Volume 7, Issue 7, July 2019 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The proposed topic is research of literature in the field of marketing, providing a concrete study contextualized for the development of SMEs in the Republic of Macedonia. The purpose of this paper is to show how the image is important as a factor for a company for the overall assessment of the services, products and the evaluation of the company itself, how the company itself would find out what kind of image it has among consumers and if the results are unfavorable should change to improve its image. At the same time, it is important how marketing techniques, knowledge of habits and consumer behavior influence the building of a positive image of a company. One of the basic strategies of the company is the strengthening and building of the image because the consumers themselves give greater value to those companies that have a better position on the market. Of course, when defining a research problem that presents a broader statement of the main content problems, AUDI's marketing research components will be included as well: The growth of the company, competition on the market, sales oscillations (seasonal and annual).

Simple and Efficient Design of a Model-free controller based on lag/lead compensator []

This paper presents a new approach for designing Model-free Controller, based on lag/lead compensator. The design objectives were to have a model-free controller, which is simple easy to tune. The proposed controller has showed efficiency in term of performances and design time requirements. Although, the model-free controllers presented in the literature are only focus in tracking objectives, this Model-free controller is also able to control the system performances such as settling time, rising time, error and overshoot, by tuning the two parameters that it is composed of. The absence of model make it able to be applied in different systems and fields.

The effect of Humic acid, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and seaweed on growth parameters, essential oil and chlorophyll content in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) []

Effect of Humic acid, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and seaweed extract on growth parameters, essential oil and chlorophyll content in sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) has been evaluated. The experiment was conducted in the form of factorial in randomized complete block design (RCBD) in the Research field of Russian State Agrarian University – Moscow Timiryazev Agricultural Academy in 2018. The treatments were: A) Humic acid at three levels (a1 = nonuse, a2 = foliar application [3 lit/ha], a3= soil application [6 lit/ha], B) plant growth promoting rhizobacteria with two levels (b1= nonuse, b2= use [6lit/ha], C) seaweed extract (c1 = nonuse, c2 = soluble in irrigation water [1.5 lit/ha]). The results illustrated that the application of Humic acid causes increasing of all the traits studied. The highest amount of essential oil content (1.1%), fresh weight (0.9 kg/m2), dry weight (254.06 gr/m2), chlorophyll spad (10.98), height of the plants (48.62 cm), their root length (22.09 cm), shoot diameter (4.64 mm) and leaf width (3.08 cm) were observed at 6 lit/ha Humic acid. The results obtained also showed that application of seaweed extract results in increasing the fresh weight (0.89 kg/m2), chlorophyll spad (11.54), height (47.87 cm), root length (22.34 cm), shoot diameter (4.44mm), and leaf width (3.02 cm) of the plants. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria had no significant effect on evaluated traits except essential oil content. Comparison of interaction effects between Humic acid levels, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and seaweed extract showed that among the treatments, a3b2c2 (soil application of Humic acid 6 lit/ha + plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and seaweed) caused the maximum expression of all the traits evaluated. Overall results showed that the effect of Humic acid on the traits studied was much more than that of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and seaweed extract.


Maragondon River serves as source of water supply for domestic, agricultural, and industrial purposes which also provides livelihood among locals. However, anthropogenic activities might affect the quality of water.The study aimed to determine the physico-chemical characteristics of water and heavy metal concentration of sediments and tissues of Oreochromis niloticus (Tilapia) of Maragondon River in a three-month sampling period. Physical parameters were temperature and transparency while chemical parameters were pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, and nitrate. Physico-chemical assessment revealed that characteristics of water are all within the permissible limit set by DENR standards for Class B water. Both copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) showed no significant difference and within the Klokes Maximum Allowable Limit at 20-100 ppm. The heavy metal concentrations in the tissues of Orechromis niloticus (Tilapia) were able to pass the recommended limits joint by WHO/FAO, Food Standards Programme Codex Committee on contaminants in food. As a whole, Maragondon River can be best used for primary contact recreation such as bathing, swimming, and skin diving. Maragondon River can also be developed for aquaculture purposes and it is suitable for fish growth and propagation. However, regular monitoring must be done to reduce pollution level.


The chemical analysis of some commercially sold vitamin C tablet in Nigeria was investigated. The results showed that sweeteners were in the range of 9.65 – 10.25%, preservative in the samples were found to contain sodium benzoate, sodium metabisulfite, Sorbic acid and sodium propionate with same concentration (25mg/100g). The dye content were found to contain 1.60mg/ml to 4.78mg/ml. Vitamin C content were observed to contain 120.20 -128.59mg/100g of the sample. Sweeteners, preservative s and artificial dye in this study have been implicated to cause some health abnormalities both in infants and adults. The vitamin C content of the various tablets was of excellent recommendable dietary intake RDI value. The additives from this study should be considered by the pharmaceutical/food industries owing to their risk factor in such products. Since vitamin C is essential in our metabolic function which is more or less important in our daily nutrition, natural sources of vitamin C should be inculcated in our dietary lifestyle.


The growing concerns of the high concentration of metals in soils as a result of agricultural activities are becoming alarming. This study investigated some physiochemical properties of soil such as pH, conductivity, organic matter, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium. Soil samples were collected from nine different points at three different sites, sprayed with different herbicides. Three control samples were used. The physiochemical characteristics of the various soil samples were as follow; Herbicide A (delsate): pH (5.317± 0.26), conductivity (264 ± 77.67), organic matter (1.20 ± 0.077) , organic carbon (0.71 ± 0.043), nitrogen (0.50 ± 0.051), phosphorus (4.04 ± 0.29), sodium (146 ± 3.33), potassium (113.3 ± 4.67), calcium (37.26 ± 10.27), and magnesium (19.7 ±1.33). Herbicide B(force-up): pH (4.97 ± 0.173) conductivity (73.17 ± 22.07) organic matter (1.08 ± 0.15) organic carbon (0.64 ± 0.087) nitrogen (0.53 ± 0.042) phosphorus (4.05 ± 0.597) sodium (111.3 ± 2.67), potassium (100 ± 12), calcium(44.8 ± 5.61), and magnesium (23.3±4.67) Herbicide C(maxiquat) : pH (5.3 ± 0.26) conductivity, (150.10 ± 24.53), organic matter (1.22±0.033), organic carbon (0.7±0.02), nitrogen (0.52 ± 0.014), phosphorus (4.75 ± 0.623), sodium (116.7 ± 11.33), potassium (103.3 ± 6.67), calcium (33.22 ± 3.57), and magnesium (14 ± 2.67).These findings reveal that medicinal herbs, are lost as new plant species are replaced in the soil under investigation. The metal level was found to be elevated. This is attributed to the effect of the herbicide on the soil.

Effect of Silica fume and Bentonite on strength and durability of High Performance Concrete []

The project's work focuses on the strength of concrete and sulfate resistance to concrete, which is considered to be one of the major phenomena in the durability of concrete technology leading to deterioration. The main variable is the weight conversion of cement from silica fume replacing 10%, bentonite 20% and silica fume + bentonite 20%. In the presence of silica fume, the superplasticizer is also used to improve performance and make the concrete usable. A batch of concrete with a proper mix layout and a high strength of 6000 psi was preparedA portion of the lot was tested for 28 days and a portion was repeatedly subjected to wetting and drying in a sulfate rich environment, 50 g / l Na 2 SO 4 solution. The quality of the concrete was evaluated using a 20 day ultrasonic pulse rate test, which showed a significant improvement in the resistance to sulfate attack by the cylinder produced by silica fume. Ordinary concrete cylinders were greatly affected when taking sulfate. The same concrete cylinder was tested for compressive strength with a universal tester and showed a surprising loss of strength of the normal concrete cylinder, while the silica fumed and bentonite concrete cylinders showed a slight loss of strength. The main conclusions from this project are that the use of silica fume improves the performance of concrete in a sulphate-rich environment, but strength can not be changed as desired.

Construction project scheduling with the help of Primavera P6 []

Project management is key factor for successful completion of any project. Planning, scheduling, resource management and monitoring are fundamental parts of project management. Project scheduling requires deep knowledge about the project and its activities. In present days construction projects require better management and planning to meet the market demand. Proper scheduling can save time and money. In the present research scheduling of construction projects is assessed and done by using primavera software. The scheduling was done for the project of 6JCO’s building located in Risalpur KPK, Pakistan. The project was un-der Military Engineering Services (MES). The data was collected from MES office and site. Before scheduling a deep literature review was done and different requirements were also determined. OBS and EPS were created for organization. WBS for each element of project was done on software. Scheduling was done and critical path method was generated by software

Towards Oral Fluency: Formulaic Sequences at Hand []

Among the language classes in the Philippines where English is taught as a second language; much focus is often placed on teaching reading, writing and grammar skills. Very minimal time is allotted for teaching communication skills. This creates a problem when students need to use English to communicate. Many of these students graduate; with less immersion in the target language making them uncomfortable and even to some extent; they become unable to communicate with the spoken word effectively. This is not desired by the educational institutions in the Philippines. Teachers do not want to send these language learners out into the world unequipped. The so called oral fluency can be taught and the indivisible multiword language chunks, known as formulaic sequences, is one way of accomplishing this goal. This paper then addresses the issue by defining what fluency is and then by identifying, defining and applying teachable communication features to improve oral fluency. Classroom observation, focus group discussion, and interview questionnaires were the tools used by the researchers. The core of the instruments looked into oral fluency, formulaic sequences and speech communities. Each one of these fields helps to identify and explain effective approaches and tools for improving English language learners’ oral fluency. Combining how oral fluency is understood, what oral communication consists of and where oral communication takes place leads to a greater understanding of how to teach speaking skills. This paper then developed a training plan containing four lessons that utilize topics on oral fluency with formulaic sequences for practical classroom application. The results of this study can be applied to create an effective curriculum framework for teaching speaking skills in the second language classrooms.


The identification of the gonadal maturity stage in the specimen is very important for determining the spawning season, this is because it can facilitate the process of sustainable fisheries management such as abalone H. squamata. This study aims to identify, histologically, gonads through morphochromatically-defined of gonadal maturation. The results showed that four stages of gonadal development in male and female abalone H. squamata were found where the four stages included pre-proliferation, maturation, maturity, and consumption. Therefore morphochromatic definitions can be used as a practical tool for identification of gonad abalone H. squamata.

The Effects of Investment, Government Expenditures and Labor Productivity on Local Government Financial Performance []

This study aims to analyze and explain the effect of investment, government expenditure, and the effect of labor productivity on the financial performance of district/city governments in the Luwu Raya region of South Sulawesi Province. The data used in this study are secondary data in the form of panel data in the form of time series data from 2010 to 2017 and cross section data from 4 districts/cities in Luwu Raya. Testing the hypothesis in this study was carried out using the method of multiple linear regression analysis (multiple regression analysis) with the help of Eviews 9 software which aims to test the effect of the relationship between one variable to another variable. The results showed that: (1) investment has a significant positive effect on regional financial performance, (2) government expenditure does not affect the financial performance of local governments, and (3) labor productivity has a significant positive effect on the financial performance of local governments. Keywords: investment, government spending, labor productivity, local government financial performance.


This study aims to analyze and explain the effect of tax knowledge and tax service quality on tax compliance compliance and the effect of tax knowledge and tax service quality on compliance with paying taxes through awareness of paying taxes on restaurant taxpayers in Palopo City. This research is a causality study where there are relations between two or more variables that are causal, there are variables that influence (exogenous variables) and there are variables that are influenced (endogenous variables), using data collection techniques using a questionnaire of 150 samples based on non probability sampling methods with accidental sampling techniques with specific objectives (purposive). The data analysis technique used is the Structural Equation Model which is operated through AMOS version 22 software. The results showed that: (1) tax knowledge has a significant positive effect on tax compliance, (2) tax service quality has a positive and significant effect on tax compliance, (3) tax knowledge has a significant positive effect on compliance with paying taxes through awareness of paying taxes, and (4) tax service quality has a positive and significant effect on compliance with paying taxes through awareness of paying taxes. Keywords: knowledge, service quality, awareness, compliance, taxation.

Linear Optimization Approach to Estimation of Food Needs in South Halmahera Islands []

This study aims to estimate food needs to support supply chain management in South Halmahera Regency. The survey method was used to collect population data and level data and consumption patterns. Estimates of population development were analyzed using logistic models with limiting constants, while food requirements were analyzed using a linear optimization approach with a consumption level objective function greater than or equal to 2200 kcal. The nutritional adequacy rate (RDA) and the proportion of types of food are functional. Optimization for the estimation of food needs based on population growth and consumption patterns can be done with a linear approach with a relatively deviation rate of 0.1%. The need for carbohydrate sources, especially rice, based on existing conditions shows a fairly high number, balance of needs and rice production in 2015 amounted to 3.39, which means a very large deviation, this balance sheet decreases when using scenario 1 estimation of local food diversification policies with a balance sheet 2.45. The rice production deficit will increase every year if the increase in production is not carried out. Food supply from outside the area becomes a necessity and the management of the food supply chain will be helped by estimates that have been made.


The main goal of this review paper is to provide water and wastewater utilities with guidance and information on how to effectively use condition assessment tools and technique to improve both the long term planning and day to day management of assets. Water and waste water utilities in developed countries with the challenges of how to most cost effectively manage a large investment in physical assets with providing safe and reliable services to their customers. A Strategic Management (SAM) approach can help us to utilities meet this challenge. A key element of SAM is the assessment of the assets condition and performance. A Water Environmental Research Foundation (WERF) Sponsored workshop held in March 2002 identified that there were no standard guide line for conducting condition assessments, and that there is a need for protocols to help utilities better understand assets condition and performance.

Discovering the Pattern and Key Determinant Factor of Cereal Crop Production: By Using Association Rule Mining []

Agriculture is the major source of Ethiopian economy due to this the amount of agriculture database are increasing on a daily basis. The wide availability of huge amounts of agriculture data has generated an urgent need for the research of data mining. Although different approaches of statistic, technology, metrology and geology were applied to identify factors contributing to improvement of cereal crop productivity, there remains a lot of work to bring overall change in the productivity of cereal crop. This research focused on identifying relationships between attributes of agriculture productivity survey data of cereal crop with input mechanisms and techniques to clearly understand the nature of production of cereal crop in Ethiopia. The study uses a hybrid data mining model since it is a research oriented model and WEKA 3.8.0, Microsoft Excel 2013 and SPSS tools are used for data mining, for data integration and for data exploration respectively. Finally, 38961 instances and 14 attributes are selected for analysis. Additionally, the values of the yield of the attribute are discretized using domain expert ideas which are categorized as Excellent, Very good, Good, satisfactory, and Bad. Association rule mining methods such as Apriori and FP Growth algorithm compared and Apriori algorithm is applied in order to get the results. By configuring different thresholds, different rules are achieved. The discovered rules are then evaluated using the interestingness measure lift or correlation and domain experts. Finally, generating strong rule by satisfying both a minimum support threshold and a minimum confidence threshold and identify the most detrimental factor behind for occurring frequently and which crop is more correlate what crop by what factor they correlate. Finally, identify the relationship between factors for improving cereal crop production in Ethiopia. Then non- improved seed is affected by non –chemical damage, as well as occur in private owners and nonirrigated land the region those occur frequently in Oromia. Use of non-improved seed and not properly using fertilizer, not using the extension and irrigation as well as the region and male household are showing a strong positive relationship with wheat, crop production (Yield) and this observation lead to conclude that fertilizer, improved seed and irrigation are important variables for cereal crop production. In this study maize and wheat is highly associated based on their determinate factors. Keywords:-Apriori Algorithm, Association rule, Data mining, Knowledge discovery database


ABSTRACT Ultrasonic distance meter can be used to measure distance without contact, which is the use of ultrasonic wave at 40 KHz for distance measurement. The ultrasonic distance meter employs an ultrasonic module that consists of an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver, along with an ATMEGA 328microcontroller. It works by transmitting a short pulse of sound at a frequency inaudible to the ear (ultrasonic sound). Afterward, the microcontroller listens for an echo. The MCU calculates the distance based on the speed of sound at 250c ambient temperature and shows it on LCD display. Using it, we can measure distance up to 4 meter, with an accuracy of 1cm. In this project, we excite the ultrasonic transmitter unit with a 40 KHz pulse burst and expect an echo from the object whose distance is to be measured with an average accuracy of 3mm and an error difference of 1cm. The importance of this research is calculating accurate distance for any obstacle that we want to measure. This device can be used in many different fields such as in Physics, Engineering, Research and Production and other categories, spanning in endless applications. Keywords: ultrasonic distance measurement, microcontroller, echo, LCD display and ultrasonic sensor


Problem: The objective of this study was preliminary investigation of lowering PSA levels in type II diabetic patient of Bangladeshi population as reported by other researchers in different ethnic groups of different countries.In this study we compared the level of PSA in serum of type II diabetic group with non diabetic control group to investigate the possible relationships. Experimental approach: This study includes fifty type II diabetic male patients aged 40-70 years which were divided in two groups depending on age (<50 and >50 years of age) and fifty non diabetic male of two groups (<50 and > 50 years) aged from 33-83 years. PSA level was measured with chemiluminescent microparticle enzyme immune assay technique. These two groups are sub divided according to age (<50 and >50 years). These groups were compared by z test to find out whether any significant change occurred in PSA level and investigate linear correlation. Major findings: There was a negative correlation between PSA of diabetic male patients (r = 0.46; P= 0.001). Conclusion: Serum PSA levels were lesser in diabetic patients when compared with those in healthy male. This greatly supports the earlier observations that type 2 diabetic patients have lower level of serum prostate specific antigen.


This Review paper is studied about the improvent of performance through managerial skill.There are millions of organizations in the world and more are getting registered every single day. These organizations can be public, private, small, big, functional, or committee depending on the founder of the organization. The basic purpose of all these organizations is to earn multiple times than the investment and make their mark in the world. In order to achieve their purpose, organizations place some selected goals and objectives for themselves and hire employees who can help them reach and achieve their objectives. These employees work day and night and try to achieve success. Organizations very carefully select these employees who are very skillful and experts in their area of expertise. Further, most of the organizations give their employees proper training and development to keep them on track. But, still this careful selection and proper training does not guarantee that the employees will perform their responsibilities effectively. In order to keep the employees motivated and enthused in the organization goals and objective, these employees should be given bonuses and rewards for their hard work. These rewards and bonuses should be specifically given on the basis of their performance so that the employees will compete with each other and excel in their skills. The harder and effective the employees perform, the more successful the organization will become. As there are millions of organizations present in the world, so they are always in competition with each other. Due to this competition, the organization demands to have effective performance management systems as they are essential for their employees as well as for their productivity and objectives.

Perception of Mobile Phone users on E-learning in Evangel University, Akaeze - Nigeria. []

This study investigated the perception of undergraduates on the adoption of mobile technologies for learning. The respondents included 182 randomly selected undergraduates in Evangel University, Akaeze - Nigeria. The data collected through a researcher designed questionnaire were analyzed using percentages, means, standard deviation and the t-test statistics. The results revealed among others that no significant difference existed in the undergraduates’ perception on the adoption of mobile technologies for learning based on gender. It was recommended that stakeholders in the education sector should encourage undergraduates by procuring, providing or subsidizing mobile technologies that can be adopted for learning.


BACKGROUND: Non conventional plant foods are possible good sources of nutrient. The current study was conducted to evaluate the proximate, mineral and anti-nutrient contents of new variety of the African Bread fruit in Edo North, Nigeria. The new variety of the breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) was identified by the International institute for tropical Agriculture, Ibadan, Nigeria. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples of the new variety of the African breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) were collected from Igarra, Akoko-Edo Local Government area of Edo state, Nigeria. Carbohydrate, crude protein, ash, crude lipid contents were determined using standard methods. Determination of phytate, oxalate, tannin and saponin were also conducted. Among the minerals investigated were phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium. The various analyses were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. RESULTS: Tannin content had the highest (6.36mg/100g) concentration while Phytate recorded the lowest (1.65mg/100g). However saponin and oxalate had 3.04mg/100g and 3.05mg/100g respectively. Carbohydrate and crude protein recorded high value of 75.92% and 14.98% respectively. Crude fibre contained 1.42%, crude lipid 4.60% and ash 3.02%. The mineral content amounted to phosphorus (0.312mg/100g), calcium (0.164mg/100g), magnesium (0.0485mg/100g), potassium (0.482mg/100g) while sodium (0.0476mg/100g) had the lowest value in the composition. CONCLUSION: The study showed that the new variety of the African breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a foodstuff with appreciable levels of protein, carbohydrate and minerals as well as safe levels of antinutritional factors


This study examines godfather politics and the proliferation of arms with emphasis on tomorrow’s Nigeria. Available data on the level and dimensions of godfather politics and the proliferation of arms in Nigeria reveals an increase of violence over time, which constitutes serious threat to lives and properties, hinders business activities and discourages local and foreign investors, all which stifles and retards tomorrow’s Nigeria. This rising wave of godfather politics and the proliferation of arms have not abated but have assumed a dangerous dimension which is threatening the tomorrow’s Nigeria. In the light of the above the paper finds out that the loss of legitimacy which has enveloped Nigeria’s elections since the ascendancy of President Olusegun Obasanjo(1999) is not necessarily because of the fact that godfathers have turned elections into a ‘do or die affair’ through the brandishing all kinds of weapons to the extent that election periods are now wrought with fear, anxiety and desperation but because of the singular reason that the mainstream of the Nigerian electorates are beginning to see elections as becoming more or less meaningless, ineffective, and inconsequential political rituals of institutionalizing participatory democracy. Furthermore, the study also notes the competitions among godfathers to control state powers and resources through the imposition of their favoured godsons as candidates have defeated the purpose for democratic governance. The paper also observes the upsurge of political assassinations, organized kidnapping, and other evils leading to a number of senseless killings, displacement of thousands, and the destruction of properties remain frightening. The study therefore recommends that government should enact and enforce all relevant laws and decrees to empower the country’s electoral body to be truly independent in order to sanction all fraudulent practices, including the morbid quest of godfathers and, the use of small arms and light weapons to intimidate and manipulate election results. Secondly, there should be an outright ban on all forms of financial and material inducement on electorates. Finally, public enlightenment should be embarked upon to educate the citizenry of their democratic and institutional rights and create the awareness that contest for elective positions is not ‘a must win’


This paper identifies the alarming and the essence of fraud in project construction. It also identifies the importance of data protection, deployment and strengths in cloud-based project monitoring. Most projects are delayed or not completed by the initial contractor due to inability to control fraud and monitor the execution of the project. There is urgent need for understanding the technological cloud-based computing which has a lion’s share in increasing the efficiency, control fraud and output of every project monitoring. Areas of fraud by construction contractors were identified with the preventive mechanism. Also set of recommendations for organizations and project owners who will provide and manage this technological cloud-based computing were made. Keywords: Cloud-based, fraud control and project monitoring


PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL FROM PLANTAIN, PINEAPPLE AND BANANA WASTE BY FERMENTATION PROCESS REMSION, A. AND ODION-OWASE A.O. Department Of Science Laboratory Technology, School of Applied Science And Technology. Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi ABSTRACT Agricultural residues or waste are usually faced with the problem of disposal and treatment thus creating environmental problems. Agricultural waste especially those rich in carbohydrates can be treated in several ways and converting into useful substances, therefore reducing the bulk of waste. Bio-ethanol production from fruits in Nigeria is not a common practice, in this study, wastes from Pineapple, Banana and Plantain fruits are subjected to fermentation for a period of 120 to 168 hours using combined cultures of Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) and Aspergillus niger (mold). Fermentable sugar concentration and alcohol production were determined at an interval of 24 hours throughout the fermentation period. Results from the study showed reducing sugar concentration that ranged between 0.30- 0.91mg/cm3 for pineapple, 0.18-0.46 mg/cm3 for plantain and 0.20- 0.80mg/cm3 for banana. Alcohol (Ethanol) production ranged from 3.98 to 8.40% v/v. that is plantain peels had the lowest ethanol yield of 3.98% v/v, followed by banana peels which had 7.43% v/v and the highest ethanol yield in pineapple, 8.40% v/v. This study revealed the importance of Agricultural waste especially from fruits which have fermentable sugars. Key words: Fermentable Sugars, Ethanol, Plantain, Pineapple, Banana, Peels.


ABSTRACT Matured Ripe plantain was obtained from a nearby market in Auchi, Etsako West area of Edo State. They were brought to the microbiology Laboratory, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi. Saccharomyces cerevisae and Lactobacillus bugaricus were purchased from the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State and were transported to the microbiology laboratory, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi for analysis of fermenting Ripe plantain. The ripe plantains were washed with clean tap water to remove debris. They were peeled using a clean knife and diced into small pieces. The weight of diced plantain pulp was taken with a weighing balance to get 500 grams. The ripe plantain pulp was then homogenized in a mechanical blender containing 1 litre of sterile distilled water. This formed a ‘must’ 10 grams of the starter culture; Lactobacillus bulgaricus in a dry form and 30 grams of Saccharomyces cervisae were added into the ‘must’ already contained in an air-tight container, it was stirred properly together before the container was sealed. The ripe plantain sample was left to undergo fermentation for 120-144 hours. Some physiochemical properties such as pH, total titratable acidity, alcohol content, specific gravity and temperature were analyzed using standard methods daily, during fermentation period. Co-culture fermentation of Ripe plantain reduced its pH from 5.4 to 2.0; the total titratable acidity of the fermenting sample increased from 0.062% to 0.315%; Alcohol content increased from 0.0%v/v to 10.0% v/v. specific gravity of the sample increased from 0.998 to 1.059 and the temperature was relatively constant. Fermentation of ripe plantain using a co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisae and Lactobacillus bulgaricus revealed a considerable reduction of fermentable sugars in the sample, a wine rich in alcohol and moderately acidic. The use of co-culture fermenting microorganisms should be encouraged during fermentation and further research should be carried out. Keywords: Fermentation, Ripe Plantain, co-culture, Saccharomyces cerevisae, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, Physiochemical analysis.


This Review Paper is concerned with characterization of bottom ash (Refused Derived Fuel) from waste to energy power plant. Millions of tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) were produced every year, throughout the world. Waste management and utilization strategies were a major concern in many countries. Management and treatment of municipal solid waste have been gaining importance. Generally, Municipal solid waste was collected and burned in an incinerator and the by-products of the combustion process were collected, municipal solid waste (MSW) produces two main types of ashes, which can be grouped as bottom ash (BA) and fly ash (FA). Bottom ash typically accounts for 80% of the whole amount of by-products in the MSW plants. The municipal waste are separated into combustible and noncombustible waste and then from combustible waste pellets were formed from bottom ash and those pellets were burnt in an energy power plant for the production of energy to generate electricity and the residue in the bottom of an energy power plant was called refused derived fuel.

Comprehensive Analysis of Compact City Approach as Sustainable Urban form: A Case Study of Karachi, Pakistan []

Achieving sustainable urban form has remained a critical phenomenon, amidst many urban forms compact city is an important but critical urban pattern to achieve sustainability. This research paper mainly discovers the analysis of the desirability dimension of the compact city model with respect to evaluating the case study of Karachi, Sindh along chief assessing lens: the desirability dimension of compact city model within urban occupants who have opted to get settle in Karachi, Sindh. The study is placed to collect sufficient evidence to support assumptions, therefore, the demographic and residential approach to the compact city is followed, having infor-mation via literature on reurbanisation to get perception into the demographic changes and residential attractiveness of cities. In-formed by the literature on reurbanisation and supported by data obtained, this paper highlights Karachi’s but more specifically Gu-listan-e-Johar as a case study for Spatial form and relate it to compact city planning, its social impacts and desirability dimension among recent urban dwellers. The paper unearths that compact city model closely associated to Ley’s “new middle class” attracted by the urban advantages of proximity and accessibility and for whom the compact city is found desirable. While, on the other hand, conven-tional families tend to leave the compact city. So the case of Karachi could provide some insights to other developing countries cities striving for a sustainable compact development, specifically based on further detailed research.

Factors Affecting the Adoption of Mobile Banking in Pakistan []

The continuous growth of technological innovations especially in the banking sector have stirred competition which has changed the way businesses operate resulting in the introduction of mobile banking in Pakistan. This study was conducted in order to analyze the factors that affecting the adoption of mobile banking in Pakistan. A questionnaire was developed and then distributed to University Students and in market of Dera Ghazi Khan Punjab, Pakistan. Using primary data collection method, from the 160 questionnaires that were distributed 146 questionnaires was successfully returned and response rate 91.2 %. Each variable was measured using 7-Point Likert Scale. The results suggested that perceived cost, perceived trust, perceived risk and perceived ease of use are the determinant factors in affecting consumers’ adoption decisions. It’s been recommended that banks in Pakistan invest massively in mobile banking and other information technology innovations in order to further promote efficient service delivery and increase adoption of mobile banking services.

ANALYSIS OF MARKETING EFFICIENCY OF CARP LARVAE (Cyprinus carpio L.) (Case Study in Ciparay Subdistrict, Bandung District, West Java Province, Indonesia) []

This research aims to analyze business income, analysis of the using snowball sampling and respondents interviewed were fish farmers; collectors who also acted as hawkers and collectors. Analysis of the data used in this research are business income analysis, marketing analysis, and margin analysis. The result showed that there were two channels of marketing of carp’s larvaes. Information that is only limited to collectors causes differences in the selling price of larvaes by farmers to collectors. Access to information for carp’s larvaes fishers for non-members should be done by joining groups or collectors. The group or collectors will later become marketing brokers so that the pricing will be uniform and will benefit both parties.