Volume 6, Issue 11, November 2018 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

Fisheries Bioeconomic Analysis of Eastern Little Tuna (Euthynnus affinis) in The Nusantara Fishing Port (PPN) Palabuhanratu West Java []

This research analyzed bioeconomic model of eastern little tuna (Euthynnus affinis) resources exploitation in various condition of fishery management of Gordon Shaefer model. This research was conducted from October 2017 to March 2018 using survey methods. The data was analyzing by using quantitative descriptive analysis and surplus production Gordon Shaefer analysis. This research used primary data and secondary data. Primary data was obtained purposively sampling from the fihshermen who catch the eastern little tuna in PPN Palabuhanratu by using payang. Secondary data was obtained from the time series data period 2007-2017 about production data capture fisheries, gear types dan fishing effort payang in PPN Palabuhanratu. The result showed that effort of Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) condition is 183 trips with productions aproximately 48,720 tonnes. Efforts of Maximum Economic Yield (MEY) condition was 180 trips with total productions was 48,706 tonnes. Efforts of open access fisheries (OA) was 360 trips with total productions was 3,265 tonnes.


The general objective of this study was to establish the effect of service quality management practices and organizational characteristics on performance of insurance companies in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional survey with primary data collected through semi-structured questionnaires. The Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient ranged from 0.783 to 0.853 showing the reliability of all the scales used in the study. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis and regression analysis. The results of the study revealed a statistically significant relationship between service quality management practices and performance of insurance companies in Kenya. The results further revealed that organizational characteristics have no statistically significant moderating effect on the relationship between service quality management practices and performance of insurance companies. The results of the study extends the frontiers of Service Quality Theory which contends that service quality depends on the nature of the discrepancy between expected service and what is perceived. Adoptions of service quality management practices appear to render the influence of organizational characteristics on the relationship between service quality management practices and performance irrelevant. The implementation of service quality management practices by the policy makers assist in meeting the dual responsibility of insurance companies which are risk mitigation measures and national economic growth.


The general objective of this study was to establish the effect of service quality management practices and industry competition on performance of insurance companies in Kenya. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional survey with primary data collected through semi-structured questionnaires. The Cronbach’s Alpha Coefficient ranged from 0.783 to 0.853 showing the reliability of all the scales used in the study. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics, factor analysis and regression analysis. The results of the study revealed a statistically significant relationship between service quality management practices and performance of insurance companies in Kenya. The results further revealed that industry competition has no statistically significant moderating effect on the relationship between service quality management practices and performance of insurance companies. The results of the study extends the frontiers of Service Quality Theory which contends that service quality depends on the nature of the discrepancy between expected service and what is perceived. Adoptions of service quality management practices appear to render the influence of industry competition on the relationship between service quality management practices and performance irrelevant. The implementation of service quality management practices by the policy makers assist in meeting the dual responsibility of insurance companies which are risk mitigation measures and national economic growth

Physical and biochemical characteristics of red and black beans varieties of Phaseolus lunatus (L.) consumed in south and east of Côte d’Ivoire []

To contribute to their valorization, the stage of physiological maturity, the time of harvest and the nutrient content of two cultivars (red and black) of Phaseolus lunatus were the subject of this study. These two cultivars are the most consumed in the south and east of Côte d'Ivoire. Seed weights of both cultivars decreased from stage 1 (32 days) to stage 4 (52 days). For major components such as crude protein, fat, vitamins C and B, their values increased while carbohydrates decreased from phase 1 to phase 4. Black cultivars contained more crude protein, fat, vitamins C and B as red cultivars. Both cultivars were found to be rich in macroelements (Na, K, P) and micronutrients (Fe); however, potassium and iron are more abundant in red cultivars. Physiological maturi-ty of both cultivars was reached about 52 days and mature pods can be harvested as a vegetable between 45 and 52 days after pollination. For the best quality of its seed protein, vitamin B and C, black cultivar can be recommended as a good vegetable for human nutrition.


Abstract Increase in demand for sand and gravel mining has recently increased due to its demand in the construction of dams, roads, and building. The environmental impact of sand and gravel mining in three communities in Inyi town in Oji River Local Government Area of Enugu State has been studied using survey design. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of sand and gravel mining in the selected communities. The objectives of the study include; to investigate the method used by the miners in mining sand and gravel in the study area and to ascertain the impact of sand and gravel mining on the environment of the study area. Data for the study was collected through questionnaire, field observations and interview. 120 copies of well- structured questionnaire were distributed to the communities. Statistical tool use in the analysis of the data was simple percentage. From the study, sand and gravel mining in the selected communities has resulted to loss/reduction of farm lands and grazing lands, loss of vegetation, loss of biodiversity and economically important tress, destruction of landscape and beauty, confrontations/conflicts amongst communities, dust, water and soil pollution. The study therefore recommend promulgation of law guiding the mining operations in the study area, monitoring of the operations of the miners as regards to waste disposal, enforcing the miners to pay some dues to the community leaders which will be used in providing potable water supply in the entire community and other basic amenities. Keywords: mining, environment, unregulated, destruction and landscape.


ABSTRACT: HBV is considered as the virus causing disease in the developing country as in Pakistan also. Now a day, viral hepatic infections (HBV) have become common and important cause of liver disease. The main causes of Hepatitis are poverty, ignorance of vaccination, reuse of syringes, exposure to not disinfected surgical instruments in hospitals, dental instruments in hospitals, acupuncture, unscreened blood transfusion, using of unsterilized equipment at barbers shops and also due to cultural and traditional activities. The present study represents the prevalence and risk factor of HBV infections in the general population of Punjab, province of Pakistan.

The impact of profitability on market size of Islamic Banking in Pakistan (A case study of panel data 2007 - 2016) []

The study describes the profitability and market size of Islamic Banking. The research focuses on the market size increases by profitability of Islamic banking. This study describes the unique area of market size of Islamic banking by using the profitability. The profitability ratios are Return on Asset and Return on Equity by using Gearing Ratio, Payout Ratio, Asset Turnover and EPS as variables to gauge the profitability either concurrently or partly on Islamic banking of Pakistan. ROA and ROE are dependent variables. Gearing Ratio, Payout Ratio, Asset Turnover, and EPS are independent variables.This study is a secondary base and the numerical value of the data is 100 observations. The selected sample size is ten Islamic Banks. The sample data periods selected from 2007 to 2016. The Panel unit root test is conducted for prerequisite of panel data. The balance panel data technique is applied.The overall model of ROA and ROE show significant results its significance value is less than 5%. The study finalized significant results by taking neutralizing the other external variables that the factors of profitability impact on the market size of Islamic banking. The result approves the study is significantly correlated with profitability and market size of Islamic Banking.


This study conceptualizes relationships among knowledge management, organizational characteristics and organizational performance. There is consensus in management literature linking knowledge management with sustained organizational performance. However there are some mixed findings of the linkage between knowledge management, and organizational performance and the acknowledgement that knowledge management is a critical necessity for all organizational operations. The study’s specific objectives were; to examine the relationship between knowledge management, and organizational performance and to establish the moderating role of organizational characteristics on the relationship between knowledge management and organizational performance. Through a cross-sectional survey, data was obtained using a structured questionnaire from companies listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange in Kenya. PLS-SEM analysis findings indicate a statistically significant direct relationship between knowledge management and organizational performance. Organizational characteristics’ moderation effect on the relationship between knowledge management and organizational performance was found to be negative but statistically insignificant. However the direct relationship between organizational characteristics and performance was found to be positive and statistically significant.


This study conceptualizes relationships among knowledge management, and organizational performance. There is consensus in management literature linking knowledge management with sustained organizational performance. However despite the acknowledgement that knowledge management is a critical necessity for all organizational operations, knowledge management still remains a relatively new field in terms of published empirical research (Foss and Mahnke, 2003). The study’s specific objective was to examine the relationship between knowledge management and organizational performance. Through a cross-sectional survey, data was obtained using a structured questionnaire from publicly quoted companies at the Nairobi Securities Exchange (NSE) in Kenya. The current research employed structural equation modelling specifically PLS-SEM to analyse the relationships between the conceptualized constructs. PLS-SEM analysis results indicated a statistically significant direct relationship between knowledge management and organizational performance in publicly quoted companies in the Nairobi securities Exchange. The current thesis adds to theory and empirical evidence that a statistically significant relationship exists between knowledge management and organizational performance in publicly quoted companies at NSE.


The objective of this research is to study the effect of foundation soil on dynamic stability, including liquefaction, of embankment dams, through numerical illustration using FLAC3D and PLAXIS geotechnical softwares. An embankment dam may rest on a loose alluvium deposits for which it can accommodate the foundation deformation. The loose foundation soil, when exposed to cyclic load as in earthquakes, responds adversely from a relatively harder stratum. Sometimes such loose soil deposits amplify the bedrock ground motion inducing a problem on stability of the embankment. Such cases need to be considered in resting an embankment in a thick alluvium deposits, particularly in earthquake prone zones. If the loose soil deposits are removed to a relatively stiffer soil underneath or if the depth of such soils is reduced, the adverse effect mentioned above may be reduced. For the purpose of studying the effect of foundation soil on dynamic stability of embankments, a 2-D dynamic analysis of site soil and an overlying embankment is done. FLAC3D version 3 and PLAXIS 8.2 professional version geotechnical softwares were chosen in the numerical modeling framework. Soil properties were reasonably taken from the results of other available site investigation studies. A two dimensional mesh was created to represent the topographic and geometric constraints of the problem. Linearly elastic perfectly plastic constitutive model was implemented to model the soil behavior in both FLAC3D and PLAXIS geotechnical softwares. The results of 2-D dynamic numerical analyses in the forms of acceleration, displacement, strain, stress and pore pressure are presented and compared. The analysis result reviles that for an embankment resting on a loose foundation, the displacement, acceleration, stress, strain and porewater pressure values are higher than that of embankment founded on relatively stiffer ground in both FLAC3D and PLAXIS softwares. The higher displacement, acceleration, strain and stress levels calculated for an embankment founded on a loose ground can be attributed as a cause of poor performance of such embankments when earthquakes happen. From the result of the study, it can be seen that loose foundation soils induce dynamic stability problem on embankment dams. This shows the necessity of foundation soil investigation for dynamic stability while resting embankment dams on loose foundation soils as in alluvial deposits.

Prevalence of Pediculus humanus capitis infestation and socio-economic status in school children; a review []

Abstract The human head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis are a universal health problem for children and their families. Lice are ectoparasitic insects that can be found on human’s head, and bodies, including the pubic area. Pediculus capitis are perennial, holoparasite that run through their complete life cycle on the host. Head lice infestation inspired by Pediculus humanus capitis is a general problem which infests children at 5 and 13 years of age. Infestations of lice that live on skin cause anxiety, this infestation do not require clinical interest but can cause crucial depression. Head lice may cause unpleasant feeling and may disturb the schooling work. The spreading of this problem is more common in poor countries and the area that are highly populated and the areas where there is no awareness of personal hygiene, poor health facilities and non awareness of school health educator. To promote the management of head lice admonishing efforts from public health authorities should focus to reach all persons at risk

Zoonotic diseases and Ayurvedic treatment; a review []

Zoonotic diseases are infection that transmit from animal to human.These disease can be transmitted either through the direct or indirect way.Direct transfer of disease is due to the close contact with animal due to love with nature or due to their job interaction with animal. Indirect way for the transmission is air ,water , soil and vehicles use for transport of animal.The cause of disease may be a virus, bacteria ,fungi and other disease causing agents. Rabies, Anthrax, Brucellosis,Cysticercosis, Bovine tuberculosis ,Japanese encephalitis, and Rickettsia infection etc are some deadly diseases. In this article lets see the review of literature to show importance of ayurveda for the control these communicable diseases that is spreading more vigorusly. Zoonosis kill a lot of population throughout the world that can also effect livestock that can lead to destroy economy of the country.Ayurveda vaccines are used to eradicate these diseases but it may a great task how vaccine are injected. Therefore oral vaccine are made that is used.It is a beneficial way for the management of diseases that have no side effect on the human health like the modern medicine. Ayurveda has long roots but we need to explore their hypothesis, therefore several organizations work on it.The aim of this review is to show the prevalence of zoonosis, their pathogens and also represent the role of ayurveda that is a magical way to deal with such infections.

Depressive Symptoms Among Overweight Students at University of Kufa []

There is continuous rising a numbers of overweight and depression among people in world, especially among adulthood persons who in academic years. The study aims to assess depressive symptoms among overweight students and identify the relationship between depression symptoms and demographic characteristics of them. A descriptive-analytical study was conducted in University of Kufa in Al-Najaf province. The sample of study was a convenience sample consisted of 165 overweight students who studied in one of faculties at University of Kufa. The tool of study had two part. First part related to demographic characteristics and second related to Body Mass Index and Beck’s Depression Scale. The results revealed more than 50% of students had overweight to fatness and mild to moderate degree of depression; while more than (75%) of them reported not had other health problems. There is no significance relationship between depressive symptoms according to Beck’s Scale and demographic characteristics, but there is significance relationship between depressive symptoms and health status of students at P-value (0.012). The study concludes that there is most half of overweight and obese students have mild to moderate depression and most them have opportunity to develop stigma. So, the study recommended to inclusion physical activity in academic program and their role in health promotion.

Patient's Satisfaction with Nursing Care in Emergency Department at Public Hospital in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf Governorate []

Abstract: Objective: this study aimed to assess Objective: To assess patient's satisfaction with nursing care in Emergency department at Public Hospital in Al-Najaf Al-Ashraf Governorate and to find out relationship between patients satisfaction and their socio-demographic data. Methodology: A descriptive study design (cross section) was carried out through the present study in order to achieve the early stated objectives. From period 15th of December 2017 to 20th of May 2018, in order to assess nursing care provided for patients in emergency department. A non-probability (purposive sample) of (150) patients who were admitted to AL-Sadder medical City, AL-Hakeem General hospital, AL-Zahraa teaching hospital and medal AL-furat Hospital / Emergency Department for treatment were included in the study. Data collected through using a questionnaire consisting of two parts: part I: patient demographic data contain (7) items, and part II: Clinical Data: Patient Satisfaction with Nursing Care Quality scale (PSNCS) consists of (16) items which distributed according to domains of satisfaction. Validity of the study instrument is conducted through a group of experts who have a years of experience in nursing field, In this study the data were analyzed by using of (SPSS) program V19 (statistical package for science service), and the statistical package. Below is the statistical data analysis methods to evaluate the study result. Results: The study shows that majority of patients are satisfied with nursing care that provided for them in emergency, most of patients are satisfied with nursing care in all hospital department, patient satisfaction significantly associated with participants’ education level. Conclusion: Generally, The study confirms that the most of patients are satisfied with nursing care in all hospital and there are significant relationship between patient's satisfaction with nursing care and level of education of patient.


This study was conducted to assess rangeland resource utilization and management practices, specifically to assess the effect of drought and conflicts over rangeland resource, expansion of unwanted plants species, in Afdem district located in sitti zone, Somali regional state of Ethiopia. In this study, Pastoralist rangeland resource utilization practices were assessed using structured questionnaire (50 households), visual observation and group discussions, The data obtained through the questionnaire from assessment of rangeland resource utilization and management practice were analyzed by using SPSS version 16 by using description statistics like frequency, percentage then presented in the form of tables. Nearly, majority of the respondents were lack of education (illiterate) and pastoralism was the most dominant production system in the study area. The natural grazing land was more important and only source of livestock feed and there is no privately owned land and also most of the respondents preferred communal ownership of the grazing land for the period of time that is to come. The most common rangeland and livestock management practice strategies adopted by the pastoralists included seasonal migration, herd splitting, range classification and soft grazing as mentioned by the majority of the respondents. So strengthening of the pastoralists’ indigenous knowledge through giving attention and recognition, as well as organizing awareness creation programs on proper range land management and improvement measures which suitable to the area must be undertaken. In the district, expansion of rain fed crop production might be full of risks, because of the uncertain of the rainfall as well as the nature of the community.

Insight on living conditions in Shingiro sector, Musanze district in the vicinity of the Volcanoes National Park of Rwanda []

Background: Batwa people are among the most vulnerable people worldwide and have limited access to key social determinants of health, including health care, education, clean-water, employment and adequate clothing, nutrition, and security. The study focused on living conditions of communities formed by indigenous and vulnerable people from Mudende and Mugari cells of Shingiro sector in Musanze district, Northern Province. Methods: The cross-sectional method was conducted in the areas surrounding VNP in the vulnerable communities. From the target study population of 260, 156 were recruited. The purposive sampling technique was conducted in Mudende and Mugari cells of Shingiro sector in Musanze district, Northern Province of Rwanda. Data were analyzed descriptively and performed using SPSS version 21. Results: The results of the study showed that there were 3.3 children per family. It founded that the population was still young in the range of age 20-54 years old at 64.10% of the total respondents. The high concentration of members in households was demonstrated with 4-8 as they were 73.87%. They had high rate of illiteracy at 57.05%, high level of children at the age of school but not attending at 43.07%, high rate of unemployed with 62.18%, a low rate of the population who were able to build their own houses at 4.49%, a high rate of who were unable to pay health insurance at 93.04%. The 64.74% of the HMP were not able to pay school fees, 21.79% were free of social welfare issues, 95.51% ate once daily and 99.36% consumed under 1$ a day. Discussion: The results revealed that demography of HMP was problematic and associated with the low level of education and extreme poverty. There was the need to develop social mobilization programs to enable these communities acquire enough knowledge on the demographic threats in the area. The need to develop micro and income generating projects to potentially increase the knowledge and economic self-reliance, enough for these communities to become responsible of their fate was mostly needed. The respiratory and psychological health issues represented 8.33% and 5.77% respectively. Conclusion: HMP were the vulnerable people who need the potential supports for their health. Their education, hygiene and sanitation as well as the sexual reproductive were mostly needed to be reinforced for promoting the public health through the programs. Coordinated policies of public and private sectors is required to improve the Public Health of Batwa through the enforcement of their rights and increased participation in policies and programs affecting their well-being. Key-words: Historically Marginalized People, Batwa, indigenous people, vicinity, conservation.


The issue of good leadership could be a means to serve the interest of the people’s that elected the political leaders in to positions of power where vested upon the nature and firmness believe of the leader to bring a positive change that could better the lives of his people’s through policies that cut across affect the lives every groups of the society. The papers has argued that Ahmadu Bello Sardaunan of Sokoto, has demonstrated a capable leadership style that first lifted the Northern Region to compete with other regions in terms of infrastructural development and political relevance during the First Republic in 1960’s under parliamentary system of government despite so called challenges of tribalism and nepotism encounter by his administration, Sardauna has express the values of patriotism, dedication, nation building and Unity of Nigeria as one country. The paper has recommended for contemporary politicians of today to learn politics of patriotism, dedication and effective service to the peoples so that democracy would answer the name of government of the peoples by the peoples. Keywords: Patriotism, Dedications, nation building, Unity.


The purpose of this paper is to examine and evaluate the overall counter terrorism cooperation during Obama Administration towards Pakistan. It aims and focuses on the performances and measures taken by United States of America during President Obama in office in order to eradicate terrorism from Pakistan. Being a grave national security threat, terrorism played a disastrous role in the domestic peace and stability of both countries. President Obama’s Administration formulated policies when he come to office in 2009 by looking at the already efforts done by Bush Administration to counter terrorism from Pakistan. Despite many ups and downs in the bilateral relations on various domestic and international issues, both countries didn’t compromise the elimination of terrorist phenomena from Pakistan which was indeed a great success of the Obama administration’s counter terrorism and counterinsurgency strategies in the long run.


The main problem of this study was to examine the nurses’ attitudes towards nursing research in selected hospitals in Laguna. The study is anchored on the Donabedian’s structure-process-outcome framework. A convenience sample of (93) staff nurses and a purposive sample of (7) expert nurses answered Boothe’s Attitudes on Nursing Research Scale. This study made use of a mixed method. Researcher used frequency count and weighted mean to assess degree of nurses’ attitudes towards nursing research, ANOVA was used to note significant deifference among the ratings of the staff nurses, additionaly, thematic analysis was employed to identify areas that will increase nurses engagement to nursing research. Also, frequency count and percentage agreement at 85% were used to categorize nurses’ attitudes into research infrastructure (structure, process, and outcome). The results showed that the most positive attitudes of the nurses are related to subscale payoffs and benefits described as “Strongly Agree” which entails that nurses are to engross in research if time time permits and if there are monetary and promotion benefits. Meanwhile, subscale interest and environmental support was described as “Agree” and subscale barriers to conducting research was described as “Uncertain”. Moreover, out of 46 items in Booth Scale, 10 items were identified as structure, 3 items as process, and 2 items for outcome. This study revealed no significant difference among the ratings of the staff nurses. Thematic analysis uncovered three emerging themes namely, time, financial support, and reward. Staff nurses agreed that their workplace should provide them time, financial support, and reward with their research endeavour. The findings of this study recommend that hospital management should provide ample time, such as sabbatical leave or any leave of equivalence, to staff nurses wish to participate in research activities. Also, hospital management should plan/support programs leading nurses to participate in research activities, such as utilization of evidence-based practice. Also, if possible, PRC-BON should outline policies that will strengthen the structure and process of the research infrastructure supporting staff nurses in doing research. Specifically, policies should focus on time, continuing education programs, opportunities to conduct research, and comprehensive assistance for nurses engaging in research.

The School of American Diffusionism with a Particular emphasis to Clark Wissler []

The school of diffusionism was emerged around the turn of 20th century against the theory of evolution of culture. Diffusionists attempt to understand the nature of culture in terms of the origin of culture traits and their spread from one society to another (Jha 1983: 52). There are three versions of diffusionist thought. The first school is the British school of diffusionism. The supporters of this school believe that all cultures originated from one culture center, and that culture center is Egypt. This school of diffusionism is often termed as ‘heliocentric’. The second school of diffusionism is the German diffusionism, which is the more reasonable view that cultures originated from a limited number of culture centers (culture circles); and finally the American diffusionists (which is the main focus of this Article) who have the notion that each society is influenced by others but that the process of diffusion is both contingent and arbitrary (ibid.: 52-69). This article tries to describe about the school of American Diffusion with a particular reference to the works of Clark Wissler. It attempts to give a brief explanation of the theoretical ideas of Wissler on the concept of culture, culture area, and culture pattern as well as the age-area hypothesis.

Performance of Women Development Fund (WDF) Toward Economic Empowerment in Tanzania []

Abstract Tanzania Women Development Fund (WDF) has been supporting women Income Generating Activity (IGAs) since 1995. It provides loan to finance Women IGAs of different aspects to enable them improve their livelihood. Through this fund many women have been empowered economically. The study aimed at assessing the performance of WDF toward women economic empowerment in Tanzania. The study was carried out in Dodoma city council and two wardsChang’ombe and Viwandani were selected for the study. Three groups from each ward were selected and 45 beneficiaries were participated in the study. Data collection techniques employed were questionnaire administration, personal interview, observations, focus group discussions and documentary review. Data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). Results showed that, through WDF loans, beneficiaries attained economic empowerment due to the fact that, some had attained; access to resource and ownership, improvement of income which ultimately improve household.

Is TTIP (Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership) part of a world movement to true globalization? []

The Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP) agreement between the European Union and the United States has the potential to be the most ambitious trade and investment agreement between two developed economies. Most EU Member States do not currently maintain Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) or Bilateral Investment Treaties (BITs) with the United States, so the TTIP has the possibility of breathing new life into trade and investment flows as well as their corresponding protection on both sides of the Atlantic. This paper discusses TTIP, issues arising, effects on globalization, FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) and the treasury management by the MNCs (Multinational Companies) (Prof. Dr. Christian Tietje, 2014). The TTIP can affect the developing countries and influence the global trading system through the large increasing in the trade and investment predicted to take place between the two Atlantic sides.


Reconfigurable infrastructure has ability to communicate more than one pattern at different frequencies and polarizations. Supporting QoS requirements of multimedia applications over ordinary network is a difficult task not easily achieved where availability to spectrum is not always guaranteed. Also, costly bandwidth resource remains a limiting factor and adoption of cognitive wireless system became expedient. Aim is to specify parameters for learning and adaptation for modulation and routing techniques for efficient reconfiguration. To flexibly access Internet for more profitability, ICT application deployment on campus require entities presented in the reconfigurable infrastructure. These includes Base Stations (BTSs), Access Points (APs), mobile devices, wireless network controllers and geolocation database. Channel state information use by the backbones support mobility and connection management via cloud-based modules. BTS and AP duo deliver co-operative multiple input multiple output (co-MIMO) technology and the system matches modulation, coding, radiation, signal propagation and routing protocol to offer adaptation based on user needs and not radio link availability. Cognitive Radio (CR) networking provides real-time connection to multiple Radio Access Technologies (RATs) reliably signifying bandwidth extension. Adaptive ‘beamform’ implement signal maximization and interference minimization to provide for seamless roaming, intelligent transport, flexible access and integration with Wi-Fi interface. Tangible economic benefits of CR and co-MIMO techniques offer spatial structural advantage of wireless propagation and improved bit error rate for higher throughputs. Co-operating MultiPoint (CoMP) technology is implemented for multiplied link capacity and enhanced link adaptation. Keywords – adaptation, beamform, channel, co-operative, protocol, radio-link, signal


As sixth goal in SGDs, of ensure safe drinking water for all, Community Based Water Projects with CBOs are functioning a major role of providing safe drinking water to many parts of the world. Approach with Community Ownership, organiza-tional structure and management and administrative framework, financial factors, technological factors, Institutional framework, community participation and engagement, legal entity and satisfactory of the community etc.. are contributing in different levels to function water CBOs well while achieving sustainability. Further these factors will contribute in differ-ent ways for sustainability and different levels for well-functioning and up to the contextual factors of different communi-ties. Study of different factors above mentioned, the levels and the way it will be affected will study in this research taking step to form a new method to assess Community Based Water Societies in their functionality and sustainability through studying different community based water societies in Sri Lanka.

Epidemiology of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia with reference to prevalence and genetics []

: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is an internecine disarray of lymphoid cells that affects the both adolescent and being mature. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia also called acute lymphocyte leukemia is a kind of leukemia in which too many lymphocytes in bone marrow. Pakistan and western countries are combative with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in an alpine degree. This cancer participates 32% of all cancers. It is amassed bourgeois in children and it is more common in boys than in girls as the male to female ratio is 1.3 to 1. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is caused by chromosomal aberrations like deletions, translocations, rearrangements, hyperdiploidy and hypodiploidy etc. Advances in our discerning of etiology of acute lymphoblastic leukemia suggest that refashion upstairs of this disease peculiarly target the genetic imperfection of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. In acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the lymphocytes are not adequate to conflict contagiousness anemia effortless hemorrhage. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia can compass to our central nervous system. Speculation remain meager in adolescent and being mature. In this review we provide a concise examination of pathobiology studies in acute lymphoblastic leukemia with a focus on treatments genetics and sub types. The possible risk factors include environmental factors, genetic and different transfusion agents. The disease associated with acute lymphoblastic leukemia has been also reviewed. We also reviewed diagnosis and different therapies for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.


Public sector performance is an intensely practical concern for developing countries in sub-Saharan African states, Latin American and Asian continents. The major predicament besieging most African nations is poor performance of the public sector. Economists and other professionals have been able to associate public performance inefficiency to the existence of inappropriate technologies, gross incompetence, defective capital structures, bureaucratic inflexibility and complexity in the public sector. One of the challenges experienced by the public sector is market dynamism, a fundamental problem that crystallizes from global economic demand, advances in technology, and increased societal demands in the various countries, particularly the developing economies in Africa, Latin America and Asia. Good performance management is a critical variable in workforce capacity building and fundamental to an efficient and effective public sector. A well-developed performance management system aligned to organizational objectives can result to improved individual, agency and public sector effective performance, and greatly impact on the community’s perception of the sector in general. This paper examines the strategic management in public sector organizations and the specific challenges posed by the government, stakeholders, public bureaucrats and customers in the course of improving on performance. An in-depth analysis of public sector performance in Nigeria was chronologically stated. The factors responsible for their inefficiency and the measures to be adopted to strengthen their service delivery are also embedded in the work.

Relationship between Human Resource Management Practices and Turnover Intention (with special reference to the apparel factories in Ratnapura District) []

ABSTRACT This study empirically evaluated four Human Resource Management (HRM) practices (recruitment and selection, training and development, compensation and career development) and their relationship with the Sewing Machine Operators (SMOs) turnover intention in apparel industry in Sri Lanka. Retention of employees is a huge challenge for any organization in current competitive globalized market. High employee turnover is one of the major issues faced by the managers in the apparel industry in Sri Lanka. Hence, the purpose of this study is to examine the level of relationship between HRM practices and turnover intention of SMOs in Apparel industry. In Sri Lanka, HRM practices and turnover intention of employees in the Apparel industry has not been fully addressed. Therefore, this study addresses the gap in the literature. The data were collected from randomly selected 300 SMOs who are working in apparel firms located in Rathnapura District; Sri Lanka through a self-administrated structured questionnaire. The data were analyzed using SPSS. Descriptive statistics, Cronbach’s alpha, multiple regression analysis, and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for various analyzes of this study. Results of Correlation analysis showed that HRM practices were negatively and significantly correlated with SMOs turnover intention. Further, results indicated HRM practices are positively and significantly correlated with job satisfaction and job satisfaction is significantly and negatively correlated with turnover Intention. Results of the regression analysis showed that there is a significant negative impact of HR practices on turnover intention. As per the results of the regression analysis, compensation practice is the strong predictor of turnover Intention and job satisfaction of SMOs. The results suggested that increasing salary, providing more indirect rewards, providing training and development opportunities, and treating employees in a friendly manner are the most effective retention strategies for SMOs in the apparel industry in Sri Lanka.


Buckwheat pollination is crucial for increasing its yield, ensuring food security and improving livelihoods. To quantify the response of honeybee on buckwheat seed pollination and yield, an experiment was conducted at three agro-ecological sites (Semi-natural, organic and intensive agriculture sites of Megauli, Fulbari and Jutpani Village Development Committees (VDCs), respectively) of Chitwan district during the winter season of 2012/13 and 20013/14. The experimental design Randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four treatments (i. open pollination; ii. plants caged with honeybees (Apis melifera L); iii. hand pollination iv. plant without pollinators) replicated four times. Plant height (cm), branch number, and blossoms, seed number per plant, 1000 grains wt (g)., and seed yield/sq.m. were measured. Pollinators’ abundance and diversity were also observed. The impact of pollinators on each agro-systems resulted in significantly increased yields attributes compared to restricted pollination. Plants not pollinated by bees resulted in taller, higher branch numbers, and lower seed yield. There was different levels of pollinators in semi-natural, organic and intensive agriculture sites, however deficit in pollination noticed in intensive agriculture field resulted lower yield. The dominant pollinators were Hymenopterans, followed by Dipterans, Coleopteran, and Lepidopterans insects, respectively. The major honeybees were Apis melifera L., Apis cerana F., Apis dorsata F. and Apis florea F. Syrphid flies, Syurphus sp., Eristalis sp. and cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae L. the dominant Dipteran and Lepidopteran pollinators. Hence, integrating pollinator diversity and managed pollination to sustain production through biodiversity-based ecosystem services. The experimental results showed that there was significantly higher plant height in pollination restricted plots (control) and branch number were the greatest in the control treatment compared to pollinated plots. Pollination increased grains per plants increased 1000 grain weight when compared with control plot. Thus, the quality and quantity of buckwheat production get improved with bee pollination especially in open and bee enclosed treatments suggesting increased use of managed honeybees and conservation of wild bees and other pollinators. Key words: Bees; buckwheat; Intensive agriculture system; Semi-natural; Open pollination; Yield attributing characters.

A review of ayurvedic treatment of infectious diseases []

Ayurveda is herbal treatment that is practiced in various parts of the world from centuries ago.It is derived from the Sanskrit ‘ayu’ means life and ‘veda’ means knowledge. Infectious diseases are spreading very speedily in all over the world. To catch all organisms all the time (either they are recently evolved or already present) and to treat them is not possible. Therefore prevention is right way against these diseases. Traditional health care system like ayurveda is right choice to treat infectious diseases. In traditional method of curing infectious diseases like Chickenpox, Malaria, Measles, mumps, jaundice and AIDS herbal preparations and plant and leaves extract ,paste of leaves of Neem and Turmeric ,Ginger, Garlic and other medicinal plant are used. This treatment is very helpful in developing countries where no or very less sources are present. This treatment is not more expensive and peoples of backward area avail it easily.


Unwanted teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases,HIV/AIDS, substance abuse and other problems in adolescents necessitates the need for programmes designed to improve their preconceptional health.The objective of the study were a) determine the existing knowledge of adolescents regarding preconception care b) develop and administer a planned teaching programme on preconception care c) evaluate the effectiveness of planned teaching programme on preconception care among adolescents.The conceptual framework based on 'Becker's health belief model.Quasi experimental one group pre-test post-test design was used for the study. Multistage random sampling technique was used to select 120 adolescents from selected colleges. Result showed that overall mean percentage of knowledge score had improved from (39.05%) in the pretest to ( 75.45%) in the post test and the mean percentage of effectiveness was (35.40%). Inferential statistics using paired 't' test showed a very highly significant difference(t=31.861,P<0.005) between pre-test and post-test knowledge scores of adolescents. KEY WORDS Planned teaching programme (PTP);preconception care;adolescents.

Antidiabetic and haematological effect of aqueous extract of Root of spondias mombin on streptozotocin-induced diabetic albino rats []

ABSTRACT To investigate the antidiabetic properties of aqueous extract of root of spondias mombin and its beneficial effect on haematological parameters in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. A total of 30 rats including 24 diabetic and 6 normal rats were used for this study. Diabetes was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin. After being confirmed diabetic, animals were orally treated extracts at 200,400 and 600 mg/kg body weight daily for 14 days. The haematological parameters including red blood and white blood cells and their functional indices were evaluated in diabetic treated groups compared with the controls. The extract significantly reduced the blood glucose levels while the best result was obtained at 400 mg/kg body weight. The study also demonstrated improvement in the in vivo antioxidant property of Spondias mombin root extract showed marked increase in the levels of catalase and peroxidases and a decrease in the levels of Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances ( the malondialdehyde levels).The feed and water intake in diabetic rats were significantly reduced while weight loss was minimized at both dosages. Similarly, the levels of red blood, white blood cells and their functional indices were significantly improved after extract administration at both doses. It can be concluded that the aqueous extract of bark of spondias mombin possesses antihyperglycemic properties. In addition, the extract can prevent various complications of diabetes and improve some haematological parameters.


The experiment in hand was planned at the research area, Sugarcane Research Institute, Faisalabad, Pakistan during spring season 2017-18 with the objective to find out the most effective combination of weed control in sugarcane by using integrated weed management (IWM) method. The trial was laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design and replicated thrice. According to the results, the treatment T6 (Manual weeding 30 DAP (days after planting) + one mechanical weeding 60 DAP + earthing up 90-100 DAP) have lowest number of weeds (17.30 m-2) which shows 91.10% weed mortality with higher cane yield (103.22 t/ha) followed by T3 (Scope 80 W.P @ 1 kg /acre pre-emergence + Sunstar @ 20 g /acre post-emergence + one mechanical weeding 60 days after planting + earthing up 90-100 DAP) which gave cane yield of 102.78 t/ha. However, minimum cane yield (66.05 t/ha) was recorded from T7 (control).


A Geophysical investigation using Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) method with the Schlumberger electrode configuration was carried out at Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital (I.S.T.H) and environ in Esan Central Local Government area of Edo State, Nigeria. The study was carried out with the aim of determining the subsurface layer parameters (conductivity, resistivity, and thickness) and thereby ascertains the groundwater potential thereof. With the Omega resistivity meter a total of two (2) VES (Ves 1 and Ves 2) study was done with AB/2 covering a predetermined distance of 500meter. From the quantitative interpretation of the VES data(with computer iterative method) enabled the characterization of eight(8) geo-electric layers made up of dry top sand, sandy clay, sandstone and a high resistive dry sand, covering a total depth of (178.30 - 178.71) m.From the study, it is evident that finding ground water in the study area is in the upper aquifer which is shallow and may not be too prolific in terms of water accumulation and yield.


An abandoned object is defined as one that has been lying stationary at a certain place with no apparent human attendance for an extended period of time. Such objects are usually the ones that people often carry around including Backpacks, Suitcases and Boxes which may be hiding dangerous items like explosives. Abandoned object detection is one of the most practically useful areas of computer vision due to its application in automated video surveillance systems for the detection of suspicious activities that might endanger public safety, especially in crowded places like airports, railway stations, Shopping malls, movie theatres and the like. A real time vision based object detection method using Frame Difference method is presented here, which involves development of database from real time video captured from camera, use it in tracking object from the scene and detect it as abandoned or not .The strategy is basically decomposed into two; foreground (FG) detection and stationary foreground object (SFO) detection. Frame Difference method is used for detecting the presence of newly introduced object (FG) into a scene termed as Background (BG) scene, while the tracking based approach is used for determining whether that FG object is stationary/ abandoned or not. The customized database was used for training and testing. Image Processing Toolbox/ Platform of MatlabR 2015a was used to achieve this goal. Detection of the abandoned object was achieved with high sensitivity as the system was able to detect a slight centroid variation of [1,0]which was far less than the set threshold of [5 5]. False alarm as a result of false detection was minimized as the system detects and declare only non-human stationary object as abandoned.