Volume 9, Issue 1, January 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Coastal Vulnerability Assessment of Saint-Louis /Senegal to Sea Level Rise []

Sea level rise is one of the most certain effect of global warming with serious consequences on coastal ecosystems and local communities. The physical impacts are obviously related to such disasters as coastal erosion, inundations and displacement of low lands like deltas and estuaries. Estuarine ecosystems are both subject to marine and fluvial dynamic; they are endowed with rich biological diversity but actually facing disastrous effects of climate change (inundation, coastal erosion, and salinization) and anthropogenic activities (infrastructures and over exploitation of resources). This study is aimed at assessing vulnerability of Saint-Louis (Senegal River estuary) through the Coastal Vulnerability Index model and GIS based analysis. It involved the combination of a set of both physical and geological variables. Physical factors include the geomorphology of the area, shoreline change rate and coastal slope while geological parameters were more or less related to sea level rise, tidal range and wave height. Data were acquired from different sources: geomorphologic information was provided by extensive literature review and onsite direct observation; coastline change analysis from 1978-2018 was done using Landsat images (Multispectral Sensor: Landsat 1, 2, 3), TM (Thematic Mapper: Landsat 4 and 5), ETM+ (Ehanced Thematic Mapper: Landsat 7) and OLI and TIRS (Operation Land Imager/ Thermal Infrared Radiation: Landsat 8) and the Digital Shoreline Analysis System; while coastal slopes were extracted from an SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Map) of 1 Arc-Second Global Elevation Data (30m resolution) obtained from USGS platform. However, geological data from 2008-2018 were acquired from NOAA (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration) and UHSLC (University of Haiwai Sea Level Center).The Coastal Vulnerability Index model was used n this study. Results show that 25.98% of the coast was at low vulnerability, 1.49% at moderate while 42.9% of the shoreline was classified as high vulnerability and 29.58% as very high vulnerability. Given these outputs, the study also examined adaptation strategies and measures put in place by local communities and authorities to face coastal disasters.


This study examines the difference in impact of adoption of fertilizer of any kind (organic, inorganic or both) with row planting on maize yield growth using 800 sample farm households in three major maize growing agro-ecological zones of Ethiopia. Propensity score matching (PSM) technique was employed since it is an increasingly utilized standard approach for evaluating impacts using observational data. It is found that adoption of fertilizer of any kind (organic, inorganic or both) with row planting doesn't have the desired positive and significant impact on maize yield growth in all of the agro-ecological zones considered. Therefore, this study recommends that the agricultural research and extension system of the country should be strengthened to further take into account the differences among different agro-ecological zones and areas having high variability in landscape positions, rain fall, soil characteristics and farming systems in order to generate and scale-up appropriate improved agricultural technologies and information that suits to the specific conditions of each maize producing land pockets of the country.


Honey is a sweet, viscous substance made by honey bees and related insects. It is one of the ancient long-established medicines well thought-out as a therapy for diverse microbial infections. It is an antibacterial agent that is used by many herbal practitioners as a recipe for herbal preparation. Combination therapy is described as the use of two or more pharmacologic agents in a single-dose formulation administered separately or in a fixed-dose combination of two or more active ingredients. Honey combination therapies had been documented to improve effectiveness, decrease toxicity, and decrease drug resistance growth. Laboratory researches showed that even the multidrug resistance bacterial had an excellent microbial clearance for both honey-herbal combination and honey-antibiotics combination. Honey combination therapy should be well researched and improved to stop the spread of antibiotic resistance and restore hope for health.

Optimal Portfolio Analysis of Indexed Companies LQ 45 Listed on IDX []

The aims of the research are to analyze and find out the stocks of LQ 45 Index members who can form optimal portfolios, find out the proportion of funds from each selected stock, and find out the rationale of investors in the selection of stocks from LQ 45 members reflected in the high return value with minimal risk and volume of the views included in the optimal portfolio determination. This research was conducted in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) on shares listed in the Company LQ45 as many as45 shares. The sample consisted of 30 stocks selected based on the criteria having been determined. The result indicates that there are 12 stocks that make up the optimal portfolio of 30 types of stocks studied with a cut-off-point value of 0.0034. The optimal portfolio is formed by 12 stocks with a high ERB value. The proportions of funds from each optimal portfolio share are INCO 31.33%, INKP 30.31%, BBCA 17.26%, ANTM 0.95%, EXCL 0.68%, AKRA 0.65%, KLBF 0.63%, MNCN 0.59%, BMRI 0.58%, INTP 0.54%, PTBA 0.39%, and SMGR 0.01%.


Field Work Practice (PKL) was conducted at Fish Seed Center (BBI) Cibiru, West Java on November 16th to December 17th 2020. The aim of this Field Work Practice is to know directly and also gaining experience about fish hatchery techniques of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) in BBI Cibiru, West Java. The method used in this PKL is descriptive method, with the techniques of data collection that includes the primary data and secondary data. Data collection was conducted by observations, interviews, and active participation. Common carp Hatchery in BBI Cibiru include maintenance of Common carp broodstock, draining ponds, filling water, selecting broodstock, spawning, breeding or raising the larvae or seeds, harvesting, sorting common carp seeds, packing, distributing, and maintaining facilities and infrastructure. The Common carp spawning techniques is using natural spawning technique. Comparation of the weight of the male and female broodstock are 3:1. The feed that is given during the maintenance is natural feed, powder feed and sink feed. Common carp seeds are in great demand by the local community for fish cultivation and students as research test materials.

Ultrasound study of aneurysm of the ulnar artery compressing the trunk of the ulnar nerve at the wrist, about a clinical case []

We report a clinical case of thrombosed aneurysm of the ulnar artery. It is an infrequent and poorly understood pathology that is regularly associated with hypothenar hammer syndrome, found specifically in manual workers and athletes exposed to repeated manual trauma.


Concrete is a mixture of cement, fine aggregate, Coarse aggregate, and water. Cement is used as a binder, also called a binding material. Concrete plays a very important role in various types of structures (such as buildings, industries, bridges, roads, etc.). Cement is a very expensive material and is widely used. In the process of preparing cement in the factory, a large amount of carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere, destroying the ozone layer, and is very harmful to human life. This paper presents the utilization of Industrial by-products such as GGBS, which is produced, in large amounts in steel industries. In this paper the GGBS is used in concrete to replace with cement up to 30, so for the experimental procedure 36 sample is prepared for achieving 3000-psi strength is 0% (Control Sample), 20%, 25%, and 30% for 7days, 14days, and 28days respectively. The average Compressive strength for the Control sample is 2377.17psi, 2551.97psi, and 3420.64psi for 7days, 14days, and 28days respectively. The average compressive strength for 20% replacement is 1853.06psi, 2360psi and 3318.02psi for 7days, 14 days and 28days. The average compressive strength for 25% replacement is 1782.44psi, 2271.84psi and 3303.66psi for 7days, 14days and 28days respectively. The average compressive strength for 30% replacement is 1721.66psi, 2148.43psi, and 3095.7psi for 7days, 14days, and 28days respectively. From this study, it is clear that to replace 30% GGBS we get the design strength and by increasing the GGBS amount beyond 30% the compressive strength is decreasing and so the structure feels unsafe by using GGBS beyond 30%.


Climate change perception and adaptation practices in Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia Aynalem Mekuria Asfaw1, Asnake Mekuriaw2, Abraham M. Asmare 3 & Yimer Assefa 4 1College of Agriculture and Environmental Science, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia 2Geospatial Data and Technology Center, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia 3Institute of Disaster Risk Management and Food Security Studies, Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia 4Ethiopian National Meteorological Agency, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Abstract This study was conducted in Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia, to assess climate change perception and adaptation practices of Bahir Dar city’s community. In this study, primary and secondary data had been collected and utilized. The required primary data were collected through the specialized procedures. The researcher stratified the nine administrative units of the city in to three categories based on their development level; then after, one administrative unit was randomly selected from each; finally, a total of 242 household heads were randomly selected and interviewed. Primary data collection was done through key informant group, focus group discussion and field observation. published research papers, working documents of NGOS and government were consulted. The data was analyzed using Statistical Products Services and Solutions (SPSS version 22). The result displayed that 64% of the community has perceived the presence of climate change in the city. Accordingly, they started practicing adaptation measures including tree plantation, wise utilization of water resource and compound greening. However, low level of community awareness, financial constraint, and weak urban development planning were identified as the main factors that significantly affect the adaptation practice at full-scale. On the other hand, demographic variables such as, education level, age, occupation and family size did not significantly influence perception level of the community. We, therefore, conclude that provision of adequate finance and adequate climate related information to the community can play an important role to increase community’s perception level and climate change adaptation practices. Key words: Climate change, adaptation, awareness, perception, Bahir Dar City.

Maintenance of Priority Medical Equipment in the Context of Covid-19 []

Covid-19 has overwhelmed the healthcare facilities and overloaded the use of their essential medical equipment in their management of Covid-19 cases and other critical illnesses. The upkeep and uptime of these medical devices are imperative and these can only be achieved through the implementation of scheduled preventive and corrective maintenance. But in this pandemic, these are services the medical equipment companies could not provide as effectively and efficiently as before due to Covid-19 risks and restrictions. This applied research provides solutions to this pressing problem by filling the gap found in the review of related literature and by using the data gathered from healthcare workers (HCWs) and biomedical service personnel who participated in this study. The synthesis of infection prevention and control (IPC) protocols of the health authorities and the empiric practices noted in the related studies synergize the data gathered from the sample respondents which included consideration of types and costs of personal protective equipment (PPE) that provided new measures for the maintenance of priority medical equipment amidst Covid-19. Keywords: Covid-19, maintenance, IPC, cost, PPE, priority medical equipment

LA TUBERCULOSE THYROIDIENNE : une autre localisation rare []

La tuberculose du corps thyroïde est une localisation rare même en pays d'endémie, Le diagnostic doit être évoqué avant l’exérèse d'une thyroïde pathologique, car un traitement médical peut suffire dans ces cas. Nous vous rapportons 2 cas de Tuberculose thyroïdienne sur une série de 1365 thyroïdectomies réalisées en 7 ans.


Abstract Background: Air contamination is a combination of compacted elements also smokes in the atmosphere. Compartment radiations, substances from industrial unit, dirt, pollen as well as fungus microorganisms may exist deferred as elements. Smoke is a main portion of air contamination in municipalities. While ozone procedures air contamination, it’s well-known as pollution. Objective: To assess the knowledge regarding air pollution and its effect on human health among people in the community of Lahore. Study design: A quantitative descriptive cross sectional study design will be used for this study to identify the knowledge regarding air pollution and its effect on human health. (Fox, W. &Bayat, M.S. 2007) Study Site: The site is the overall location for the research. It could be an entire community, entire setup. The study site will be a community of Lahore and all occupational people. Material and methods: A cross sectional descriptive method was used to assess the knowledge and perception of community people regarding air pollution and its effect on human health for this study. It is the easiest and the most convenient method way of recruiting the sources of the primary data for research. Target population is the community people and all occupational people in the community of Lahore. The total study population is 240 community people approximately. Result: the participants age in this study was 25-30(n=104)43.3%, age group of 31-35(=96)40.0%, and age group of 3640(n=40)16.7% who participate at the end of the study. The knowledge about quality of air 60% people said the quality of air polluted and 40% said its quality is fresh. 66.7% people believed proper sanitary system may reduce the air pollution and 33.3% said proper sanitary system may not reduce the air pollution. Conclusion: Totally alive creatures are necessary fresh air for care their existence also fitness and a common matured being compulsory approximately 15 kg fresh air each daytime. Outstanding to anthropogenic accomplishments, the stability of the ecology is troubled also generated a lot of difficulties alike air contamination and is a significant risk to developing also below established nations happening completely the ecosphere. Key words: air pollution, human health, asthma, smoke, smog


RESUME (ABSRACT) L’objet de l’étude est de montrer le rôle de l’Approche par Compétence (APC), dans les efforts de développement des pays africains, spécialement la République Démocratique du Congo. Le cadre méthodologique est théorique. Il a été question de fouiller la littérature pour trouver les justifications du rôle de l’APC pour booster l’économie du pays, notamment résorber le chômage qui pèse lourdement sur la jeunesse. La plupart de littérature parcourue est unanime sur le rôle positif de l’APC dans la formation de la jeunesse aux arts et métiers. Cependant, l’étude révèle que le concept de l’APC n’a pas encore été bien configuré dans la terminologie pédagogique. A cela s’ajoute le manque de préparation des enseignants et l’accompagnement des autres partenaires éducatifs. Le curriculum d’enseignement surtout celui de l’éducation de base devrait intégrer les notions qui préparent les jeunes à la professionnalisation comme l’entreprenariat et la déontologie professionnelle. Comme l’APC exige la maîtrise des compétences par le traitement des situations, l’insistance sur les langues locales aiderait à donner à l’APC son essence. Mots clés : APC, Curriculum, levier, réforme curriculaire , réforme, formation professionnelle


Abstract Objective: The objective of this research is to determine the mother's awareness and experience of acute respiratory infection in infants. Introduction: ARI is an infection of the upper or lower respiratory tract or of adjacent structures such as Para nasal sinuses, middle ears, or pulmonary pleura. It is known to be one of the primary causes of disease and death in children. ARI are known as upper respiratory tract or lower respiratory tract infections. Material and Methods: a quantitative descriptive cross-section design used in this analysis. The target population was the mothers of the rural community of Lahore. Approximately 240 mothers are required to research population. For data collection, a self-administered questionnaire was used. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 21. Statistic computer program for data analysis. Descriptive research statistics have been obtained through the SPSS program. Results: The knowledge and practice of mothers was poor among more than half of the participants.Conclusion: The knowledge of caregivers/parents on the signs, risk factors and complications of ARI was sufficient. Better awareness is required for the safe use of antibiotics, and caregivers are encouraged to reduce indoor air pollution. More information is needed to discourage the practice of visiting quacks, as it can lead to serious complications in the infant. Keywords The mother of KAP on ARI. Children's pneumonia infant, illness, awareness, pneumonia, pollution, respiratory infection

Factors influencing physical activity participation among undergraduate students []

Sedentary lifestyle has been a major problem among young adults, with the increase in the number of factors that has decreased physical activity participation of undergraduates. The objective of the research study had its aim on determining the different kinds of factors that affect participation in physical activities among the undergraduate students. The researchers utilized quantitative design to determine the factors that affect the participation in physical activities leading to a more sedentary lifestyle among the undergraduates of a private university. Results from the study showed both internal and external factors having significant impact among the undergraduates inability to participate in physical activities with lacking the energy to participate as the primary factor within the internal factors and the lack of resources as the primary factor in the external factors.

The Role of E-Learning in Medical Sciences Education []

The authors present e-learning and its role in medical education by identifying the key elements and components of e-learning, demonstrating its effectiveness, the development needs of implementation faculties, e-learning assessment strategies and techniques, and how e-learning as evidence of academic scholarships. e-learning is the use of Internet technologies to increase knowledge and performance. E-learning technologies allow learners to control content, learning order, learning pace, time, and often the environment, allowing them to adapt their experiences to achieve personal learning goals. In different medical education contexts, e-learning appears to be at least as effective as traditional teacher-led methods such as lectures. Students do not see e-learning as a substitute for traditional teacher-led training, but as a complement to it and as part of a blended learning strategy. Infrastructure developed to support e-learning in medical education includes digital repositories or libraries for managing access to e-learning materials, consensus on technical standardization, and peer review methods for resources. E-learning offers a number of research opportunities for educators, along with the ongoing challenges of scholarship documentation. Innovations in e-learning technologies signal a revolution in education, enabling individualization of learning (adaptive learning), improving students ’interaction with others (collaborative learning) and changing the role of the teacher. Incorporating e-learning into medical education can catalyze a shift towards the application of adult learning theory, in which educators would not primarily act as content disseminators, but would be more involved as learning facilitators and competence assessors.

Utilization of Food Waste as Raw Material for Fish Feed (a Review) []

Indonesia is the 4th most populous country in the world, the increasing population also has an impact on increasing food waste production, so the best solution is needed to prevent the creation of new problems from waste piles. One way that can be used to overcome this problem is by utilizing food waste as a basic material for making fish feed, because food waste has a large enough protein content, ranging from 10-22%, and can be increased again by carrying out the fermentation process. Besides being able to overcome environmental problems, making recycling food waste into fish feed can also solve the problem of feed availability for aquaculture in Indonesia. This paper review aims to determine the conversion rate of food waste into animal feed (including fish feed) in Indonesia and compare it with other countries so that it can be an evaluation and provide solutions for food waste management in the future.

Awareness of workers in Health Centers regarding medical waste risk in Benghazi city, Libya []

Medical waste is one of the major public health related problems and create serious hazard to people and the local environment. Concerns the world hazards wastes as associated with poor biomedical waste management that leads to environmental pollution and spread some diseases. The aim of the present study is to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of healthcare providers r.elated to dealing with medical waste. This study was a cross sectional study, conducted in four polyclinics in Benghazi, Libya. The data was collected by using pre-constructed and pre- tested questionnaire, distributed and collected on October 2017 to January 2018. The result showed that there was imbalance dealing with medical waste and the health institutions under study, environment standard was missing, the suitable utilities and there is no clear guidelines for workers, nor any training on dealing with medical waste and infection control at the health facility which are the basic problems faced medical waste management in general health institutions.

Impact of fitness testing to attitudes for physical activity and well-being in students []

Fitness Testing Programs have been implemented in physical education with the goal of promoting a healthy and active lifestyle. This study aimed to analyze the effectiveness of fitness testing on students and how it impacts their attitudes towards living an active lifestyle. The respondents consisted of 54 2nd year allied health students in a private university in Cebu City, specifically students who have performed fitness testing during their PE schedule. The method for this study included the following steps: (a) instrumentation, (b) recruitment of students and data collection, and (c) data analysis. With the use of a 5-point Likert scale instrument that measures student's attitudes towards fitness testing, the overall mean score for the students on the 5-point Likert-Type scale was 3.50. This indicated that the college students that participated in this study had a slightly positive attitude toward fitness testing. In addition, the study suggests cognitive factors were the main reason for their reaction when it comes to fitness testing. With a positive attitude, this may motivate them to engage in physical activity more. Encouraging students to do more physical activity will aid the students in an active healthy physical lifestyle of wellbeing. This study displays the effects of a healthy active lifestyle and a non-healthy lifestyle found amongst the students, it is important to know the lifestyle carried for college students due to the amount of work found in universities for students that may lead to unhealthy habits and lifestyle. The results of this study concluded that the students have found motivation to exercise due to its positive effects on the body as it can also aim to enhance their physical and mental wellbeing. This article aims to address the coherence and awareness of physical activity and its mental affectation towards a student which can significantly improve an overall well-being.

Explore the Patterns of Resistance Mutations to Antiretroviral Drugs in Treated Patients Infected with HIV in Northern Oman []

Background: The effectiveness of antiretroviral therapies (ART) made it possible for people with HIV to live long and healthy lives. However, a significant threat to the progress obtained thus far in ART is posed by rapid mutation patterns of HIV, which confer its resistance to ART. Aim: This study aims to explore the patterns of resistance mutations to antiretroviral drugs, in Northern Oman, in different population groups including wife and husband (couples), singles and homosexual and to Method: A retrospective cross-sectional design was selected to carry out this investigation. Data from 193 HIV positive patientsfrom Northern Oman health institutions, Suhar hospital (tertiary hospital) and Suhar polyclinic (Secondary care) were used in this study. A total of 82 participants had a genomic assay (genotype) analysis done and were included for mutation and resistance assessment, which included the number of ART had resistance or susceptible, kind of mutations and its frequencies. Ethical approval had been obtained from Robert Gordon University committee and the Central Ethical approval committee in Oman. Data of CD4 and VL was analysed via descriptive statistics and Wilcoxon matched-pairs test. Results: The majority of the HIV positive patients were married (n=144 out of 193, approx. 74.6%), in the age group of 31-45. The highest rates of transmitted HIV infection were found to be associated with sexual behaviour (n= 106 out of 193, approx. 54.9%), this figure included different population groups (single and married, males and females, in different ages). Mutation and resistance patterns were found to be increased in patients undergoing NRTI and NNRTI ARTs. Population descriptive and genomic assays mimic those seen in other HIV positive populations. Different strategies had been recommended by the WHO such as combination therapies of new ART and patient’s adherence follow up. Conclusion: Resistance mutations to ART developed fast post 6 months of initial treatments in the study population. This concluded, there was a huge gap between the initial treatment and the most recent progression results and this gap should be indicated. Keywords: AIDs, HIV Resistance, Genotype, ARTs

Terrain of Contention: Women’s Role in Peace-building and Development in Kadoma, Zimbabwe []

This paper examines the role played by women in peace-building and seeks to unpack the dynamics surrounding the policy making process. The study adopted a descriptive and explanatory approach in which qualitative methods were employed. Thus, a case study approach was adopted using the Women Coalition of Zimbabwe. A sample of 15 women was selected using purposive sampling and in-depth interviews were used to answer the research question. In addition, document review of existing literature, reports, minutes and research papers were scrutinised. Research findings reflect that despite the traditional challenges that are faced by women they were able to contribute significantly to the conclusion of politically motivated violence (PMV) in Kadoma in Zimbabwe and have earned a position of respect in society that has given them a larger role to play in government and politics. Despite the fact that women are greatly affected by conflicts, their participation in peace-building has been limited. To date there is no specific law in Zimbabwe that specifically criminalizes perpetration of PMV per se, but there are various pieces of legislation out lawing acts of violence against other individuals. As such, this paper recommends constructive actions that assure productive involvement of women in peace-building and development. There is an urgent need for the enactment of a specific law that directly criminalizes politically motivated violence.


The purpose of this paper is to determine the financial feasibility of Vannamei shrimp farming business in the Lamongan Regency and then to provide information on the economic, social, and cultural value of Lamongan Regency. This review contains several analyzed pattern models including total cost, receipt cost, revenue cost, benefit-cost ratio, return cost ratio, internal rate of return, and break-even point. A valuation review exercise is undertaken to focus on the area of Vannamei shrimp farming business in Lamongan Regency. The review will provide information that can be used to ascertain the value of Vannamei shrimp farming business through regional. The final result of the feasibility analysis of shrimp culture in the Lamongan regency is feasible to run. So that the overall, shrimp farming business in Lamongan Regency is very feasible to be applied when viewed from economic advantage, and can be used as an alternative for business aquaculture in areas that have the location of a pond much. People who do Vannamei shrimp farming business are suggested to get workforce guidance and training to develop in order to improve the competitiveness of the farmers.

Analyzing Intensity of Adoption of Improved Soybean under Smallholder Farmers in Gumuz Regional State []

ABSTRACTThe importance of agricultural technology in enhancing the welfares of farmers can be realized when yield gain from the technologies results in meaningful income gain. This article aimed at analyzing adoption and intensity of adoption of improved soybean variety among farm households in Bambasi District. In this study a multi-stage stratified sampling technique was employed to select rural peasant Associations and households. Three rural peasant Associations were selected randomly. Structured interview schedule was developed, pre-tested and used for collecting the essential quantitative data for the study from 134 randomly selected households. Descriptive statistics and double hurdle model were employed to analyze data. Results of descriptive analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences between adopter and non-adopter households with distance to market, livestock ownership, and frequency of extension visit, farm income as well as number of oxen owned. Consistent with the findings of previous studies, regression results showed that improved soybean adoption decision of farm households has been determined by sex of household head, distance to the nearest market, being member of cooperatives, number of oxen, participation in training and demonstration and intensity of improved soybean adoption is determined by livestock holding, frequency of extension visit, farm income and asset ownership in improved soybean production. Promoting farmers to form or join cooperatives. Strengthening demonstration centers and Farmers Training Centers (FTC) should be done. Transaction costs should be reduced and scaling up and diffusion of improved soybean varieties in the study area should be broadened.Key words: Adoption; Bambasi; Double hurdle; Soybean

The Effect of Productive Credits in Priority Economic Sector on Unemployment in South Sulawesi []

This study aimed to identify the effect of productive credit in priority economic sectors (agriculture, fisheries, mining, construction, and processing industry) on unemployment, either directly or indirectly through economic growth and inflation in South Sulawesi. The data used is secondary data in the form of time-series data. The analysis technique used in this research is path analysis. The results showed that agricultural credit and construction credit had a negative and significant effect on unemployment through economic growth. Processing industry credit has a positive and significant effect on unemployment through economic growth. Fishery credit and mining credit do not affect unemployment through economic growth. Agricultural credit harms unemployment through inflation. Fishery credit, mining credit, construction credit, and processing industry credit have a positive and significant effect on unemployment through inflation. Agricultural credit and mining credit have a direct negative and significant effect on unemployment. Fishery credit and construction credit have a direct positive and significant effect on unemployment, while processing industry credit does not directly affect unemployment.