Volume 6, Issue 9, september 2018 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication
TYPIFIED FUZZY-LOGIC DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM (FLDSS) FOR E-GOVERNANCE IN WEST NIGERIA [PDF]
Jinadu O.T., Agbelusi O. and Johnson O.VArtisans are craft workers, skilled in applied art and creative jobs, manufacturing or managing commodities to render services to the society. Knowledgeable in fabricating, building, crafting, architecting products and services using hands, tools, machines and acquired intellects. They apply experiential knowledge and technology to deliver improved services. Reviewing existing system for this study, artisan operations are characterised with manual record keeping for business empowerment initiatives and subsequent disbursement of loan grants by governments. Other problems discovered include the artisans not coordinated for benefits of empowerment by either the SMEDANS (full meaning), local or state-based organisations even in the democratic setting of governance. Inherent problems of partiality and preferential treatment in sharing allocated funds subsist and most artisans have never been privileged to government subsidized business loans. Using methodology of software engineering, an information management system for artisans (IMSA) was developed, enabling artisan registration and validation for fund, loan and other artisan-related processes. A Fuzzy-logic based algorithm was implemented in ranking business viability and subsequent loan disbursement. Results from IMSA as Fuzzy Logic Decision Support System (FLDSS) shows that all bias and partiality in loan disbursements would be eliminated while enforcing an impartiality in selection processes. It is therefore recommended for e-governance to enhance economic growth.
Keywords: artisans, Fuzzy-logic, DSS, e-governance, information system, IMSA.
ADOLESCENT STRESS AND HOME ENVIRONMENT OF GRADES IX AND XI STUDENTS: AN ANALYSIS OF THE ADOLESCENT STRESS QUESTIONNAIRE [PDF]
Dr. Monika M. Dass CPsychol CSci AFBPsSThe present study envisaged assessing the impact of the school and home environments on adolescents and to correlate their levels of stress. A co-relational research design was used. A student population of 620 students were identified from the city of Aurangabad, Maharashtra, India. 353 from Grade IX (mean age of 13.89); and 267 from Grade XI (mean age of 15.96) attempted the four inventories. The tools used were: the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) and the Home Environment Inventory. A detailed analysis of the ASQ was made. The results revealed a significant relationship with Grade XI students having higher levels of Adolescent Stress. Further, there is a significant correlation between the Home Environment and Adolescent Stress. The study brings to light the fact that the environment in Grade XI is highly stressed as compared to Grade IX.
PRIORITY BUDGET ALLOCATION THROUGH MIXED INTEGER PROGRAMMING [PDF]
Bilkisu Maijama’a, S. E. Chaku, Ismaila Olotu Abdullahi and Babagana ModuDecision making with priority on allocation and reallocation of university funds is based on the direction of the university, this is translated in strategic planning executed with transparency and accountability. It has become very important, particularly in universities, with recent cut for allocation by the government as a result of global financial crises. This research paper proposes implementation integer programming for strategic budget planning to be applied on the university strategic plan as a part of the strategic planning process. Firstly, the marginal cost consequences was calculated considering the budget allocation from the previous year which was used for budget allocation for the current year through both existing and new introduced strategies used for improving the university rating. Secondly the budget allocation is applied to the university strategies without prioritizing the strategies, thirdly the budget allocation is applied to the university strategies without prioritizing the strategies. The outcome of this implementation using mixed integer programming model showed that the targeted achievements could be realized within the allocated budget that was provided by the university. This mixed integer programming model will be useful and suitable to be implemented by organizations that uses strategies for organizational improvement having limited budget allocation issues.
ORGANIZATIONAL PERFORMANCE AS PREDICTOR OF CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY UNDER MEDIATION OF TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT [PDF]
Muhammad Luqman, Faisal Azam, Waleed AamirIn recent years, society and many organizations have been paying increasing attention to the social responsibilities of organizations towards various stakeholder groups. To ensure the fulfillment of social responsibilities of organizations towards society, corporate social responsibility should be embedded in day-to-day operations and managerial decision-making. Total quality management is also a commonly used managerial tool that takes into considerations the interests of various stakeholder groups. This paper investigates how the relationship between corporate social responsibility and total quality management affect the organizational performance. The results of the analysis, using structural equation modeling on 250 completed questionnaires sent to the pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan, suggest that social responsibility is significantly associated with the integration of this responsibility into quality management programs. Quality management, in turn, has a significant and positive effect on organizational performance. The results provide contribution to the earlier studies that have found reliable results on the direct association between social responsibility and organizational performance by demonstrating that quality management mediate the relationship between social responsibility and organizational performance. Managers can strengthen their relationships with stakeholders and ultimately improve organizational performance if social responsibility towards stakeholders is embedded in operational routines.
DEVELOPMENT OF CALABASH ( LAGENARIA SICERARIA ) - POLYVINYL CHLORIDE COMPOSITE FOR THERMAL INSULATION [PDF]
OGBONNA KALUS EMMANUEL, PROFESSOR M.E.IBRAHIM , MICHEAL OLUMIDE ADELAJAABSTRACT
In this work of composite formulation, calabash fibre ( Lagenaria siceraria) was used as the reinforcement and Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) resin as the matrix. The fibre was divided into two (2) equal parts, Fibre part one(1) was treated with 10%w/v of NaOH (Alkali treatment) , part two (2) was left untreated (crude) . Both the matrix and binder were compounded using hand layup technique method. Samples of the treated and the untreated composites were subjected to tensile and flexural strength, Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM), water absorption, thermal conductivity , Specific heat capacity , thermal diffusivity and density tests. From the results obtained, 10% NaOH Alkali treatment for 24 hours was sufficient to remove impurities from the fibre, enhanced good interfacial fibre-matrix bonding. The treated sample of composition (D) has higher tensile strength of 1.41599 MPa ; the tensile and flexural strength of the treated samples increased with increase in fibre content loadings . The Thermal Conductivity result of the treated sample (D) of 40wt% composition has better thermal conductivity of 0.14W/mok. Differential Scanning Electron Microscopy machine was used to observe the fibre-matrix interfacial bonding. The density and water absorption values were evaluated. The newly developed composite has lower thermal conductivity than polyvinyl chloride and can be used for such thermal insulation applications as low temperature thermal insulation limits of 15 oC to -75 oC refrigeration and cold rooms’ insulations and for hot water and steam condensate as in thermo-flask applications.
Keywords: Composite, Calabash fibre, Matrix, polymer, reinforcement, Thermal Conductivity, Thermal Insulation
Indigenous Herbal Medicinal Knowledge among the Shinasha [PDF]
This study explores herbal medicinal knowledge of the people of the Shinasha, in north western part of Ethiopia. It is aimed at elaborating a general systemic overview of the medical tradition of the Shinasha. Resting on qualitative research approach, the study utilized primary and secondary data collection methods. Informal conversation with the residents, in- depth interviewing of herbalists, focus group discussion with herbalists and ordinary members of the community and systematic observation were the methods where firsthand field data were gathered. Secondary data were collected through critical review of related literature from books and electronic sources and from statistical documents. Primary and secondary data were organized and analyzed thematically, triangulating the data collected through the different techniques to increase the validity and reliability of the findings.
The study found that for the Shinasha, herbal medicine is the ultimate medical knowledge and practice, where it is considered as the very gift of God for them. The study reveals that herbal medicinal knowledge is preserved and transferred from the senior/experienced herbalist to the junior/ prospected one orally. In the study area, official herbal medical practice is generally a male profession. The selection of the person who heirs medical knowledge is based on critical evaluation of the personality of an individual, which is usually from father to a favorite son. Medical knowledge acquisition is through longer period of apprenticeship and practice; and, it is finally officially transferred to the prospected person accompanied by a blessing ritual ceremony. The scope of the Shinasha herbal medicine is broad, which also includes wide range of herbal- magical arenas. Medicine for the Shinasha is holistic and exists almost in all aspects of the community. The Shinasha herbalists possess herbal medicinal knowledge for illnesses of natural, supernatural and personal etiology and for a wide range of herbal magical purposes. Generally, for the Shinasha, herbal medicine is wholesome, visibly manifesting in their individual, familial and social lives.
Key Words: Herbal Medicine; Herbalist; Medicinal Knowledge; Shinasha.
Foreign direct investment and its causal effect on stock market development: A selected Sub-Saharan African Countries Study, 1984 – 2015. [PDF]
Osadume, C. Richard (Ph.D, FCA); Sunday, Dornubari DanielThis Study examined Foreign Direct Investments (FDI) and its causal Effect on Stock Market Development (SMD): A selected Sub-Saharan African (SSA) Countries Study, 1984 to 2015. Theoretical studies show that increase FDI would result to SMD increase but some available findings from empirical works seems to disagree with this position. The objective of this study was to examine the Causal Effect of FDI on SMD captured by market capitalization ratio (MCR) of the selected SSA Countries. The study used secondary data obtained from World Bank, IMF, Bureau of Statistics and the Central Bank of selected countries; The research work selected Nigeria, South Africa and Kenya as its sample and used the Granger-causality and Panel Data Analysis techniques, to test the Effect of the independent variables (FDI, NS and GDP) on the dependent variable (Market Capitalization) at the 5% level of significance. The findings amongst others show that FDI does not granger-cause market capitalization (MCR) for South-Africa and Kenya but for Nigeria, it revealed a Uni-directional effect from MCR to FDIR only; while the SSA countries’ pooled panel result indicate that FDI does not granger-cause market capitalization for selected countries. The study concludes that FDI attraction into the SSA countries does not influence stock market development (SMD) and hence, recommends among others the establishment of regional global stock market linkages and admonish the respective governments to encourage stock market listing of FDI benefiting Multinational companies (MNCs) through flexible listing requirements as this will granger-cause needed traction between FDI and stock market capitalization.
Predicting Soil Properties at Different Depths from Linear Regression Equation Using Excel Worksheet [PDF]
Onun-Asuquo R.E., Onuamah P.NAbstract- some of the geotechnical properties of residual clay soils of nine-mile Enugu- Nigeria, have been carried out from two trial pits separated 150m at depths 0.5 up to 1.5m. In The laboratory, the properties checked includes; the Natural moisture content, specific gravity, grain size distribution, consistency limits, linear shrinkage, compaction characteristics and consolidation characteristics. The data generated were subjected to a statistical analysis. The particle size distribution graphs of soil from both pits show that the soil within the area is silty sands. The data generated were further subjected to statistical analysis to fine their correlation coefficient, coefficient of variation, and their T-test (nature of significance) was checked to determine the extent of their variations. The linear regression equation of each of the properties was generated. Results from both pits for each property show little or no much variation (table 4.8) as such, the averages were used as in table 4.8.1. The property equations generated provide an option in the prediction of the soil properties at any depth. From the predicted results, it can be seen that, at a depth of 6.86m, OMC became negative while the PI became negative at 8.42m. The negativity shows that the zones at those depths may have exceeded the volume change or moisture change or climatic or weather change. Results from both pits shows that the soils belong to the A-2-4 in the AASHTO system of classification system while the USCS describe the soil as SM (silty sand). The consolidation characteristics which was done from a remolded sample at OMC, indicates that at greater depth, the soil becomes denser and the final void ratio reduces as the loads increases and with increase in depth from both pits. Because of the variability in the geotechnical properties of residual soils caused by different formation factors, it is necessary to determine the material location qualities for engineering applications. Note that the percentage passing sieve size no.200 and the compressibility index (Cc) for consolidation at 122.2kN/m2 were used in generating their equations. From the equations, An excel data sheet was used to predict the various properties up to a depth of 8.64m using a data step size of 0.02 but when a step size of 0.01 is used, it was predicted to a depth of 4.32m. That is to say if you need to know the property beyond those depths, you should take your soil sample to a depth of at least 2.5m at relatively close intervals.
Key words- Geotechnical properties, Statistical analysis, linear regression equation, excel data sheet, prediction
ECONOMIC LOSS OF FISHERIES DUE TO THE POST
HARVEST QUALITY LOSS AND ASSESSMENT OF THE
QUALITY LOSS IN FISH [PDF]
Dimuthu Daluwatte D., Sivakumar, S.S.Fisheries play a significant role in Sri Lanka providing a 20% of the animal protein supply contributing 2.7% of country Gross Domestic Products, making opportunity for direct and indirect employment for 2.4 million people. In 2008, its contribution for the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was 1.1% and 1.942 % in total export income from 2009 in Sri Lanka with the total production of 29,3170 metric tons. Proper handling practices, rapid chilling and proper storage of fish on boats and up to the market place ensure the quality of fish. This study attempt to investigate the qualty loss and estimate the economy loss of three fish species, namely Katsuwonus pelamis, Decapterus russeli and Auxis thazard from one day fishing boats. . Samples were collected from the catching point and the landing place (physically damage and non-damage fish) from 24 one day fishing boats and analysis proteolytic bacterial count. The visual observation method used to analysis physical damages throughout the value chain and the final market value was observed for damages and non-damages fish at market place. Research is revealed of the effect and the level proteolytic bacteria in the boat deck and the hand that is removing fish from the net, to the both good and damaged fish sampled at the catching site and the Landing site. Research revealed the level of the ef-fect of the boat deck to the proteolytic bacteria in 52.9 % to the damaged fish on the boat, 44.4 % to the good quality fish kept on the deck and 27.3 % damaged fish kept on the boat deck. When the fishermen are removing fish from the net and catching the fish, research revealed that the proteolytic bacteria level of the effect to the particular fish from the hand is 36 % to the good quality fish as soon as possible catch, 13.1 % to the damaged fish as soon as possible catch, 32.1 % to the fish damaged on the boat, 30.2 % to the good quality fish sampled at the pier and 67.7 % to the damaged fish sampled at the peir. And revealed there is no significant difference of the activity of fish under chilled condition in both good and damaged sampled both at the boat and the pier. It is found as 2 - 6 % damages in Katsuwonus pelamis with 10 - 50 % economic loss, in Decapterus resseli 8 - 18 % damages with 13 % - 45 % economic loss and in Auxis thazard 13 % - 23 % damages with 39 % - 51 % Economic loss. Based on the information gain from this study, a comprehensive handling, processing and quality management system has been suggested to minimize the quality and economic loss for one day fishing boats
Dyeing of traditional fibre materials using Rubia cardifolia (L) dye with various mordants [PDF]
R.Mariselvam1 PG & Research Department of Microbiology, Sri Ram Nallamani College of Arts and Science, Kodikurichi, Tirunelveli – 627804, Tamil Nadu, India. A.J.A.Ranjitsingh2* Department of Biotechnology, Prathyusha Engineering College, Thiruvallur – 60The present study deals with the extraction of natural dye from Rubia cardifolia roots. The extracted dye were coated natural fibres like Palmyra leaf, korai grass, banana, screw pine, pineapple, and sisal with the help of sodium chloride, sodium bi carbonate, oxalic acid, tannic acid, ferrous sulphate, tin metal, potassium alum, and tamarind as a mordants. The mordants used dyeing has good fastness properties except sodium chloride. The without mordant dyed fibres has poor fastness property compare than the mordant used fibres. The dye and mordants mixed dyes were characterized by UV spectrum.
Keywords— Rubia cardifolia; natural dye; natural fibre; mordant
PROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF FLOATING NET CAGES RE-DUCTION STRATEGY IN CIRATA RESERVOIR (CASE STUDY OF CIRANJANG SUB-DISTRICT CIANJUR DISTRICT WEST JAVA) [PDF]
Gilang Ramadhan, Asep Agus Handaka Suryana , Achmad Rizal and Atikah NurhayatiResearch was conducted in Ciranjang Sub-district, Cianjur District, West Java on February to July 2018. Research aims to analyze influential stakeholder in reducing the number of floating net cages in Cirata Reservoir and analyze the strategies that must be done by stakeholder to reduce the number of floating net cages in Cirata Reservoir in order to be realized. The research was con-ducted by descriptive qualitative with prospective analysis approach. The technique of taking respondents conducted by purpo-sive random sampling. Selection of respondents based on skills and expertise in accordance with the topic of research. Results show that the most influential stakeholder in the effort of reducing the number of floating net cages in Cirata Reservoir especially Ciranjang District is BPWC, Koramil Ciranjang and Dinas Kelautan dan Perikanan Kabupaten Cianjur. Floating Net Cages reduction can be realized if optimizing the role of influential stakeholder.
Improving the convergence order and efficiency index of quadrature-based iterative methods for solving nonlinear equations [PDF]
Ogbereyivwe, O., Ojo-Orobosa, V. O.The object of this paper is to modify the two-step and three-step quadrature based iterative methods for approximating the solution of nonlinear equations in Noor et al.,  using the weighted technique. The modification improved the order of convergence and the efficiency index of the iterative methods at the cost of one additional functional evaluation per iteration. The convergence of the proposed methods herein, were established using the Taylor’s series technique. Numerical results obtained from implementation of the proposed methods compared with methods from which they have been derived, shows that methods developed herein are more efficient than the iterative methods from which they have been derived.
ON THE EFFICIENCY OF A FAMILY OF QUADRATURE-BASED METHODS FOR SOLVING NONLINEAR EQUATIONS [PDF]
OGHOVESE OGBEREYIVWE, KINGSLEY OBIAJULU MUKAThis paper modify the generalized family of two-step quadrature based iterative methods for approximating the solution of nonlinear equations developed in Noor et al., . The modification improved the order of convergence and the efficiency of the iterative methods at the cost of no additional functional evaluation per iteration. The convergence of the proposed method was established. Some numerical examples are given to illustrate the efficiency and performance of the new family of methods proposed herein.
An Overview of Genetic Algorithm, Bacterial Foraging Algorithm, and Harmony Search Algorithm [PDF]
Alia Youssef GebreelThis paper presents a brief background and architecture needed to recognize, formulate, and solve the multi-objective optimization problems by genetic algorithm, bacterial foraging algorithm and harmony algorithm. A comparison of these three algorithms for this class of problems is also included. Penalty function method for handling constrained problems is described. Finally, the conclusion is reported.
VARIETAL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM AT SUGARCANE RESEARCH INSTITUTE, FAISALABAD [PDF]
Dr Naeem Ahmad, Dr Muhammad Ijaz Tabassum, M.Ashfaq Nadeem, and Naeem FiazTo develop sugarcane varieties having maximum sugar recovery with more tonnage is the basic and primary objective of sugarcane research institute (SRI), Faisalabad. Two means are adopted for the evolution of new sugarcane variety, firstly by importing the stumps of sugarcane of commercial varieties, as direct introduction method, and secondly by evaluating the fuzz of sugarcane, also importing from global breeding institutes. Twenty-four high yielding and disease resistant varieties have been developed so far at SRI, Faisalabad. Among theses, five sugarcane varieties viz. Triton, CP 43-33, CP 72-2086, CP 77-400 and CoJ 84 were developed by Direct Introduction. The rest one varieties of nineteen (19) in numbers were prepared from fuzz. Recently, SRI, Faisalabad had also planned to pool 90 sugarcane varieties at Sugarcane Research Institute (SRI), Udawalave, Sri Lanka by contributing 30 varieties each of SRI, Faisalabad, SSRI, Jhang and SRI, Sri Lanka for crossing each other to create genetic variability. Fuzz of theses crosses were, then imported back to SRI, Faisalabad for evaluating the produce in the form of seedlings and clones after passing through an international track of research with the idea to create maximum genetic variability in the parentage of Pakistani sugarcane varieties in our own climatic conditions. Genetically improved variety is not only tolerant to disease and insect infestation but diverse parentage of the variety is widely adaptable for a varied range of soil and climatic conditions too. A research plan is being initiated to establish such infrastructure under which flower induction taken place and crosses may take place of sugarcane varieties with diverse origin in our own environment to cut down the foreign exchange consumed to import the sugarcane stumps and fuzz from global breeding institutes
Surgical Management of Congenital Ocular Dermoid Cyst: A Review [PDF]
Ashenafi AssefaOcular dermoid is a skin or skin-like appendage usually arising on the limbus, conjunctivae, and cornea. It can be unilateral or bilateral and may be associated with other ocular manifestation or with other malformations. Hair from the lesions is predominantly responsible for the associated irritation resulting in chronic inflammation of the conjunctivae and cornea and may cause visual impairment. Ocular dermoids are rare in cattle, with the prevalence estimated between 0.002% and 0. 4%. Excessive lacrimation can be observed due to irriation caused by hair and cyst in the eyes. Superficial keratectomy is required to surgically excise a cor¬neal dermoid although the depth of the dermoid within the cornea cannot be ascertained by ophthalmic examination until surgery is undertaken. In the case of large corneal dermoids, surgical excision should be performed early in the life of the patient to achieve optical improvement and allow functional development of the eye.
Keywords: Dermoid cyst, surgery.
Research / LION OPTIMIZATION ALGORITHM USING DATA MINING CLASSIFICATION AND CLUSTERING MODELS [PDF]
S.Sowmiyasree Dr.P.SumitraSpectral clustering has been a popular data clustering algorithm. This category of approaches often resort to other clustering methods, such as K-Means, to get the final cluster. The potential flaw of such common practice is that the obtained relaxed continuous spectral solution could severely deviate from the true discrete solution. In this paper we propose to impose an additional orthonormal constraint to better approximate the optimal continuous solution to the graph cut objective functions. Such a method, called spectral rotation .In literature we optimizes the spectral clustering objective functions better than K-Means, and improves the clustering accuracy. In many applications, data objects are described by both numeric and categorical features. The K-Mean++ algorithm is one of the most important algorithms for clustering. However, this method performs hard partition, which may lead to misclassification for the data objects in the boundaries of regions, and the dissimilarity measure only uses the user-given parameter for adjusting the significance of attribute. In this paper, first, we combine mean and K-Mean++ centroid to represent the prototype of a cluster, and employ a new analysis based on co-occurrence of values to survey the dissimilarity between data objects and prototypes of clusters. This survey also takes into account the significance of different attributes towards the clustering process. Then we present our LOA algorithm for clustering mixed data. Finally, the performance of the different method is analysis by a series of real world datasets in comparison with that of traditional clustering algorithms.
Relationship Between the Health-Related Fitness Components and Performance in the Core Subjects of High School Students
(Math, Science, and English) [PDF]
Ryan S. Dequiña, Romulo A. SolayaoThe purpose of this study was to determine the relationship of the level of health-related fitness components to the grades of core subjects of the students. The increase in emphasis on academic outcomes has reduced the amount of time in Physical Education class ( Lorenz, et. al. 2017). This lead the researchers to this study to see if there is a significant relationship between the level of health related components of fitness to the grades of core subject grades of the students. The purpose of this research was to study and evaluate the relationship between the level of Health-related fitness components to the core subjects of the students which are Math, Science, and English. There are 40 high school students involved in this study (N=40, 25 male and 15 female) and each of the students undergone in fitness testing on the first week of their class in P.E, (1 Kilometer run for cardiovascular endurance, BMI for Body composition, Sit and reach for Flexibility, Partial curl ups for Muscular strength, and push-up for Muscular endurance). Out of forty students the mean grade for Math is 88.03± 2.3, 89.78 ± 2.25 for Science, and 87.45± 1.37 for English. Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient was used to test the relationship between the Health-related components and the grades of the students in Core subjects (Math, Science, and English). Result: there is low relationship between Health-related fitness level of the students to their grades in Math, Science, and English.
Central-Local Governmental Relations and Land Policy Implementation in the Selected Districts of Western Uganda [PDF]
Mugisha David BegumyaThis study sought to find out central-local governmental relations and land policy implementation in the selected Districts of Kasese, Sheema and Bushenyi in Uganda since the Uganda National Land Policy (UNLP) 2013. The objectives were: to find out political relations, administrative relations and financial relations between central and local governments in the delivery of secure land rights and land rights administration; and to find out the effect of customary institutions and practices in the delivery of secure land rights and land rights administration. Using mixed methods design data was collected from 436 participants and respondents. It was analysed using SPSS 23 for quantitative analysis and general content analysis for qualitative analysis. The study found out that central-local governmental relations are dissatisfactory and are in need of addressing so they can lead to good land policy implementation. The study also found out that customary institutions and practices are moderating in land policy implementation and should be further addressed for better land policy implementation. The study recommended that: there is need for harmonizing existing laws and regulations with the UNLP 2013; to further decentralize land rights administration and delivery of secure land rights by engaging and integrating customary land institutions and practices as required by the UNLP 2013 to allow for further local participation; there is need to divorce politics from administration; to standardize information by developing and disseminating an operational manual for clarity; improve communication; develop a code of conduct and professional standards; decentralize and improve training; there is need for stakeholder mapping to determine where all land stakeholders are and what they are doing, this will help in coordinating efforts and to ensure everything the UNLP 2013 requires is being done at the right time in the right fashion; capacity building must be carried out in all land institutions at central and local government level; the government should fast forward the creation of an autonomous agency in charge of land and enable it operate using a private sector model that will generate and reinvest funds to provide for the untimely funds, lack of funds and to ease auditing and accountability of the land sector; lastly customary institutions and practices should be studied and all compatible practices with the UNLP 2013 integrated into land policy implementation. The research upheld the systems theory supported by the bottom-up approach for central-local governmental relations in land policy implementation.
EFFECT OF GROSS DOMESTIC PRODUCT (GDP) AND INFLATION (INF) ON FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT (FDI) USING CO-INTEGRATION VAR MODEL FOR THE PERIOD (1998-2017) IN NIGERIA [PDF]
A. Bishir, H.R. Bakari, K.E. LasisiIn the context of the current trends there is highlighted the interest in the emerging economies to attract foreign capital in the form of foreign direct investment (FDI) as a source of external financial and economic recovery factor. FDI is objectively necessary for the developing country like Nigeria given it role in increasing the competitiveness of emerging economies. This study investigates the long run relationship between foreign direct investment, gross domestic product (GDP) and inflation (INF) in Nigeria within the period 1998–2017. The study employed the co-integration approach by using Johansen’s co-integration method. The study employed the Granger causality testing procedure suggested to empirically examine the directional relationship between the variables. The study finds that both GDP growth and inflation positively and negatively relates to FDI inflows respectively. Furthermore, bi-directional causal link were found from FDI to GDP. This means that more attention should be paid to ensure optimum inflow of FDI in Nigeria. Therefore, policies should be geared towards addressing the real economic factors that hinder inflow of FDI in Nigeria. To maintain a sustainable economic growth, Nigeria have to be encouraged and supported to attract more foreign direct investment in order to stimulate growth which in tones improve the living standard of its citizenry. FDI inflows, GDP growth rate, INF, OLS, Unit root, Co-integration, Granger causality.
INGESTION AND ASSIMILATION OF LAURIER AND EUCALYPTUS BY DELISERATOR INVERTEBRATES [PDF]
Mariam ESSAFI(1, 2) and Khalid BOURAADA(1)All the results we achieved allowed us to follow the main stages of the degradation of leaves oleander (Nerium oleonder) and those of eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) in water and understand a few each mechanisms involved in the phenomenon of the natural contamination of aquatic receptors. The molluscs (shredders) contribute to a very important part in the degradation of leaves. These invertebrates are also abundant in all samples and the two plant species although their presence is affirmed that after the leaf conditioning period by aquatic microflora.
The degree of colonization of leaves by benthic fauna evolved in a same way as their speed decomposition or importance of the role played by aquatic invertebrates stands in the degradation of the leaves. This role is also confirmed by the study of ingestion and assimilation of the Melanopsis leaves by main shredders waterways of the region. In their presence ingestion of eucalyptus leaves increases to fifth day with a consumption of about 25% of the initial weight of the leaves then decreases or even reach zero during the rest of the experiment. On the other hand and in the presence of bay leaves the Melanopis consume up to 30% of the original mass of the leaves in two days only and as soon die probably because of the toxicity of bay leaves which likely induce anoxia in water.
The influence of Personality trait on bridging the gender gap in the Ghanaian Corporate Leadership [PDF]
Annie-Ruth WoodeThe personality trait of an individual, either inherent or of a learned nature is perceived to influence one’s choice of a particular career path and the levels of leadership appointment. The persistent gender gap in corporate leadership is believed to stem from women’s inability to display personality trait deemed as congruent with leadership roles. However, leadership roles in the corporate world are considered as a typical pyramid, giving few individuals the opportunity to go through the corporate ladder to the top hierarchy of decision making. In recent times, it has been observed that focusing on education alone is insufficient requirement in getting women into the higher echelons of leadership and ultimately bridging the gender gap in leadership. Thus, this study seeks to use hermeneutic phenomenological approach under qualitative methodology to investigate how individual’s personality trait could influence the emergence of leadership, and its impact on closing gender gap in leadership within the Ghanaian corporate world.
Cloud Based Smart Primary Education System for Deprived Children [PDF]
FAHMIDA YESMIN CHOWDHURYCloud technology is now applying in various sectors of education system. One of the main feature of cloud computing is to access many resources with minimum cost. So this feature can be used to provide effective primary education with low cost for developing countries. This research paper mainly focuses on developing countries because the primary education level of these countries is too poor or below standard compare to other developed countries. One of the major parts of the nation of developing country is deprived children who do not get proper basic education for different barriers. With
limited budget, how cloud technology can be used to change the current primary education system and deliver quality education for poor children are proposed in this paper. This proposed system can be developed by implementing three main parts. One part is the public cloud where all educational resources will be stored, second part is division wise private clouds which will contain all updated data from public cloud and third part is area wise primary institutes which will connect with private cloud to deliver the quality education. With the proposed architecture, primary education system of
developing country can be improved more effectually.
LIQUDITY MANAGEMENT AND PROFITABILITY: A CASE STUDY ANALYSIS OF LISTED MANUFACTURING COMPANIES IN SRILANKA [PDF]
R.KobikaThe study sought to establish the relationship between the profitability and the liquidity of listed manufacturing companies in Sri Lanka. The major aims of the study were to find empirical evidence of the degree to which effective liquidity management affects profitability in listed manufacturing companies and how manufacturing companies can enhance their liquidity and profitability positions. Analysis was based on data extracted from annual reports of the companies for the relevant period. Correlation and regression analysis respectively were employed to examine the nature and extent of the relationship between the variables and determine whether any cause and effect relationship between them. The study covered 26 listed manufacturing companies in Sri Lanka over a period of past 5 years from 2012 to 2016. After data were collected from secondary sources of those samples, these data were presented and analyzed by using correlation and regression tools. In this research, the researcher concluded about the hypothesis providing, then clarify the research findings, after that the researcher formed a final conclusion. Some important suggestions also were given for the future studies. Further, the liquidity has negative and significant impact on profitability of manufacturing companies in Sri Lanka. The finding is more useful to finance decision makers of company for taking sound decisions on proper tradeoff between liquidity and profitability.
IMPACT OF WORK LIFE CONFLICT ON TURNOVER INTENTION [PDF]
Punyawansa M.W.G, Rathnaweera R. R. N. T.Apparel industry is considered as one of the biggest industries in Sri Lanka. However, longer working hours, tighter deadlines and changes in family structure increased the employee responsibilities. Therefore, balance of the work life and family life is a big challenge for employees in the apparel industry. As employees are assets to the organization, apperal companies always try to avoid losing their key performers. Therefore, they provide employees attractive benefits for retaining them. However, employee turnover has become a critical problem for this industry. Therefore, to face that situation, managers of the organizations should give a vital attention on employees’ work life conflicts. Hence this study examined the impact of work life conflict on turnover intention among sewing machine operators in the manufacturing apparel companies at Export Processing Zone Koggala. This study empirically evaluated two work life dimensions (Work interference with Family conflicts and Family interference with work conflicts) and their impact on turnover intention. The sample consisted of one hundred sewing machine operators in apparel manufacturing enterprises at Export Processing Zone Koggala. Primary data were gathered through an adopted questionnaire scales developed by Netemeyer, Boles and McMurrian, (1996); Mobley et al., (1978). Descriptive analysis, correlation analysis and regression analysis were used as data analysis techniques. The research findings revealed that significant positive relationship between worklife conflict and turnover intention. Further it was revealed that variance in turnover intention was significantly explained by the two work life conflict dimensions. Further it showed that family interference with work as the most influencing dimension on turnover intention. The findings of the study would be important to the human resources managers of the Apparel industry to develop strategies to minimize work life conflict.
Evaluating Future Water; Climate Change and Urbanization in Gujrat. [PDF]
Zahid SaqibClimate change is the major concern of the world. Climate change is affecting temperature and the water cycle as fluctuations are seen in rainfall pattern. Urbanization is exceptionally affecting the environment and climate over-all the world and exaggerating the climate change impacts. Extreme weather conditions if last for a longer period can alter hydrological cycle, water consumption patterns and climate of an area. The purpose of our study is to highlight the effects of climate change and urbanization on water resources in Gujrat city. For the assessment of urbanization, the change in climate and water in the Gujrat, we used a well-structured questionnaire. A total of 150 questionnaires were used to predict water stress because of changing climate and rising urbanization. About 70% of the population under study was facing the water supply problems due to climate change and population increment. Almost 46% off the people in Gujrat were facing the problems of allergic diseases while 20% were being suffered from asthma. Approximately 37 % people believed that climate change is a cause of weather conditions alterations and 38% said it is due to man-made activities. Around 91% of the people under study were being affected by fluctuations in weather conditions that showed that Gujrat is facing problems off water supply and pollution due to urbanization and change in climatic conditions in various ways.
EFFECT OF YOGA ON PREMENSTRUAL SYNDROME AMONG STUDENTS [PDF]
MEENA.K,Msc NURSING ,ASST.PROFESSOR,COLLEGE OF NURSING,THALASSERYPremenstrual syndrome is recurrent disorders that occur in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. It is characterized by intense physical, psychological, and behavioral changes that interrupt interpersonal relationship and disrupt the lives if effected women. The most common symptoms are depression, anxiety, tiredness, irritability, crying spell, confusion, social withdrawal, sleep disturbances, labile mood and tension1. Now a days yoga is a crucial component of the majority of treatment modalities. The yoga plays an important role for women who want to find effective relief against cramps and other related conditions. This will help to sooth nerves and keep mind calm as soon as the pain sets in. Breathing exercise helps in creating a bridge between mind and physical body and it should be easy for the body to stay relaxed as well. The purpose of the present study was to identify the effect of yoga on premenstrual syndrome among students.
Average Molecular Weight Measurements of Some Niger Delta Crude Oil Using Vapour Pressure Osmometry and Gas Chromatography Techniques [PDF]
*Chukwu U. J., Osiname B. J. and Osu C. I.The average molecular weight measurement of some selected crude oil samples around the Niger Delta region using Vapour Pressure Osmometry and Gas Chromatography has been studied. GC fingerprint spectrum for all the samples was equally obtained and revealed that all samples are of different origin. The densities @25oC and API @15oC values for the samples were also determined. The sample OGB-1 gave the highest API value of 53.31o and density of 0.7569 (g/cm3) thus of better quality than the other samples ADN-2, ADN-3, UDL-4, COY-5 with API values 17.79o, 20.27o, 26.84o, 34.56o respectively. The molecular weight value by VPO technique for all the five samples was comparatively higher than the ones given by GC. Comparing the two techniques, gave a very high correlation with the R2 value of 0.998. On the premise of density as a function of molecular weight, the two techniques had a measure of congruence. Thus, VPO and GC methods are plausible for molecular weight determination.
IMPACT OF BRANCHES NATIONWIDE ON PERFORMANCE OF SELECTED LISTED COMMERCIAL BANKS IN SRI LANKA [PDF]
M.JATHURIKAThis study investigates that the impact of expanding branches nationwide on the performance of listed commercial banks in Sri Lanka. There may be many determinants that have specific impact on the performance of commercial banks. Among those determinants, number of branches is also placing an important role. So that this paper assesses the impact of implications of branches nationwide on the performance by examining return on assets, return on equity and earning per share over the 5 years from 2011 to 2016 and the number of branches year by year. Regression and Correlation analysis have been employed for the study to investigate the impact of branches nationwide on performance of selected listed commercial banks in Sri Lanka. The results of the analysis has revealed that expansion of branches have significant impact on the performance of commercial bank. According to the finding, Over all analyses expressed that independent variable (Number of branches) and control variable (firm size) has the significant impact on the one of the dependent variable (Earning per share) and insignificant with the other variables of firm performance which are Return on Assets and Return on Equity. It could be justified with the argument that establishing branches takes times to become profitable as this study comprising shorter period, the actual effect of branches increasing which will result in long-term have not resulted in the short period of ROA and ROE in this study. This study only considers the five year of data collection future studies need to take a long period to identify the real performance while this study only covers the listed banks, cover all the commercial banks in Sri Lanka or increase the sample will result the accurate results.
MULTINATIONAL CORPORATIONS AND SOCIOECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA: AN ASSESMENT OF THE MTN’S CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY IN BAUCHI METROPOLIS OF BAUCHI STATE [PDF]
Abdulkadir Ahmed and Abdulkadir UsmanAbstract
Globalization particularly in the 21st century has aided the proliferation of countless Multinational Corporation and business enterprises cross national borders and in some instances, it poses ripple effect on the economies of the host countries. In Nigeria, the liberalisation of the telecom industry led to the opening-up of the market and increased competition among the network service providers which is considered as a healthy development considering the country’s drive woo Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) to stimulate economic growth and the contributions of the telecom industry on the socioeconomic development of Nigeria today. This study assessed the MTN’s corporate social responsibility in Bauchi metropolis of Bauchi state. The study sets out two research questions and two hypotheses. Similarly, the study used both primary and secondary sources of data. Furthermore, the study espouses modernisation theory as theoretical guide for the study. The study found out that MTN Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) programmes does not translate into socioeconomic development of Bauchi metropolis within the period studied. The study recommend among other things that Government needs to come up with legislation that will compel the MNC’s and indeed other indigenous companies to dedicate 20% of their profit after tax on corporate social responsibility projects. Lastly, civil society organizations should sensitize the public and monitor the MNC’s activities to ensure acquiescence with the global best practices of socially friendly investment and operations.
Key words: MTN, Corporate, Social, Socioeconomic, Bauchi
EXTERNAL DEBT, FOREIGN EXCHANGE AND SUSTAINABLE DEBT MANAGEMENT: THE NIGERIA EXPERIENCE, 1980 – 2017 [PDF]
Israel Onokero Imide (Ph.D), Richard Osadume (Ph.D, FCA), Melvin U. Eko-Raphaels, Blessing C. Uzomah.The study examined the External Debt, Foreign Exchange and Sustainable Debt Management- the Nigeria Experience, 1980 - 2017. The main objective of the study is to examine the effect of External Debt and Foreign Exchange on Sustainable Debt Management within the Nigerian context; the work which selected Nigeria as its sample, covered a period of 37 years. The model developed for the research has sustainable debt management (SDM) as dependent variable and independent variables were; External Debt (ED) and foreign exchange (EXCHR). Secondary data used were collected from the Central Bank of Nigeria and National Bureau of Statistics. The techniques used for analysis are the Ordinary Least Square Techniques, the Augmented Dickey Fuller Unit Root Test Techniques and the Co-integration Test. The econometric techniques of Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) results show that EXCHR had significant relationship with SDM in both short and long run periods while ED showed positive but insignificant relationship with SDM in both periods. The study concludes that while there is a significant relationship between EXCHR and SDM in both short-run and long-run periods, there is however, an insignificant relationship between ED and SDM in both periods. The study recommends amongst others appropriate pricing of external debt by the government and the engagement of such debt only for reproductive assets while diversifying the export base to earn sustainable foreign exchange, as these will assist in ensuring the attainment of sustainable debt management.
Determination of Time-Temperature Response of R134a Using Theory Proving System [PDF]
Fatona A.S and Onibon G.LIn this work, refrigerant (R-134a) operating temperatures at various phases in each component of air-conditioning unit using Theory Proving System (TPS) was investigated based on time variation. The system worked for 30 minutes during which operating temperatures of the refrigerant at various stages were determined. T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 denote refrigerant inlet and outlet temperatures for compressor, condenser and evaporator respectively. The results showed that T1 dropped sharply from the refrigerant initial temperature of 290C to 160C and steadily to 140C where it maintained balance. T2 increased steadily with time till optimum temperature 410C as a result of compression process. T3 also increased steadily from initial temperature of 290C to 350C and T4 remained unchanged as a result of condensation process for the initial temperature of 290C was maintained. T5 reduced steadily to 150C due to throttling process while T6 reduces steadily to 100C due to evaporation process within 30 minutes.
Keywords: Refrigerant, Temperature, Refrigeration, Air-conditioning, and Theory Proving System (TPS).
The Effect of Welding Current and Electrode Specifications on Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Mild Steel Welded Joints [PDF]
Olabisi, O.I. and Akeju, E.A.Steel welded joints are finding applications in many engineering components where failures are catastrophes. Hence, the paper investigated how arc welding parameters such as welding current and electrode specifications could be tuned in order to ensure homogenous and satisfactory welds that will meet various service conditions. The mild steel rod ( 10mm) used for this work was cut into various specimens 10mm by 50mm each with the aid of hacksaw. Edge preparations were done to have specimens categorised as single-v edge, chamfered and plain face. Electric arc welding machine was employed for welding those joints while tensile tests and microstructure analysis of the welded joints were carried out respectively. With respect to electrode specifications, electrode gauge 10 performs better than gauge 12 in terms of higher ultimate tensile stress for plain face welded joints, electrode gauge 12 could be of great benefit when high tensile stress is required in the chamfered face welded joints while welding v-edge joints with electrode gauge 10 between current 160 and 240A could be of better advantage than gauge 12 when high tensile stress is needed. In addition, welding at higher current with electrode gauge 10 might not be appropriate if higher tensile stress is required in plain face welded joints while reverse be the case in chamfered face welded joints. Welding at higher current with electrode gauge 12 should be used when higher ultimate tensile stress is desired in plane face and v-edge welded joints while that of chamfered faces should be done at lower current whenever higher ultimate tensile stress of the welded joints is required. The microstructure analysis shows that the welded zone contained 35.159% pearlite and 64.841% ferrite respectively.
Keywords: Welding current, Electrode specification, Arc welding parameter, Ultimate tensile stress, Microstructure, Welded joints
Research: Effect of feed and stocking density on the growth performance of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) reared intensively in fiberglass and concrete ponds in Calabar, South Eastern Nigeria. [PDF]
Edeghe, A.I and Ajah, P.O.African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus was reared intensively at two stocking densities of 96 fingerlings/m2, initial weight 4.5g ± 0.05 for batch A using concrete tanks and 318 fingerlings/m2 of initial weight 4.9g ± 0.05 in fiberglass tanks (Batch B) each replicated four times. The fish were all fed with commercial feed (coppens) of protein levels ranging from 55% for the 1.0 mm pellet size as starter concentrate to 42% for the finisher concentrate of 6.0 mm pellet size. At the end of a six month culture period, the growth data was statistically analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student’s T-test. There was significant difference (p<0.01; P<0.001) in the final weight and Food Conversion Ratio (FCR). Likewise the condition factor of fish in fibreglass tanks was significantly (P<0.001) higher than those in concrete tanks. the Food Conversion rate and protein efficiency ratio were significantly greater at p=0.05 and p=0.01 respectively. No significant differences (P>0.05) were observed in the Daily weight (DW), Specific Growth Rate (SGR) and survival rates,
Diagnostic Imaging Techniques in Veterinary practice: A Review [PDF]
Ashenafi AssefaToday the practice of most medical disciplines is almost unrecognizable without modern radiology since the outcome of any treatment largely depends upon how appropriately the particular medical condition has been diagnosed. Imaging technology is fascinating, is developing rapidly, and is without doubt beneficial in medical and veterinary practices. Over the last decade, the quality of diagnostic imaging equipment and the habit of using it for diagnosis in veterinary practice has greatly improved. There are number of imaging techniques like ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine and scintegraphy that are currently available for clinical diagnosis leading to greater demands and expectations from veterinary clients. The modern imaging diagnosis though well established in medical science is still in its infancy in veterinary practice due to heavy initial investment and maintenance costs, lack of expert interpretation, requirement of specialized technical staff and need of adjustable machines to accommodate the different range of animal sizes. The present review briefly gives an update of the development and present status of imaging techniques in veterinary medical diagnosis.
Keywords: Computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), nuclear medicine and scintegraphy, ultrasonography.
Traditional dairy products in the Republic of Benin: Wagashi and Dèguè [PDF]
Oscar ZANNOU, Dehouegnon Jerry AGOSSOU, Ilkay KOCAProduction of cereals and milk is particularly important in West Africa. These two commodities occupy an important place in the staple diet of the populations of West African countries. This study underlined the state of the technological process of the main traditional milk-based foods produced in the Republic of Benin, the identification of their hygienic and safety levels, and the preservation methods. The results indicated that wagashi cheese and dèguè are the main traditional milk-based foods widely produced and consumed. Wagashi is a traditional cheese produced with local fresh milk and a plant coagulum extracted from Calotropis procera. Dèguè is a traditional beverage obtained by mixing steamed dumplings cereals, mainly millet and fermented milk. These feed are characterized by an interesting nutritional quality and an acceptable hygienic quality. However, organoleptic aspects and preservation techniques remain to be improved, hence the need for their promotion by standardized technologies.
Keywords: Wagashi, Dèguè, Calotropis procera, Republic of Benin
A SURVEY OF WIRELESS NETWORK SECURITY AMONG TERTIARY INSTITUTION IN NIGERIA: A CASE OF STUDY WAZIRI UMARU FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC BIRNIN KEBBI. [PDF]
Musa Ibrahim Kamba, Musa Abubakar Alkali Tanko, Zayyanu UmarThe use of wireless communications has resulted in a wide expanse of wireless networks. However, the vulnerabilities and threats that wireless networks are subjected to resulted in higher risk for unauthorized users to access the computer networks. This paperinvestigates wireless network security in Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi as well as the devices used to monitor and secure the wireless network. The data for thestudy were produced through theoral interview. From the study, the researcher finds out that Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi uses Cacti and Nagios as wireless auditing tools which were originally developed to be used for helping the network administrators to monitor their systems securely. The study also highlighted the security goalthat can assure the secrecy of any network which includes: Authentication, Confidentiality, Integrity, Non-Repudiation,and Reliability.The study further investigates some security threatsfacing wireless network security in Waziri Umaru Federal Polytechnic Birnin Kebbi and proposes some measures that can be taken to minimize the security threats.
Some Traditional Fermented Foods From African Locust Beans (Parkia Biglobosa): Production And Volatile Compounds [PDF]
Oscar ZANNOU, Ifagbémi Bienvenue CHABI, Ilkay KOCAAfrican locust bean is used for both medicinal and domestical purposes in West Africa. The seeds are processed to nutritive and flavoring fermented condiments such as netetu, iru, sonru, afitin, soumbala, and dawadawa. The production process and the volatile compounds of these fermented condiments were investigated in the present study. The findings showed that dried and cleaned seeds were used to be produced traditional condiments. The processing operations implying mainly and successively a first long boiling (6-24h), dehulling, a second short cooking (1-2h) and fermentation (24-72h). The variations of the operations involving in the production affect physicochemical, biochemical and microbiological characteristics of the final products. More than 160 volatile compounds namely pyrazines, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, esters, alkanes, alkenes, benzene derivatives, pyridines, furan, volatile phenols, sulfur compounds, and terpenes have been reported in fermented African locust beans. Among these, pyrazines, ketones, aldehydes, and alcohols were found to be the most abundant groups with 2,5-Dimethyl pyrazine, tetramethyl pyrazine, trimethyl pyrazine, 3-methyl butanal, benzene acetaldehyde, 2-nonadecanone, 2-decanone, 3,5-Dimethyl phenylmethanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol as the most important aroma compounds found in the condiments. Production steps mainly fermentation (type and duration), boiling and use of additives conferred to each fermented seed its unique aroma characteristics. Use of pure starter culture enhances overall aroma profile of the finished products.
Keywords: Fermentation, Parkia biglobosa, fermented condiments, aroma, West Africa.
REVIEW ON THE COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN THE TRADITIONAL WOOD MATERIAL AND THE TREATED MODIFIED WOOD MATERIAL AT THE LEVEL OF ITS DIFFERENT PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND ITS DIMENSIONAL STABILITY [PDF]
Youssef. ELRHAYAM*, Ahmed. ElharfiIn order to respond to the current and future energy and environmental issues, the process of developing a new wood-based composite material (chemical, thermal and coating ... etc) is very important. They could help reduce and limit the tonnage of wood in various applications in the building sector, decking and the marine sector, etc. Therefore in order to meet these needs and support this development, this comparative study aims to present the different methods of wood modification which is used to improve their performance, on the one hand and it then presents the advantages and disadvantages of natural wood and modified wood on the other hand.