literature with a particular reference to a modern Saudi poet, Ibrahim Abd Al-Rahman Khafaji. The paper commences with a brief introduction. It is divided into four main parts. The first shows a general idea about Arabic poetry, presenting the status of Arabic poetry as a genre of the ancient-living Arabic literature. The subsequent segment deals with a short survey on contemporary poetry in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and its influence. After that, the study moves ahead to examine a significant Saudi poet – Ibrahim Khafaji analytically – and commenting on his influence and contribution to modern Arabic poetry. The fourth part presents a critical-analytical approach to a selected poem of Khafaji, ‘O Eyelid Slumbering.’ Finally, the paper comes to an end with a concise conclusion and recommendations.


SANTOS, BEVERLY A., Davao Del Sur State College (DSSC), Digos City, Davao del Sur. Institute of Graduate Studies and Professional Education. June 2020, “PERSPECTIVES OF TEACHERS IN TRANSLANGUAGING AS PEDAGOGICAL SCAFFOLDING IN COMMUNICATION ARTS: A PHENOMENOLOGICAL STUDY”. Master‟s Thesis. Adviser: SIVERLYN M. CAMPOSANO, Ph.D. The primary purpose of this phenomenological study is to highlight the day to day translanguaging practices of Senior High School Teachers handling English Instruction. This delved into their experiences, their enabling conditions, perceptions, emotions, and routinely instructional activities. This was conducted in November up to March 2020. The method of gathering data includes Focus Group Discussion, Interview, Participation/ Observation. The following findings were drawn: the teachers view translanguaging as an integrated communication system; a student-centered approach; and embeds contextualized process. On the other hand, the mechanisms used by teachers in their translanguaging practice comprises cooperative learning; explicit teaching; and blended approach. Subsequently, the intervention scheme that is pointed out by the participants to further improve translanguaging are regular conduct of 2 Learning Action Cell; provision of computer-aided Instructional Materials; and teachers‟ Attendance to Training. As a learning insight, the researcher recognizes the importance of translating curriculum content into learning activities that are relevant to learners and based on the principles of effective teaching and learning. Through the utilization of translanguaging, which uses the students‟ L1 to scaffold their understanding of L3, appropriate mechanisms and tools are necessary to propel students‟ learning towards improved academic outcome.

Correlation of leisure time physical activity and burnout among non-clinical young adults []

Background/Rationale: In this research, the researchers aimed to know the participation of leisure-time physical activity and the presence of burnout from work engagement among non-clinical young adults and how both of these variables correlate to one another. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between leisure-time physical activity and burnout among non-clinical young adults. Methods: Research Design: The researchers conducted a correlational study design. Research Locale: The study was conducted in a private university in the Philippines. Research Respondents: The study involved non-clinical young adults. Methodology: The researchers collected data through questionnaires specifically Godin Leisure-Time Physical Activity Questionnaire and Oldenburg Burnout Inventory. Results: Leisure-time physical activity and burnout has no significant correlation to one another. Conclusion: There is a negative correlation between leisure-time physical activity and burnout among non-clinical young adults. Keywords: Leisure-Time Physical Activity, Burnout, Faculty, Occupational therapy, Physical therapy.

A HISTORICAL AND CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW: Using Knowledge and Technology to Improve the Quality Of Life of People Who Have Disabilities []

Preliminary, the effectively use knowledge and technology to improve the quality of life of people with disabilities requires understanding the many meanings of disability and of quality of life. It also requires exploring whether rehabilitation services and knowledge utilization can make a difference in the quality of life. Understanding the disability constructs helps increase understanding of the relevance of the prosumer concept for people with disabilities. The knowledge utilization literature traditionally has focused on scientific knowledge and not intuitive, meditative, or experiential knowledge. Its emphases has been on getting research results into practice and only more recently expanded to include getting exemplary practices more widely known and used. Because the literature on knowledge utilization is often intermixed with research on the scientific knowledge cycle, it is important to understand what is meant by the scientific knowledge cycle. The discussion that follows leans heavily on the editorial work of Dr. Robert Rich, past editor of the Knowledge journal, past president of the Society on Knowledge

Attitudinal Levels Towards Patient Safety Awareness Among Physical Therapy Interns []

Background/Rationale: The study about the attitude level of awareness among physical therapy interns towards the application and delivery of safety techniques to patients would be a significant factor in promoting the best outcome in the level of recovery and progression of patients. Purpose: The objective of this research is to continue and initiate a Pilot Study among Physical Therapy interns to determine Attitudinal levels Towards Patient Safety Awareness on the promulgation of safe clinical practices to better understand the different principles and roles of Physical therapists in the safe delivery and application of techniques to the patients. Methods: This pilot study was aimed to get the reliability per criterion of an assessment tool, which will be used to measure the level of awareness towards patient safety among the interns. The study was conducted in a private university, under the Physical Therapy department, and its affiliated rotational clinics. The subjects were selected through convenience sampling among the second- and fifth-year interns. Survey forms were given after a thorough explanation of the goals and purpose of the research. The interns were instructed to answer each category as accurately as possible based on their daily clinical experiences in the application of interventions to their patients/clients. Results: Seventeen of the participants had a high level of awareness, knowledge and skills in the provision of care towards patients’ safety. Most of the participants graded 5 Always in all the criteria in the survey form, criteria which had a high reliability index and consistency towards awareness in patient safety. Conclusion: The researcher therefore concludes that most of the senior interns have a high level of attitude towards awareness in the safety of their patients and clients. Keywords: safety, awareness, attitude

Perception of parents toward routine immunization for their children in AL-Najaf province []

Communicable diseases affect billions of people worldwide and cause deaths every year and are a major cause of suffering, death and disability worldwide, Therefore, the perception has role in strengthening and changing behaviors and concepts as general. This study focuses on evaluating parent's perception of the routine immunization in AL- Najaf province. A descriptive analytic design survey study was carried out, so as to attain the stated objectives, during the period from July 5th 2 2020 to October 30th 2020. The current study consist of two stages, the first stage is to choose the primary health care centers systematically and the second stage consists of accidental sampling used to choose parents, the healthy centers are chosoen randomly from these centers include (Syd alshuhada, Al salam, Al atiba, Al ridawih, Al muealimin, Mahdi AL-Attar, Maysan, AL- eabasiuh, AL-haira, AL- Qadisiyah). The study by interview through questionnaire consist of two parts, the first part consist of socio- demographic data and the second part consist from three parts ( believes, thoughts,and feeling ) to identify the perception of parents towards routine immunizations. accidental sampling procedure to choose the parents (170) in the primary health care centers and perform the study by interview through questionaire to assess perception of parents toward routine immunization of their children and find out the relationship between level of perception and socio- demograghic characteristic of parents, the findings of the existing study have specified that the overall assessment of parent’s perception towards safety measures is fair and there is no association between overall parent's perception and their socio-demograghic characteristics.


This study aims to determine the potential fishing area for skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) landed at PPN Palabuhanratu Sukabumi, West Java based on the distribution of chlorophyll-a. The method used is a survey method. Primary spatial data in the northern waters of Palabuhanratu are chlorophyll-a data, and skipjack tuna fishing production data. Chlorophyll-a data is obtained from satellite images downloaded from the websitehttp://oceancolor.gsfc.nasa.gov/cms, while the fishing production data of skipjack tuna is obtained fromPPN Palabuhanratu, West Java. Based on the data obtained, it can be concluded that the highest amount of catch occurred in 2015 with a total of 606,044 kg and the lowest was in 2016 with a total of 134,792 kg. This is due to high market demand in 2015 which resulted in a drastic decline in the following year. HThe catch of skipjack tuna is only 0.79% influenced by the distribution of chlorophyll -a and 99.21% is influenced by other factors because chlorophyll-a is not the only indicator used to identify potential fishing areas. Apart from chlorophyll-a, there are other indicators that are usually used to determine potential fishing areas, namely sea surface temperature and currents. The relationship between the distribution of sea surface temperature and the catch has a very weak relationship with a correlation coefficient of 0.0888 and is obtained10 DPI in Palabuhanratu waters are identified, there are 5 DPI which are included in the category of potential fishing areas, 4 in the medium category and 1 in the less potential category. Key words: skipjack tuna, fishing area, Palabuhanratu

Impact of COVID-19 on Lifestyle in Herat City, Afghanistan []

The main purpose of this paper is to investigate the positive and negative impacts of COVID-19 outbreak on lifestyle in Herat city, Afghanistan. The statistical society of this research was professors of Herat University. A total number of 91 informants including male and female were participated to fill the online questionnaire. The collected information of this paper was coded by using MS Excel program and then the data was analyzed based on descriptive statistics. The outbreak of coronavirus, in addition to the damage it has caused and endangered communities, has had some positive outcomes on lifestyle. Hygiene, reduction in clothing consumption, staying with family and using leisure time to study are some of the positive effects of coronavirus in Herat city. Negative impacts of COVID-19 include; economic losses of educational centers and halls; harm to small professions; high dependence on social medias; increasing prices of essential goods; and increase in mental illness due to news release.


ABSTRACT In filling the legal void, the judge has the authority to interpret the law. The authority to make legal discoveries is a consequence of the judiciary, where the judiciary may not refuse to examine, judge and decide a case filed on the pretext that the law does not exist or is unclear, but obliged to examine and judge.Judges must be able to make legal discoveries to be able to decide cases so that the justice that the community desires can be realized. Here, judges are more flexible in resolving cases, because they do not only convey the sound of the Law (la Bouche de la loi), but also can make legal discoveries from various sources of legal discovery, because in fact the law exists in society. Wherever there is society, there is law (Ubi Societas, ibi ius).

Compliance of selected food establishments in Ormoc City to the Americans with Disabilities Act as a benchmark for international standardization []

This descriptive study was conducted with the main objective of assessing the level of compliance of food establishments in Ormoc City in accordance to the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. A total of five (5) food establishments, compliant with permit to operate and certificate of building occupancy issued by City Mayor's Office, were recruited in this study and selected using a validated researcher-made questionnaire. A building accessibility checklist proposed by the ADA was used to evaluate the selected food establishments. The compliance was measured using a rating scale of 1.0 to 1.66 as compliant (complied with most of the requirements), 1.67 to 2.33 as partially compliant (complied with some of the requirements or provided modifications to existing requirements) and 2.34 to 3.00 as noncompliant (did not comply with most of the requirements). The instrument assesses four (4) priorities; Priority one (1) is for Accessible Approach/Entrance, Priority two (2) is for the access to goods and services, Priority three (3) is for the usability of rest rooms, and Priority four (4) is for additional access. The results of the study shows that there is a variability in the compliance of the food establishments and the American Disability Act Building Accessibility. Food establishment A and C were found to be compliant and Food establishment B, D and E were partially compliant. Non-compliance with existing standards may limit accessibility of these establishments to persons with disabilities, thereby potentially depriving them of an opportunity to be integrated into society.

Design and Economic Analysis of a Small Scale Formaldehyde Plant from Flared Gas []

The Simulation of a 10,000 ton/yr capacity Formaldehyde plant from flared gases was performed using Aspen Hysys version 8.8, and the Hysys model of the plant was developed using data form literature. A material and energy balance for the various components of the plant was performed manually and with Hysys for comparison. The design/equipment sizing, Mechanical design, costing and economic evaluation, process control of the functional parameters of the various equipments and finally the full Hysys process flow diagram of the model was performed. The Formaldehyde reactors was simulated to study the effect of process functional parameters such as reactor dimensions, temperature, pressure, The effect of reactor size and number on Formaldehyde output was studied by simulating the plant with a compressor, mixer, conversion reactor, cooler, CSTR, heat exchanger, and storage tank. The results of the material and energy balance of the various components of the plant performed manually and with Hysys showed a maximum deviation of 0.8%. The design and sizing results of various functional parameters of the reactor in terms of Volume, Diameter, Height, Spacetime, SpaceVelocity, and Volumeflowrate respectively were: 45m3, 3.368m,5.052m,1.8892hr,0.5293/hr,23.82m3/hr. The design and sizing results of the heat exchanger in terms of Heat load, Heat transfer area, log mean temperature difference (LMTD), Overall heat transfer coefficient, tube length, number of tubes, pitch were: 69.94KW,60.32m2, 49.79oC, 23.29W/m2K, 4.83m, 160, 50mm. The effect of reactor size and number showed that At 90% conversion the following output results were obtained for formaldehyde product in terms of mass flow rate, molar flow rate, composition (mole fraction), and yield: 479.53kg/hr,0.79kgmole/hr, 0.0541, and 0.8988 respectively.

Novel home-based exercise program improves gait and balance among older adults []

Objective: To determine if there are improvements in balance and gait abilities in participating in the personalized home-based exercise program. Participants: Older adults’ individual's ages 50-70 years. Interventions: Respondents had pre-assessment of Tinetti POMA before the program was initiated followed by the home-based exercised program for 3 weeks. Results showed a mean of 25.8571 in the pretest and a mean of 26.4285 in the post-test on scores of the Tinetti POMA. Conclusion: There are positive effects of a personalized home-based exercise program in improving balance and gait. After 3 weeks of experimental research, only 6 participants out of 15 were found to have a significant improvement in their scores and it was shown a significant difference in their scores of Tinetti POMA from the pretest and posttest. Therefore, the experimental study can partly improve the balance and gait among older adults populations.


Abstract: Computer experiments involve a large numbers of variables, but only a few of them have no negligible influence on the response. As is recognized by several authors, the choice of the design points for computer experiments should fulfill at lest two requirements – space-filling and non-collapsing. Unfortunately, randomly generated Latin Hypercube Designs (LHDs) almost always show poor space-filling properties. On the other hand, maximin distance designs have very well space-filling properties but often show poor projection properties under the Euclidean or the Rectangular distance. To overcome this shortcoming, Morris et al. have suggested to search for maximin LHDs when looking for “optimal” designs. It is shown that the Iterated Local search(ILS) approach not only able to obtain good LHDs in the sense of space-filling property but the correlations among the factors are acceptable i.e. multi-collinearity is not high. Anyway from the point of view of computational complexity the problem is open. When numbers of factors as well as number of experimental points are large, the heuristic approaches also require a couple of hours or even more to find out a simulated optimal design. So time complexity is an important issue for a good algorithm. Specially for the need of real time solution, the time complexity of the ILS approaches is analyzed. The inner most view as well as the effect of the parameters of the algorithms have been observed and have been analyzed.

Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman : A Role Model of Empowering the Women regarding Social Welfare in Post Liberation War : A Critical Sociological View and Analysis []

Women are resourceful economic actors around the world, overcoming stubborn, gender-based obstacles to advance their families’ health, education, and economic sustainability. The empowerment of women is a developmental and most argumentative dilemma in the world. Women empowerment relies on the cultural, social, economic, and political aspects of the region. Women make up half of the population of Bangladesh, and their social, political, and economic engagement has risen significantly. After the War of Liberation 1971, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman urged his countrymen to give due honor and dignity to the women oppressed by the Pakistani armed force by which he meant a huge number of women who had been raped. Later the exceptional nationwide program that women leaders and Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib’s government coordinated to help war-affected women did successfully help many women and made new open space for women to work and live freely. This study is trying to present the role of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman and his government to empower the Bangladeshi women with different women welfare activities. Descriptive qualitative research techniques with secondary data were reviewed for eluting the objective of this study.


Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) recently has become an emarging field due to it is vast utilization including antibacterial agent, catalyst, and biomedical aplication. One of problems faced in the synthesize of AgNPs use the of toxic reducing agents which are not environmentally friendly and relatively high cost. In this study we demosntrated a green and Environment friendly Shythesis of AgNPs using Lemna sp ex-tract as the reduction agent. Lemna sp were extracted using multilevel extraction method using n-hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol with a ratio of 1:10 (w/v). The crude extract of Lemna Sp was added to stirred AgNO3 4 mM solution and left for 2 hours in the dark. The results showed that crude extract Lemna sp can reduce AgNO3 from AgNPs were characterized by a change in the color of the solution an in-crease in absorbance recorded by UV-Vis Spectrofotometer. In general, we succesfully shynthesized AgNPs using extract Lemna sp. in a mild condition

Core stability training increases speed and agility in otherwise healthy individuals []

This study investigated the effects of core stability training on the speed and agility of otherwise healthy individuals. Nineteen individuals (16 males), aged 16-44, were randomly divided into an experimental group, a conventional group, and a placebo group. Pre and post exercise speed and agility were tested through the 30-m sprint test and the t-drill test respectively. There was no significant difference between groups in the 30-m Sprint Test and the T-Drill Test. No significant interaction was also noted between time and groups for both sprint (F (2, 15) =1.35, p=0.29) and drills (F (2, 15) =3.15, p=0.07). Quantitatively, there were decreases in time among all groups in the sprint test, while decreases in both CON and PLA for the T-Drill. It was noted that in the T-Drills, there was an increase in the experimental group from the pre-test (M=15.13, SD=0.76) and post-test (M=15.26, SD=0.83). The results suggest that core stability improvement has little to no significant relationships to the speed and agility, and that age has little role to play in the improvements of time. Core training may be used as an aid for improving speed and agility but it may not be necessary.

Effect of Target Task Instructional Strategy on Secondary School Students’ Interest in Biology []

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of Target Task Instructional Strategy on Secondary School Students’ Interest in Biology. Two research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. After a review of related literature, Quasi-experimental design was adopted for the study. A sample of 411 students out of 4817 SS 2 students from four (4) intact senior secondary class two (SSII) in Awka and Aguata education zones of the Anambra State were used for the study. Biology Interest Scale (BIS) was used for data collection. Cronbach Alpha was used to determine internal consistency of the instrument (BIS) and the reliability coefficient of 0.812. The Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions while Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the hypotheses at .05 level of significance. The major findings of the study showed that students exposed to Target-Task Instructional Strategy had higher interest in Biology than those taught with lecture method. Further findings also revealed that the male students are significantly more interested in Biology than the female students. It was recommended among others that teachers should adopt target-task teaching strategy as a teaching method for teaching their students, since it is suitable for promoting enhanced level of student' interest and also increase their interest in studying biology in higher institution of learning.

Effect of Blended NPS Fertilizer Rates and Plant Population on Yield and Yield Components of Soybean (Glycine max L.) in Pawe District, Metekel Zone, North Western Ethiopia. []

Soybean (Glycine max L. Mirr) is widely distributed in most parts of the world and has a lot of potentials in Africa and Ethiopia. Among grain legumes, soybean has the highest protein and oil content. So, it is important crop for balance dieted nutrition of human beings and for soil fertility improvement. However, its productivity is very low mainly due to low soil fertility and unbalanced plant population. Based on the national soil database, most of North West Ethiopian soils are deficient in macronutrients (N, P and S) affecting growth, yield and quality of lowland oil and pulse crops in general and soybean in particular. Thus far, emphasis has not been given on assessing influence of inorganic fertilizer and population density on the yield and yield component of soybean. Therefore, a field experiment was conducted to determine the appropriate rate of blended NPS fertilizer by optimum plant population in Pawe District in the 2020. The treatments consisted of five blended NPS fertilizer rates (0, 50,100 150 and 200 kg ha-1) and four inter row spacing (40,50, 60 and 70 cm). The experiment was laid out in 5x4 factorial arrangements in randomized complete block design with three replications. Data on yield components and yield variables were collected and analyzed using SAS version 9.4 software. The analysis of variance revealed that application of blended NPS fertilizer by different inter row spacing significantly (P<0.05) influenced number of pods per plant, total dry biomass, grain yield, hundred seed weight and harvest index. The highest number of pods per plant (158.5) and total dry biomass yield (17.43 g/plant) were recorded from application of 200 kg ha-1 blended NPS fertilizer by 70cm inter row spacing; while the lowest values were recorded from the control. The highest grain yield (3.123 t ha-1) was recorded from application of 200 kg ha-1 blended NPS fertilizer by 40cm inter row spacing. Correlation analysis showed total grain yield was highly significantly and positively correlated to number of pods per plant (r= 0.835), total dry biomass (r= 0.937), hundred seed weight (r= 0.858) and harvest index (r= 0.921). The result of this study verified that yield components and yield were influenced by different blended NPS fertilizer and different inter row spacing. In conclusion, the above findings indicated that the growth and productivity of soybean (Pawe 1 variety) at study area can be improved by the application of blended NPS fertilizer and using different plant population. However, further study needs to be conducted at different season, and locations, by considering also higher application rates of blended NPS fertilizer below 40cm inter row spacing.

Impact of Motivation on Employees' Job Satisfaction []

Abstract This study in the title’ Impact of Motivation on Employees Job Satisfaction’ was conducted in Hawassa College of Health Sciences, one of government health science colleges in southern Ethiopia. The specific objectives of the study were analyzing the need for motivation, different motivational methods found in the college, methods used to retain employees in the college, and investigating the importance of job satisfaction achieved through motivation. To achieve the objectives set, primary and secondary sources data were used. Primary data was collected both from managerial and non-managerial employees of the college. The total population of the College is 230 from which 120 samples was taken using Convenience sampling technique. Much of the data was collected from the academic category since this category performs the core jobs of the college which is teaching-learning process. Data collected was analyzed using MS Excel, and under each statistical figure important interpretations were made. Data was analyzed in the order of objectives set. The findings of the research revealed that motivation is needed for creating job satisfaction, reducing employees turnover, retaining employees in the college, letting employees concentrate on goals, boosting employees productivity, accepting organizational change, increasing willingness to contribute, creating cooperation among the employees of the college, and building good image to the college. The research also found that the college’s motivational methods are training, high basic salary, career path, communication, autonomy, exposure, social gatherings, and additional responsibility. These methods are also capable of retaining employees in the college. Job satisfaction is important for retaining employees in the college, increasing employee morale, efficient resource utilization, better performance, good time management, innovation, and realizing college’s vision. Also, the finding of the research revealed that achievement, growth or possibility of growth, the work itself, recognition, responsibility, and advancement were mentioned as factors of motivation. On the other hand, supervision-technical, personal life, job security, working condition, college’s policy and administration, salary and status were mentioned as factors causing dissatisfaction. On the basis of above mentioned findings, the study suggested some recommendations that are the college should keep on knowing the need for motivation, other dominant motivational methods should be created, hygiene factors should carefully be managed, the college should conduct exit interview.

Relationship between Natural Activators of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors (PPARs) and Endothelial Dysfunction in Patients with Peripheral and Coronary Artery Disease []

Atherosclerosis is considered as a systemic disease which leads to functional and structural changes in several segments of the arterial system. Morbidity and mortality is mostly caused by Peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Vascular endothelium, which is a versatile multifunctional tissue, had synthetic and metabolic properties. Endothelial injury may be responsible, for the initiation of atherosclerosis and vascular lesions which are followed by monocyte infiltration, macrophage differentiation, and migration of smooth muscle cells. von Willebrand factor (vWF), acts as a glycoprotein synthesized mainly by endothelial cells, and is an indicator to endothelial damage. It represents the most sensitive marker of peripheral atherosclerosis. Moreover, intima-media thickness (IMT) increasing is used as a non-invasive of early arterial wall alteration marker and is one method of assessing the development of early atherosclerosis. The Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate both lipid and lipoprotein metabolism and glucose homeostasis so they influence cellular’s proliferation, differentiation and cell apoptotic process. PPAR-alpha activity occurs by leukotriene B4, while, PPAR-gamma activator is the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). PPAR activation decreases the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) causes vascular permeability and attraction and activation of leukocytes. So, Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) plays a crucial role in the inflammatory process genesis occurring in the atherosclerotic lesion. Increased ox-LDL levels have a direct relation to the acute coronary syndromes severity. The levels of vWF, LTB4 and ox-LDL were measured to find the relationship between these parameters and the severe effects of the disease.