Volume 7, Issue 2, February 2019 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

Homing of HSCs From Their Niche by Honey And Bovine Colostrum For Treatment Of Induced Infertility In Male Mice []

Background: Infertility affects 15% of couples worldwide. It is estimated that about half of the infertility cases are due to male factors .Male infertility could be caused by various reasons including failure in spermatogenesis, defects in sperm transportation or accessory gland function, genetic or environmental factors. Among these causes, spermatogenic defect is the primary one in male infertility. The dynamic balance between cell proliferation and apoptosis determines the number of cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testis. Aim: Compare between the effect of honey bee , bovine colostrum and G-CSF on homing of HSCs that are used for treatment of induced infertility in experimental animals .Materials &Methods: Seventy male mice were randomly divided into seven groups ,six of them injected with cyclophosphamide to be infertile , then first group treated with honey, second treated with bovine colostrum ,third treated with MSCs, fourth treated with G-CSF , fifth treated with wheat germ, sixth saved as positive control group and seventh left as negative control group. The 2nd generation of stem cells were injected intraperitoneally. Different tissue and blood samples were taken at the end of study for tests. Results: Male fertility is improved by increasing sperm count and motility and level of sex hormones is elevated after the period of study.

Operational Policy of the Reservoirs in Malwathu Oya Riv-er Basin to Minimize Flood Damages in Anuradhapura, Vavuniya and Mannar Districts in Northern Sri Lanka []

The need for water is universal. It is present everywhere, and without water, life, as we know it, will simply cease to exist. Water is constantly in motion, passing from one state to another, and from one location to another, which makes its rational planning and management a very complex and difficult task under the best of circumstances. Water may be everywhere, but its use has always been constrained in terms of availability, quantity and quality. When the quantity of flood water released from the reservoirs in the upper catchment of Malwathu Oya river basin reaches a certain level, social, economic and environmental damages occurs to the people living in the downstream of the reservoir area. Further unplanned human activities in the Malwathu Oya river bank area crate a threat on the natural bio diversity of the river. It is essential to create a master plan to in cooperate construction of buildings for various purposes, crop production, livestock and tourism. To address these effects a study is being carried out. It gives a scientific emphasize on the necessity of modified / improved reservoirs operation.

Cultivation of Arable Crops at the North Central Region of Nigeria Using Different Agronomic Practices. []

Agriculture is the major tool the Federal government of Nigeria put on the spot light to save the declined economy of the nation. In view of this, the Ministry of Budget and National Planning came up with the Economic Recovery and Growth Plan (2017- 2020). Arable farming using inter-cropping technique is the most practiced farming system in the nation due to its rapid cash back. Arable crops such as cassava, maize, okra, cowpea, yam, sorghum and sweet potato were cultivated on three (3) acres of land using several intercropping techniques. The growth pattern of the varieties of crops grown where noticed from the emergence to the harvesting period. The growth pattern data was taken accordingly. Harvest was made at the right time for the crops that are matured and sales were made both on the farm and at the local market taking note of the market behavior and the taste of the people. The effect of the farming activity improved the economic and the nutritional status of the rural dwellers in the vicinity. While sourcing for germplasm to use in cultivation, the target market should be considered and also, early planting or irrigation farming is encouraged for profitable agriculture.


This study aims to determine the effectiveness of filters in the cultivation of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in aquaponic system. The study was conducted from July to August 2017 at Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor. The research method was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four treatments and three replications, namely treatment A: circulation using bioball filter media, B: Circulation using water spinach filter media, C: Circulation using bioball filter media and water spinach plants and D: Circulation using media sponge (control).The container used for the maintenance of a fiber tub with the size of 70 cm x 70 cm x 70 cm filled with water as much as 257 L with a density of 15 fish/fiber. The parameters observed were absolute fish growth, survival rate and water quality, including pH, dissolved oxygen and ammonia. The results showed that there were significant differences in the growth of nile tilapia fry with a biological filter of water spinach plants with survival rate of 100% and absolute growth 98.32 gr ± 15.6 gr.

The addition of fermented Lemna sp. Against Physical Quality of Feed and Feed Response of Fish []

This study aims to determine the effect of the addition of fermented lemna flour to the physical quality of feed and the response of some fish to feed. This research was conducted in April to June 2018 at the Aquaculture Laboratory, while the physical testing of feed was carried out at the Fish Nutrition Laboratory of the Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University. The treatment given is the difference in the amount of lemna meal fermented in feed (0%, 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60%). Data on the physical quality of feed and fish feeding responses were analyzed descriptively. The parameters during the study were feed flavour, feed color and texture, and feed response. The difference in flavour of feed during the study is closely related to the flavour of Lemna sp. as a source of vegetable protein, the higher the administration of lemna flour the higher the flavour of lemna. The more Lemna sp meal. fermented products added to feed, the more green color of the feed produced and the rather hard texture. Addition of Lemna sp. the higher in feed affects the increase in feed intake time by fish.

Removal of cadmium(II) ion from aqueous solutions by orange peels []

Abstract Cadmium is one of the heavy metals and that has adverse effects on human health and environment. The toxicity of cadmium is very severe, which appear after several years, and can cause cancer and disorder in the cycle of calcium within the human body to resemble cadmium with calcium. The present work deals with the biosorption of Cd (II) ions from aqueous solution using orange peels. Adsorption of these ions was found to be pH dependent and maximum removal of Cd (II) by orange peel is 98.9%. Keywords: Cadmium, aqueous solution, adsorbent, adsorption, orange peels.


ABSTRACT Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem throughout the world. It is a major problem of children in poor countries where it kills over 100,000 children each year. Almost 1.3 million cases and 450,000 deaths occur in children each year. Ethiopia is one of 22 high burden countries in which TB is the second leading cause of death. To the extent of my knowledge there are no studies conducted on the status of adherence towards anti TB drug and their related factors in children pediatrics in Tigray region. Objective: To assess the level of adherence towards anti TB regimen and associated factors among pediatrics in Tigray health institution’s 2018. Methods: Institutional based cross-sectional study design was used. A total of 190 children who use anti TB drug were included consecutively from the selected health centers of Tigray in the data collection period. Structured interviewer administered questionnaire was used to the parents and to the children. Data on anti TB user children were reviewed from anti TB registration book. To describe the data percentages and frequency distribution were used binary logistic analysis was also employed. All factors with a p-value <0.25 in the bi-variate logistic regression analysis was further entered into the multivariable model to control confounding effects then factors that are significant was declared at p-value <0.05. The result was presented using text, tables and figures. Result: In this study the level of child adherence to wards anti TB drug among Tigray health institutions is 67.9%.Children who live in rural area (AOR=1.97; 95% CI: 1.35-10.9), ant-TB drug side effects (AOR=1.82; 95% CI: 1.91,3.33), parents used any method of reinforcement to give children’s anti-TB medication (AOR=4.23; 95% CI: 1.66-10.7) and children with Comorbidity AOR=3.36(95% CI 1.21,9.31). were the factors significantly associated with anti TB drug adherence. Among the total rural residents, 37(60.7%) of children had poor adherence on anti TB drug and 24(39.3%) of urban residents also had poor adherence. One hundred seventy-four (91.6%) of respondents reported that there was always availability of ant-TB drug when they were arrived at health center Conclusion: Anti-tuberculosis treatment Adherence is low among children in Tigray region. The study revealed that adherence of children to their medication is not only affected by patient taking medication as prescribed but also parents method used to take medication, drug side effect, presence or absence of other reasons like feeling better, forgetfulness and residence area. The health centers and woreda health office develop strong follow-up of children on anti-tuberculosis treatment to improve status of adherence with focus on rural children. Key words: Anti TB drug, children, TB, adherence.


This research was conducted at the Larantuka, Flores, Indonesia in 2015. The location chosen as being representative fish-ing bases for pole-and-line tuna fisheries in Eastern Indonesia. Data collected related to their tuna pole-and-line, market-ing system and data from companies. The market supply lines and selling data for the study were gathered from landing site managers; government fisheries offices; tuna processing companies at the three sites; a desk study; and a field survey. Information on the supply and marketing system was obtained by questionnaires to local tuna processing company staff, fishery office staff, landing site staff, fishers’ group leaders, captains, community leaders, scientists, and policy makers from local and national levels and their responses to the interviewer generated mainly qualitative data. The result showed that majority of the respondents from both the policy makers and public-sector workers (62.5%; n= 20) stated that they were aware of the overall tuna supply chain. The traceability process in the supply of tuna pole-and-line products consists of several processes declared that they were aware of the tuna traceability process. In Larantuka, tuna supply lines from both the processing and frozen companies showed that the traceability system was applied in their marketing strategy for both export and national markets. The pole-and-line fishers have a limited choice between sending their fish directly to the local market or selling it to the tuna processing companies. The marketing system for small-scale pole-and-line tuna fisheries in Larantuka, Indonesia controlled by middlemen and processors, who provide financial and other operational help to fishers to enable them to continue fishing, in return for which fishers are required to deliver their fish at prices set by the middlemen and/or processors.


This study aims to determine the percentage of addition of fermented Lemna sp meal artificial feed that can increase growth rates in two types of fish with different food habits (catfish and tilapia). The study was conducted at Ciparanje Laboratory and Hatchery in Building 4 of the Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University. This study used an experimental method with Completely Randomized Design (CRD), which consisted of four treatments and three replications, by giving feeds with the addition of Lemna sp meal with fermentation of 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60%. Parameters observed were growth rate, survival rate and water quality. Data on growth, feed conversion ratio and survival were analyzed using variance analysis and continued with Duncan's Multiple Range Test. The results show that the addition of Lemna sp. Fermented meal yields up to 30% of feed weight produce a higher daily growth rate in tilapia (1.40%), while in catfish is 1.12%. The survival rate of catfish in this experiment is 100%, while the survival rate of tilapia is 82.22%.


Wetlands provide numerous ecosystem services supporting livelihoods of people around the world. However, in spite of these benefits, wetlands are continuously being degraded through over exploitation, poor management and other unsustainable uses. A major challenge on wetland development in Nigeria is how to raise awareness of, and provide guidance on, the importance of wetlands as providers of benefits to urban populations. This study assessed urban development and sustainable livelihoods of communities around Eleyele wetland in Ibadan, Oyo State. 240 respondents in three major communities around the wetland including Ijokodo, Eleyele and Apete were selected for this study. Also, indepth interviews and Focus Group Discussions were conducted in each on the communities. Findings revealed that almost all households surveyed derive benefits from the wetland. However, a wide range of human activities mostly resulting from urban encroachment have affected the wetland and caused their degradation hence negatively impacting the services provided by the wetland. The study recommends provision of alternative livelihoods for people living around the wetland. There is need to strengthen the implementation of existing laws and policies on wetland use, management and protection in the state and in the country as a whole so as to reduce the existing pressures on wetland use.

the effect of social cost on the extent of social environmental disclosure mediated by social environmental performance []

The aim of this research is to examine the effect of the relationship among social cost, the extent of social environmental disclosure, and social environmental performance. The study was an explanatory research using quantitative method. The sample consisted of 194 out of 612 total population of companies listed in Indonesian Stock Exchange. The data were secondary data in the form of annual reports, sustainability reports, and companies’ social environmental performance measurement by PROPER. The data were analyzed using SEM analysis by means of AMOS software with one intervening variable. The results of the research indicate that social cost positive effect companies’ social environmental performance. The social cost variable also affects the extent of companies’ social environment disclosure. Then, the company's social environmental performance variables positively affects the extent of companies’ social environment disclosure. The company's social performance variables are able to mediate the relationship between social cost and the extent of companies’ social environmental disclosure.

Emission Inventory of Elecricity Generation from Thermal Power Plants in Nigeria []

An emission factor approach was used in this study to quantify the emission of uncontrolled air pollutants discharge into the atmosphere from all the existing thermal plants in the country. The air pollutants examined were carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate matter (PM), sulphur dioxide (SO2), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs); The estimated annual criteria air pollutants emissions from point sources in the existing thermal power plants ranges 47.76 – 26747.41, 80.28 – 44727.62, 1.80 – 1004.51, 0.92 – 512.66, 0.55 – 310.57 ton/ annum for CO, NOx, PM, SO2, and VOCs, respectively. From the specific data, the study discovered that, the higher the production capacity, the higher the emissions generated. Identification of sources of emissions assists in adopting efficient control technology during the design stage. The ability to adopt appropriate control measures will determine how much emission of criteria air pollutants released into the country’s airshed. Both technology and policy control options are recommended in order to reduce criteria air pollutants from thermal power plants for adequate air quality in support of environmental assessment and mitigation planning.


In the aquaculture industry, the priority is to improve the efficiency of all aspects of feed, including the addition of feed additives that can increase the Daily Growth Rate (DGR) and Feed Convertion Ratio (FCR). Artificial feed and natural feed are treated with exoge-nous enzymes as feed additives to increase digestibility of feed proteins and increase DGR and FCR. Research into feed additive sim-plicia papaya which contains protease and saponin enzymes as immunostimulants has been carried out and provides good results for cantang grouper, but the use of nano and micro size enzyme powder and dosage will be tested on natural feed to see the extent of particle size and doses can affect digestibility natural feed on a grouper of bushel.

Increasing Battery Efficiency Through Utilizing Piezoelectric Sensors []

The problem of charging the electric wheelchairs used by our orthopedically disabled citizens is a common nuisance. The limited battery capacities and their long recharging times prevent them from getting too far away from their homes. Replacement batteries are both expensive and heavy, making it an undesirable option. To tackle this problem, we created our own electric wheel chair design, by implementing piezo electric crystals within the inner tires. By this way, we were able to produce a certain amount of electricity through the pressure applied on the crystals when the tires are rotating, thus increasing the battery life time. The fact that the piezo sensors are much cheaper and reliable than the nickel-metal hybrid batteries is also a very major economic advantage. Compared with solar energy, piezo sensors are much cheaper and their energy conversion process does not depend on weather conditions. Through our design, people with disabilities will be able to move comfortably without the problems of charging and high electricity consumption. Its energy savings also benefit a sustainable nature.


ABSTRACT The Biawak Island is a small island in the Java Sea, which is located in the north of Indramayu, west java province. Biawak island has a high potency of sea cucumber. This study aims to study the relationship between the oceanographic aspects and the habitat of sea cucumbers, and also to create the spatial distribution of sea cucumbers maps in the Biawak Island Waters. The distribution of sea cucumbers is strongly influenced by the oceanographic parameters. The sea cucumbers occupy limited space and specific conditions for survival. Oceanographic studies on a continuous scale of timing and a space are needed to understand the characteristics of oceanographic conditions as a habitat of sea cucumbers. The waters of Biawak island have varying condition oceanographics with high potential sea cucumbers. There are 3 species of sea cucumber spread over the Biawak Island, namely Holothuria atra (87,3%), Actinopyga miliaris (7,2%), and Stichopus hermani (5,5%). The distribution of sea cucumbers varies spatially in the waters of Biawak island with the highest number found in the northeastern part of the biawak island with habitat characteristics in the form of substrate sand and coral sand. Oceanographic parameters affect the spatial distribution of sea cucumbers as limiting factor of sea cucumber habitat. Sea cucumbers are found at the temperature ranging from 28 – 31 ⁰C, salinity ranging from 29,5 – 30 ppt, DO 1,5 – 3,0 mg/l and pH 6,4 – 6,5. KeyWords Actinopyga miliaris, Biawak Island, Habitat of sea cucumbers, Holothuria atra, Java Sea, Oceanographic parameters, Sea cucumber, Spatial distribution, Stichopus hermani

The Significance of Innovation to the Performance of Family Business in Nigeria []

The purpose of this paper is to examine the significance of innovation to the performance of family business in Nigeria. The study was carried out through exploratory research, thereby providing an outline of innovation in family firms and the implication to the business development. The paper aims to understand the dynamics of innovativeness of family firms’ members towards the business growth. The researchers conducted in depth multiple case study of five family businesses to provide an insight into innovative abilities of family firms’ members and how it affects the general performance of the organisation in terms of productivity, growth, efficiency and effectiveness. The findings indicate that family firms innovate rapidly due to absolute participation, family ties and members’ commitment to the business sustainability.


This study presents hypothesis testing to examine two factors, time and price, influencing behavioural intention to use online food delivery intermediaries (FDI) service. Convenience sampling was use for a survey and 106 questionnaires were collected to test the research model using multiple linear regression analysis approach. Multiple regression analysis was employed to explore the relationship between time, price and behavioural intention. The results revealed that time factor has a significant impact (p < .0001) while price factor has no significant impact on the dependent variable (p = .170). The findings implies that online consumer‘s perceives that time-saving is an important factor while price-saving is not considered in using online food delivery intermediaries service. Finally, practical recommendation and limitation are discussed.

Use of Moringa (Moringa Stenopetala) seed Extract for Removal of some Anionic dyes (Direct and Reactive dyes) in Textile Wastewater []

With textile wastewater being one of the most sources of pollution containing higher value of colour, BOD, COD and several pollutants, brings serious problem to the ecological environment. This study is particularly focused on evaluating the efficacy of removal of dyes such as reactive dyes, direct dyes, mixture of dye wastes and mixture of industrial and dye wastewaters by the natural absorbent Moringa. The seeds of the Moringa tree contain a coagulant protein that can be used in the treatment of industrial wastewater. The extracts of seeds (coagulant) obtained by two methods viz. simple extraction with distilled water and with saline water have been used for the study. The effect of some operating parameters on coagulation namely pH, coagulant dosage, mixing time, colour removal and turbidity was studied. It was observed that the colour removals in direct red and reactive red dyes are 94.45 and 98.4% respectively with simple extract of seeds done with distilled water and it was in the order of 96.6 and 97.3% respectively with saline extracts of the seed. These values of colour removal of dyes are optimized at 70ml/L of coagulant and pH 10. The mixture of industrial wastewater and dye wastes, colour removal and turbidity removal was 85.8% with simple extract and 53% with saline extract respectively at optimized point. Moringa stenopetala seed has demonstrated to have high removal ability for anionic dyes.

Composition, Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Schilbeidae (Siluiriformes) from Agbura Landing Site, Bayelsa State, Nigeria []

Composition, Length-weight relationship and condition factor of schilbeidae from Agbura landing site was investigated for three months (May-July 2018). Schilbeidae (a total of 431) landed catch was procured twice a month from artisanal fishers at the landing site. Species composition was determined with simple percentages, length-weight relationship and condition factor, (k) were determined using the equations: W=aLb and K= W*100/Lb respectively. Results showed that Agbura landing site consist of 5 species (Pareutropius buffei, Schilbe intermedius, Schilbe uranoscopus, Parailia pellucida and Siluranodon auritus. The dominant species was S. intermedius (n=160) representing 37.12% while S. auritus (n=3) showed the less dominance of the total Schilbeidae sampled. There were no overall statistical differences in the monthly b-value for the each species. The b-value and Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r (in bracket, 2 decimal places) of the pooled data (May-June) were 2.89 (0.99) for P. buffei; 2.94 (0.88) S. intermedius; 2.56 (0.98) P. pellucida and 3.24 (0.99) S. uranoscopus. The results indicated negative allometric growth pattern for all the species apart from S. uranocuspus which showed positive allometric growth pattern at the end of the three months. There were significant variations in the monthly condition factor. The condition factor for P. pellucida increased (0.55-1.25) while S. intermedius decreased (2.00-0.34) from May-June. The highest condition factor (K=0.59) for S. uranoscopus was in June.


Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health problem which could easily lead to chronic liver disease and Cirrhosis. A study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of HCV surface antigen among women attending antenatal at general hospital Bogoro was conducted. A total of 200 samples comprising of all women attending antenatal were screened using an HCV antigen-antibody reaction strip between 12 June- 2nd September 2017, samples were screened as they are collected. Out of the screened patients, 13 (6.5%) were positive for HIV infection. The seroprevalence with respect to the age group indicates that those within the age of 19 – 25 years and ≤18 years had the highest prevalence rate of 3.0% and 1.0% respectively. More so, those that fall within the range of 19–25 (3.0%) were more infected compared to their other counterparts. Prevalence according to tribes indicates a higher occurrence in Sayawa with 3.5% followed by Hausa 1.0%, Boiyawa 1.0% and those with least infections are the Fulani 0.5% and Jarawa 0.5%. Occurrence rate by marital status shows that the married have 4.0% followed by the single 2.0% while the divorced have 0.5%. According to religion, the Christian showed the highest prevalence of 4.0 % followed by the Muslims counterpart 2.0%. It is concluded that the seroprevalence of HCV in women attending Borogo hospital is greater than the world health organization (WHO) estimate of 2.0% for Nigeria. Thus, a public awareness programme to orient women on modes of transmission should be encouraged. This research work provided baseline data for further research in the near community. Keywords Hepatitis C, Seroprevalence, Bogoro, Bauchi

Participation of Civil Society Organizations in Ethiopian Policy Making Process: An overview []

The main objective of this study is briefly assessing the involvement of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in the Ethiopian policy making process starting from the regime of Emperor Hailesilassie to the post 1990's of the EPRDF period until the appointment of Dr. Abiy Ahmed as a prime minister of the country. Secondary data as sources were employed for this descriptive survey study. The study indicates that the emergence of stupid and dominant executive leadership, the peripheral position of the people in policy making contribution, the exclusion of the public from government role, the partisan system of the government structure, subjugation based relationship of the government and the society, rigid government structure and lack of unified organization between and among the CSOs were the major challenges which affected the participation of CSOs in the Ethiopian Policy making procedure.Therefore, this study recommends that the government of Ethiopia must revisit the organizational structure of the system in order to enhance the full realization of civil society organizations and thereby they provide the best policy making outcome.


This study aims at appraising determinants of effectiveness of internal audit in Nigerian public tertiary institutions from the perception of respondents using Federal Polytechnic Ile-Oluji, Ondo State Nigeria as a research focus. The study’s research focus represented all other tertiary institutions of similar status under the regulatory framework of National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) in Nigeria. The management team which included all the principal officers of the institution, the internal audit staff and the bursary staff are the sources of primary data collection which were gathered through the questionnaire administered. To analyze and interpret the gathered data, ordinary least square regression method was used. Amongst the factors which were identified by respondents as determinants of internal audit effectiveness, internal audit independence was considered as the most fundamental and critical in ensuring effectiveness of internal audit in any tertiary institution of higher learning in Nigeria. The study therefore concluded that in order to ensure judicious utilization of public funds in Nigeria, the need for effectiveness of internal audit is sine-qua-non and as such cannot be overemphasized. Keywords: Internal Audit Effectiveness, Tertiary institutions, Federal Polytechnic, Ile-Oluji, Ondo State, Nigeria.

A Review of Metal Nanoparticles Incorporated in Polymer Matrices for Water Disinfection []

The existence of microorganisms in water sources poses a threat in both environmental aspects and human health. With this, nanotechnology is of great importance nowadays because of their properties such as catalytic activity, optical and electronic properties, magnetic activity and antimicrobial activity. Moreover, the use of polymer matrices for the incorporation of metal nanoparticles takes a commercial advantage to enhance the property of the material. In this context, synthesis such as ex-situ and in-situ of metal nanoparticles together with their antimicrobial activity, and their impregnation in polymer matrices is discussed to further understand the possible approaches in the study. Also, results from several related studies were elaborately compared to recognize the potential of the methods and materials used. These studies explore the chemistry behind the interaction between metal nanoparticles and the compositions of the polymer matrices. A close scrutiny on the relationship of the properties of metal nanoparticles and the morphology of polymer matrices will allow better understanding on the yet-to-be discovered potential of metal nanoparticles incorporated in different polymer matrices as an antibacterial water filter.

Parental sexual ornamentation and offspring performance in whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) []

The expression of secondary sexual characters in both sexes (mutual ornamentation) is a relatively common, but rarely studied phenomenon in the animal kingdom. The primary aim of this study was to examine whether there is an association between mutual ornamentation and offspring performance in whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus. We conducted an experiment using newly hatched whitefish larvae, originated from crossing 10 females and 10 males in all possible combinations ((wild fish from River Oulujoki stock). The parental fish were examined for breeding tubercle ornamentation—height of lateral breeding tubercles (BT height), roughness class of lateral breeding tubercles (BT class), number of lateral breeding tubercles (BT side) and the number of front head breeding tubercles (BT front), and for parasites. Offspring quality was measured as predation avoidance behaviour (freezing and swimming close to the side of the tank, in the presence of predator 0-yr brown trout) and survival (in the absence of predator). The “good genes hypothesis” predicts that in the families with elaborate parental breeding tubercles the larvae are of better quality. The “compatible genes hypothesis” predicts that the variation between families in offspring quality is not consistent in relation to parental ornamentation but there is a male-female interaction in offspring quality. In accordance with the compatible genes hypothesis, we found a significant male-female interaction in predation avoidance behavior of larvae, although the male effect and female effect as such were insignificant. On the other hand, the survival of larvae was affected by the male effect (sire), only, as the maternal effect and male-female interactions were not significant. This finding is in accordance with the good genes hypothesis. However, there was a negative correlation both between the number of breeding tubercles on the front head and offspring survival, as well as between lateral breeding tubercle roughness class and offspring survival in males. Thus, breeding tubercle ornamentation of male whitefish seems not to indicate offspring survival in laboratory conditions. On the opposite, ornamentation of male whitefish may signal parasite load since there was a significant negative correlation between the roughness of lateral breeding tubercles and abundance of Diplostomum spathaceum eye flukes in the eye lens, as well as with the total abundance of Diplostomatidae flukes in the eye. Thus lateral skin roughness could be used by females to discriminate between male parasite status. In general, in males all the breeding tubercle ornamentation measures were independent, not correlated to each other. No association between the ornament measures of males and predation avoidance behavior of offspring was observed. Opposite to males, in females there was a positive association between BT class, BT side and BT height.

Design and development of appropriate tyre sandal shoe. Case of rural peoples around Bahir Dar city. []

The current study was conducted with the objective of designing and developing appropriate tyre sandal shoe for rural people around Bahir Dar city, Ethiopia. The study was carried out through questionnaire, interview and observational study. The researcher identified the existing situations and problem happened on tyre sandal users in the area. The current tyre sandal worn by rural people around Bahir Dar city not comfortable for their feet, due to rough surface and hardness of tyre straps and it caused a dry foot and foot crack related problem around their forepart and heel area of foot. More specifically, these tyre sandals are heavy in weight and the straps frequently tend to break at the connecting points, due to poor nail or tack attachment of tyre sole and tyre straps. Based on data analysis, the researcher designed and developed four appropriate shoe collections. Target group showed their willingness to use all shoe collection. The Author gave training on production of new shoe collection for tyre sandal producers in the area. Some of the target users who faced foot crack related problem used the new shoes and the author observed that the new shoes protected the target users feet from dirt and bacteria. Keywords: Automotive tyre, Footwear, Tyre sandals, Cows hides, Shoe design, Shoe development.


Abstract: Nunu is a locally fermented Nigerian milk product used as a staple food amongst the Saharan tribes of West African Sub-region, and is also popular amongst the inhabitants of the Mediterranean region and the Middle East where it is known as dahi or lassi. Samples of fresh Nunu were collected from Zongo farm (a small-scale farm) located in Auchi which is less than 15 minutes distance from the laboratory of Auchi Polytechnic Auchi. The Nunu samples were collected in the early morning to ensure the freshness. All Nunu samples were obtained under aseptic conditions from where the fulani herd women kept them for overnight fermentation and to avoid contamination which can influence the analysis. Nunu samples were divided into 7 portions and treated as follows: sample A, unpasteurized; sample B, C, D, pasteurized at 63°C for 30 min; and sample E, F, and G, pasteurized at 72°C for 15 Seconds. Proximate composition was carried out in triplicate for each sample using standard methods and the mean results were recorded. The result of the physio-chemical analysis reveals the protein, carbohydrate and pH levels of the Nunu samples decreased during the period of storage each day.


Commercial banks play an important role in the operation of an economy since these banks serve as the financial intermediaries that channel funds from savers to borrowers for investment which is an important thing for a country’s economic growth and development. The analysis of the effect of inflation on financial performance of Commercial Banks in Nigeria is important. The aim of the study was to establish the effect of inflation on financial performance of Commercial Banks in Nigeria. The study specifically aimed to evaluate the effect of inflation on financial performance of commercial banks in Nigeria. An ordinary least square regression model was used. Inflation has insignificant relationship with financial performance.


Commercial banks play an important role in the operation of an economy since they are the financial intermediaries that channel funds from savers to borrowers for investment which is an important thing for a country’s economic growth. The analysis of the effect of interest rate on financial performance of Commercial Banks in Nigeria is important. The findings indicated that real interest rate is negatively and significantly associated with the performance of commercial banks in Nigeria. The study recommends that commercial banks operating in Nigeria should make plan to adjust their lending rates and financial activities when the rate of real interest rate set by the Central Bank of Nigeria increases since real interest rate has a negative effect on commercial banks financial performance. The study also recommends that commercial banks should be aware of the changes in interest rate and adjust their rates accordingly since an increase in interest rate worsens the performance of commercial banks.

Fish Food Habits In Upstream of Cimanuk, Garut District West-Java []

The study of food habits is the first step to manage the aquatic resources. This research was conducted in July-October 2018 at the Aquaculture Laboratory of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Faculty, Padjadjaran University and Laboratory of Research Institute for Fish Resources Enhancement. The purpose of this research is to determine food habits of fish in the upstream of Cimanuk river. This research used survey method (non-experimental) with two research stations, station one was Copong Dam area and station two was Sasak Beusi with twice sampling at each station. The fishes caught during the research were 54 fishes of two families and six species, that were barb fish (Barbodes balleroides), carp (Mystacoleucus marginatus), masheer (Tor tambroides), hampala (Hampala macrolepidota), beardless barb (Diplocheilichthys pleurotaenia), and goonch (Bagarius yarrelli). Plant material was main dietary item of barb fish, carp and beardless barb. Insects was main dietary item of masheer and hampala. Crustacea was main dietary item of goonch. The trophic level of fishes in the upstream of Cimanuk consists of herbivores (barb fish, carp, beardless barb), omnivorous (masheer) and carnivorous (hampala, goonch).

research []

Abstract The three phase induction motor is a very important electrical device in the present period of automation. These motors are commonly used in industrial drive because they are simple to construct, reliable, cheap and easy to operate. However, the induction motors experience electrical faults like over voltage, overcurrent, under voltage, overload, unbalanced voltage, phase reversing and single phasing. These electrical faults result in the heating of the motor’s windings which leads to reduction in its efficiency and life span. The motor needs to be protected against these electrical faults in order to prevent it from being damaged. In this paper, a new technique for the protection of three phase induction motor, using a microcontroller is introduced. A self-diagnosis which informs that a problem has occurred and by which parameter is implemented. Experimental results show that microcontroller based hardware system provides higher accuracy. And when compared with conventionally protected induction motor, the motor efficiency and power factor showed improvement. Key words: Induction Motor, Microcontroller, Overvoltage, Overcurrent


Pre-colonial times are characterized by the smooth and frequent relationship among societies. The nature of this relationship was mostly on the cultural, commercial and political ground. This, however, encourages inter-marriages, borrowing of languages and other features which were most times dictated by the needs of the various societies involved. Benin imperialism in Ekiti land is an aspect of cultural integration between the people of Benin and Ekiti. Although the nature of the alliance is said to have always run against the tide, it is, however, important to notice the impact of Benin's extension of influence in Ekiti land which brought about cultural integration between the two communities. This paper examines the various reasons of convergence between the Benin culture in one hand and the Ekiti people on the other side. It thus argues that Benin’s expansion on some parts of Ekiti land has brought about cultural relations between them and that the administrative control which Benin had over them in one time or the other has encouraged these cultural similarities. The work relies on both primary and secondary sources and also employed descriptive and analytic methods in analyzing relevant data for the research.