Volume 6, Issue 12, December 2018 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

Phytochemical, Antimicrobial, Proximate and Heavy Metals Analysis of Extracts of the Bark of Tetrapleura tetraptera Fruit []

Extraction of the bark of Tetrapleura tetraptera fruit was done using methanol, ethanol and distilled water to obtain the crude extracts. These were subjected to antimicrobial, proximate and heavy metal screenings. Ten different phytochemicals were screened namely; alkaloids, flavonoids, phlobatannins, saponins, steroids, tannins, terpeniods, carbohydrates, phytosterols and phenolic compounds. The phytochemical analysis of ethanol extract revealed the presence of almost all the phytochemicals above with exception of saponins and phytosterols, however, methanol and water extracts, revealed the presence of most phytochemicals except flavonoids, phlobatanin and phytosterols respectively. Antimicrobial analysis of the aqueous, ethanol and methanol extracts respectively was done using the agar well diffusion method against clinical isolates of gram positive bacteria (staphylococcus aureus) and gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The result of methanol extract showed higher inhibition than that of water and ethanol extracts when compared with the positive control Ciprofloxacin. Proximate analysis of the plant showed the following results; ash content (85%), crude fiber (7.8%), moisture content (38%), protein (0.2%) and carbohydrate content (69.38%). Heavy metals analysis conducted, showed the presence of zinc with the highest value of (31.309ppm) followed by lead (Pb) with (1.574ppm), then Arsenic with (0.955ppm), copper (0.138ppm), cadmium (0.073ppm) and mercury (0.068ppm). Mercury (Hg) is the least metal present in this plant. All were within W.H.O acceptable limit except Arsenic. These results is a confirmation that the bark of Tetrapleura tetraptera has medicinal value as speculated by the orthodox medicine, but the presence of some heavy metals in the plant especially lead (Pb) should be taken into consideration to avoid taking contaminated extracts as medicine.


This aim of this research was to determine the percentage of red tilapia bone flour as a source of calcium in the most liked stick snacks which resulted in the expectation of increased calcium intake in consumers. Research was carried out from July to August 2018 at the Fisheries Product Processing Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran. and chemical tests were conducted at the Ruminant Animal Nutrition and Animal Food Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Animal Husbandry, Universitas Padjadjaran. The method used in this research was an experimental with 4 treatments, which were the addition of red tilapia bone flour to wheat flour among the treatments were 0%, 5%, 10% and 15%, involving 20 semi panelists as replication. The measurement parameter were the hedonic test (level of preference) based on organoleptic characteristics which included appearance, aroma, texture and taste and also chemical tests (water content and calcium content) on the stick snack. Based on the research results, it can be concluded that all treatments were accepted by the panelists, but the 10% red tilapia’s bone flour treatment was the most liked treatment by the panelists with the median value that featured appearance, aroma and the taste was 7 and the texture was 8, water content value was 2.5% and calcium content value was 0.36%.

Purifying Inorganic Phosphate using Sawdust Activated Carbon in Solid Phase Extraction for Stable Oxygen Isotope (δ18OPO4) Analysis: A Review on Different Methodological Approach []

Analysis of isotopic composition of oxygen in phosphate (δ18OPO4) is a sophisticated technique to examine phosphate in water and soil, but, this technique requires purified phosphate. One of the prominent method in purifying phosphate is solid phase extraction. This review will serve as guide on different sorbent to use in solid phase extraction. This paper will also discuss about the potential use of sawdust as an effective resin in solid phase extraction. Challenges that usually have been encountered in the analysis of δ18OPO4 and its environmental applications will be tackled as well.


Background: In the last few decades, thousands of patients have benefited from platelet rich plasma (PRP) therapies and its use in medicine has become increasingly more widespread during the last decade. Eczema (atopic dermatitis) is a complex disorder caused by the interplay between multiple genetic and environmental factors. Materials& Methods: Patients with eczema for more than 6 months were selected. Subjects with any other medical disorder were excluded by history, examination and routine blood tests. Fifteen cc venous blood samples were collected on day 0, day 15, and day 30 for the following biochemical, hematological and inflammatory markers parameters were carried first rest of the blood sample was used for the PRP. Three consecutive PRP therapies were conducted with a gap of 15 days in between. The affected area was photographed at each visit before performing procedure. Result: Baseline reports revealed an elevated ESR and CRP, along with increased eosinophil count and serum IgE level. The base line parameters were normal. All the inflammatory biomarkers were reduced after PRP. Clinical examination revealed marked improvement in the rash on her second visit. Furthermore, after the second therapy, the patient reported marked control on itchiness and disappearance of rash. She was quite satisfied with the treatment. Conclusion: This study suggests that use of platelet-rich plasma has beneficial effects on skin disorders which can be attributed to various platelet-derived growth factors causing improvement. It is safe, cheap, and non-allergic and appears to be a useful adjuvant in the management of eczema.

A Performance Optimizing of VANET Communications: The Convergence of UAV System with LTE/4G and WAVE Technologies []

With the bulky intensification of conventional vehicles on roads presently, driving has become more challenging and dangerous issue. Roads are filled up with vehicles, reasonable speeds and safety distance are rarely adhered to, and travelers frequently lack adequate concentration. As such, leading automobile fabricators decided to collectively work with government organizations to come out with solutions geared toward assisting travelers on highways by anticipating dangerous scenario or refrain from severe traffic regions. Hence, Vehicular communication systems has been come to existence. Vehicular communication systems are networks in which smart ground vehicles and roadside units are the fundamental communicating nodes, providing each other with information, such as safety warnings and traffic information. Moreover, there are two basic types of communication approaches, V2V and V2I respectively. Even though, both approaches have their own constraints within various scenarios. For instance, V2V communication in highway scenario, to broadcast a delay-sensitive information such traffic accident warnings, it has entirely depended on the sparseness and swiftness of smart ground vehicles. Thus, it will be difficult to achieve the goal of safety applications due to intermittent connectivity. Additionally, each vehicle periodically broadcasts a beacon or hello message to each other that used to exchange their current states and surrounding info, consequently this, they have consumed a high bandwidth from limited VANETs spectrum (75 MHz). Whereas, V2I communication in urban and highway scenarios, the effectiveness of the communication between smart ground vehicles and roadside infrastructures mostly depends on the capability of roadside infrastructures. Therefore, it will be expected from VANETs technologists and authors to bring out pretty solutions for improvement of VANET communications and applications incorporate with the existing ones. In this paper, based on reviewed various literatures and related works, I have selected and integrated UAV system, LTE/4G and WAVE wireless access network technologies to optimize the VANET communications and satisfy some demands of its basic applications, particularly safety and traffic, in highway scenario. This work proposed a converged novel architecture of UAV system, LTE/4G and WAVE technologies with its forwarding schemes in highway scenario to enhance the VANET communications and achieve some requirements of its basic applications, particularly safety and traffic. Algorithms for UAV’s sensing, tagging (based on my proposed safety and traffic info model) and broadcasting operations, and forwarding of safety or traffic info to respective infrastructures and then smart ground vehicles are designed, particularly to minimize intermittent connectivity and high bandwidth usage, and as well as to satisfy some requirements of VANET applications. Keywords - VANET; UAV System; LTE/4G; WAVE; Converged Wireless Technologies in VANETs

Level Dependent Perishable Inventory System in Supply Chain Environment []

This paper analyzes an (s,S) Inventory system in supply chain environment. In this paper, we consider a level dependent perishable inventory system, where raw materials arrive from two warehouses which are situated nearby the central processing unit. Arrival of demands follows Poisson process with rate λ . Production takes place when at least one component of each category is available in both the warehouses. Replenishment for the warehouses occurs in negligible time once the component amounts reaches to zero unit. It is assumed that the initially inventory level is in S and system is in OFF mode. Inventory level decreases due to demands and perishability. When the inventory level reaches to s then the system converted ON mode from OFF mode. The production follows exponentially distributed with parameter µ. Perishability follows exponentially distributed with parameter θ. Perishability will be level dependent that is rate of perishability will depend on the amount of inventory available in the stock. Steady State analysis is made and some system characteristics are evaluated by numerical illustration. Key-words: Level Dependent, Supply chain, Replenishment, Perishable, Warehouse Subject Classification AMS 90B05, 90B30


The doctrine of reality and a new paradigm of science are proposed. The unity of formal logic and rational dialectics is the correct methodological basis for the solution of the problem of reality. The main result is the following system of conceptions: (1) reality represents the unity of opposites: the controlling (governing) aspect and the controllable aspect. The controlling (governing) aspect is God, and the controllable aspect is the Universe; (2) the principle of existence and of uniqueness of God reads as follows: the scientific object “Absolute, Creator, and Governor of essence (information) and of material manifestation of essence” exists. This scientific object is the unique and correct theoretical model (identifier) of the religious object “God (Creator and Governor of the World)”; (3) the Universe represents the informational-material system: the unity of essence (information) and of material manifestation of essence. The manifestation of information is matter. The material structure of the Universe represents the set of states of matter: the physical vacuum, the system block, the ether, and the discrete objects; (4) God created the system block, the ether and the objects, entering information into the physical vacuum. God governs the Universe by means of information; (5) the correct science of the 21st century should research the fundamental relation between the controlling (governing) information and the material manifestation of the controlling (governing) information in the Universe.

In Vitro Hybridization of Clarias gariepinus x Heterobranchus longifilis and Rearing of Larvae with Formulated Diets for Selection of Desirable Hybrid []

Abstract A study was conducted on the in-vitro cross-breeding and larval rearing of African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus x Heterobranchus longifilis with formulated diets to produce hybrid with good survival, desirable growth rate and other metric characters. The larvae fed with live and/or artificial formulated diets for 21 days in an indoor hatchery were closely monitored. The brooders Heterobranchus longifilis -Av. wt of female 180 ± 0.50 g; versus the male C. gariepinus- Av. wt of 120g ± 0.75 g) were procured from kerma farms, Onna, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria and stocked in Akwa Ibom state University Aquarium near the experimental site, 2-weeks prior to spawning for acclimatization. The fish were successfully induced spawning using ovaprim hormone at 0.5 –1.0 ml/g body weight to the female brooder. The milt was extracted from the male catfish C. gariepinus, and mix with 0.65% saline to inactivate and reduce its metabolic activities. The milt was added to the eggs with gentle shaking for 5 min and distilled water was later added to the mixture to activate fertilization. The results indicated that fertilization occurred and the eggs hatched within 24-30 hours. Fertilization, hatchability and survival percentages were respectively recorded as 87.35%, 92.40% and 80.7%. After yolk-sac absorption, fry of 7 days old were subjected to 3 types of formulated feed trials including Artemia nauplii as control for 21 days. The larvae fed on diets II and Ill showed significantly (P<0.05) better length and weight gain as compared to control than those of the larvae fed on diet I. The larvae fed on diet Ill showed the best survival rate (83%). However, the condition factor and SGR of the larvae fed on diet 11 was significantly better than those of the larvae fed on other two diets. Keywords: Hybridization, Clarias gariepinus x Heterobranchus longifilis, fertilization.


The advent of computerised reservation system (CRS) has influenced the way organisations used to store and retrieve information and conduct transaction related to reservation of rooms, air ticket, train ticket and most types of transportation. Organizations like Hotels transact businesses and conduct their room reservation with the help of an internet. However, computerised reservation system is not widely used in most parts of developing countries. A computerised reservation system has been designed to improve room reservation system that gives students access to reserve a room. The main aim of this report is to develop an online student room availability system, designed in context of a computerised reservation system. The reservation system has been implemented using PHP/MySQL coupled with HTML and JAVA scripts. PHP was used to connect the reservation web pages and the reservation database. The linear life cycle model (waterfall model), used to plan the activities and stages of the report has helped to provide a Detailed and well documented report. The final artefact was tested and evaluated to assess its achievements against its requirements, and suggested possible future enhancements.

Impact of Public Expenditures on Economic Growth of Afghanistan Using an Econometric Model OLS Approach []

The public expenditure is an important phenomena and most important factor of economic growth and development; furthermore it is consider being significant proportion of gross domestic product (GDP). In 2015, public expenditure almost covered 12.5% of national expenditure in case of Afghan economy. The focus of this research is to assess the impacts of governmental expenditure on economical growth of the Afghan economy and to encounter whether there exist relationship between government total expenditure (GTE) and gross domestic product (GDP) in Afghanistan. This study cover the data from 2002 to 2015 and the data is retrieved from World bank development indicators, Ordinary Least Squire econometric approach is used to find-out cause and effect relationship between dependent variable (GDP) and independent variable (GTE). The empirical analysis indicated that there is positive relationship between dependent and independent variables thus the study fail to reject null hypothesis, in other word, the government should exercise significant fiscal policy measurement to stabilize economical performance and achieve macro-economical goals. On the other hand, bad governance and the lack of fiscal management policy and control will lead to economical cost that will bear by society.