Volume 10, Issue 2, February 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The ever increasing competition among companies, and increased interest rate changes in the business environment has brought challenges for various companies (Ahmed, 2019). One such challenge that has affected firms across the global business environment is the financial risk exposure (Chen & Pan, 2016). Moreover, internationalization and market integration have made it easier for manufacturing companies to access foreign markets with the sole aim of enhancing their financial performance (Kinyua, 2019). Firms enjoy greater benefits of increasing their consumer base and having good economies of scale. With these benefits comes the broader complex of financial risks that threatens the financial operation of the business (Kargi, 2019). According to Kanga and Achako (2016), manufacturing companies are important component of a growing economy. Their health and wealth can be potent indicators of the bigger state of the relevant economic growth. Crises in the manufacturing sector or any other sectors can provide early warning indicators and occasionally are drivers, of wider and potentially systematic risks or failures. Therefore, within the company, good practices in risk identification and management can serve to avoid or respond effectively to crises, whereas, poor practices may signal weakness. As a result, companies must contend with both internal and external risks that threaten their business models (Odalo, 2016). Globally, companies are faced with continuing and growing pressures from a large set of stakeholders and are keenly aware of the various potential negative factors that can have effect on the company’s financial performance and longevity. In the US for instance, there has been a reduction in the number of listed companies from 8000 in 1990s to 3627 in 2017. The potential for scenarios of financial risks that such companies (manufacturing) are faced with may be credit risk, liquidity risk and market risks (Hejazi & Santor, 2010). Even though countries stimulate their economic growth through manufacturing activities, developing countries in the African continent still lags behind in terms of effective risk practices that can be effectively used to eliminate certain risks in the market. Over the years, manufacturing industry has been essential in contributing to Kenyan economic growth (Ndung’u, 2017). However, the underlying challenge in the industry is the financial risk exposure that need to be addressed critically as it has major effect on the financial performance of these firms in the industry (Shaban & James, 2018).

Post-Pandemic Supply Chain of Bangladesh and Effective Way to Handle the Situation in the RMG Sector []

The year 2020 was a challenging year for the entire world because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Worldwide supply chain and logistics disruption happened. Bangladesh is an RMG export country. Due to the COVID-19 outbreak, the export of RMG declined. Because of the cancellation of shipments and lack of raw materials supply. Throughout this study, I try to determine the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. Identify the problems. How COVID-19 badly affect the supply chain and logistics of the RMG sector of Bangladesh. To know the effective way to find out the solution. Effects of the COVID-19 in the RMG sector of Bangladesh. During this time, 250+ factories wholly shut down. Almost 1 million employees lost their job. There are lots of organizations that cut off the salaries of the employee to reduce their cost. In this study, I surveyed some RMG sector employees to identify their views and thoughts regarding the situation. The total sample was 50 people. From the survey results, I try to find out some possible ways to handle any pandemic situation. Secondary data was collected from various sources like journals, articles, and newspapers to gather information. New technologies can be used to handle any disruption in production. So that the supply chain can run smoothly. Automation needs to be introduced in the RMG sector of Bangladesh. Because in near future technology will have a major impact in the RMG sectors. In the future, if any kind of pandemic situation arises, managers or supply chain experts can take this paper for their reference. As I mention, in Bangladesh the overall export is based on the RMG sectors. So, a smooth operation to run for the future manager can be implicated from this paper.


Holy basil leaves can be used for more than just human nutrition; they can also be employed in aquaculture. Several studies have found that the biochemical composition of holy basil can be employed as an antibacterial, a preservative for fresh and processed fish, and an anesthetic in the transport of fish. Alcohol compounds, essential oils, and phenols are just a few of the chemical substances found in holy basil leaves that can stop germs from growing. Bacteriostatic and bactericidal properties are possible with these substances. Bacteriostatic traits allow bacteria to grow again after the antibacterial material has been removed, but bactericidal capabilities prevent germs from reproducing even after the antibacterial material has been removed. Ascorbic acid, b-carotene, b-sitosterol, eugenol, palmitic acid, and tannins are the primary chemical components in holy basil that have antioxidant characteristics. KeyWords antibacterial, antioxidant, fish transportation, holy basil , preservative

Professional Education: The HyFlex Teaching Profession []

Abstract Teaching professions in the HyFlex mode are done to the authorized teachers. Licensed teachers can practice their profession in teaching. CHED PSG provides at least a Master of Arts or Master of Science or Master in Education by its articulated field of specialization. Work performance and relevant teaching, training, and experiences with merit and fitness can guarantee quality services to community counterparts/partners. School as a social network system of social responsibilities getting higher and becoming complicated. Grants, scholarships, and academic enhancement make teaching glocally competitive. Schools are different from profit organizations; they produce public service instead of public goods. Thus, qualified teacher in the teaching profession possesses PRC-TESDA-DepEd-CHED licentiate. No compromise on the institutional mantra and desiderata on governance, faculty, curriculum, employability, student services, adopt the community program, researches, library holdings, laboratory and physical plant provisions of the school that can guarantee quality services. Keywords: Teaching Profession

Toyota Production System: “Epistemology of Paradigm shift in Japan” []

Toyota Production System (TPS) gained a remarkable success and results in industrial leadership by displacing the powerful automobile manufacturing companies. TPS model that was imitated by its rivals, as well as by companies from various other sectors. Due to the adaption of TPS, Japan was able to become a pioneer in creating and leading new automobile manufacturing paradigm. The objective of this article is to study the management techniques of Toyota Production System. The methodology of this work adopts a bibliographic research approach. It is an analysis of the literature on the evolution of TPS demonstrating some of its core management techniques. The result is the contribution to understanding the construction of culture Toyota's organizational structure, in order to direct a path to be followed by other companies that wish to replicate the management model. It is evident that the manufacturing philosophies practiced by Toyota were supposed to be a paradigm shift for the company itself as well as for Japanese nation.

Assessment of Nurses' Knowledge regarding Acute Pain in Emergency Department []

Pain as the fifth vital sign is the most common reason for seeking health care. For relieving patients’ pain, nurses have an important role, by administering pain-relieving interventions (pharmacologic or non-pharmacologic), monitoring the effectiveness of those interventions, recognizing the adverse effects of drugs, and supporting patients when the prescribed intervention is not enough for relieving pain. Because of nurses’ responsibility in pain assessment and management, they need to have enough knowledge of pathophysiology of pain the physiologic and psychological consequences of pain, and the latest methods being used to treat and relieve pain. Descriptive Cross-Sectional Design is adopted in the current study to achieve the early stated objectives. The study started from January 2nd, 2021 until May, 20th, 2021. A Non-Probability (Convenience Sample) of (60) nurses were including in the present study. Sample collect from emergency department that include Medical ward and surgical ward.The results of the present study indicated that the majority of the samples (93.33%) have deficit knowledge, which agree with the results of the study showed that Palestinian nurses in critical care units possess inadequate knowledge about pain management done. The results of the present study indicated that the majority of the samples (93.33%) have deficit knowledge, which agree with the results of the study showed that Palestinian nurses in critical care units possess inadequate knowledge about pain management done. Conclusions according to the present study findings, the researcher can mention the following conclusions:Most of nurses in medical units had knowledge deficit concerning management of acute pain in emergency department. It is found that the most of nurses are middle age group within (35-39) years old. It is concludes that the most of nurses are institute and college graduated, most of the nurses years' experience in medical wards(1-10 years). most of the sample have participating in the sessions training in medical wards but no related to acute pain in emergency department. Encouraging nurses to update their information by participating in training sessions and conference inside and outside Iraq to improve their knowledge regarding acute pain management in emergency department

The Role of Transportation in Reducing Supply Chain Carbon Emissions []

INTENTION: In today’s 21st century, the ever-changing diversity of lifespan and atmosphere has unfortunately increased global warming and greenhouse gas effects. It does not only affect the human lifecycle but aquatic and botanic lives too. It has brought an adverse menace. This is the reason; the world is more concerned about environmental protection attitude than ever before. Many scholars and researchers have claimed green practices are significant to lower greenhouse gas impacts on the environment. The major contributor to increased environmental risks is logistics and transportation activities. Along with people and goods movement, the transportation sector is also responsible for increasing hazardous gasses into the environment in each supply chain process. Logistics and transportation, are observed as the second-highest contributor to climate change and increased greenhouse gas emissions in the environment with a 29% share of total CO2 emissions. Corporations are committed to reducing carbon emissions keeping their priority due to customer behavior. There are numerous studies found relating logistics operations to green practices, but, unfortunately very few of them included benefits of green practices if implemented into the transportation sector other than reduced greenhouse gas emissions. For this purpose, they need to determine their energy consumption in organizations internally as well as externally. This study discusses the implications of logistics and transportation while turning into environmentally–sustainable logistics practices to reduce carbon emissions. In addition to the primary objective of the study, this research also examines the effects of green supply chain applications that lead to a reduction in carbon emissions and optimal use of resources respectively. METHODOLOGY: The first-hand realistic data has been collected from Transportation and logistics service providers. The research has been carried out through the primary data collection of a sample size of 300 respondents. Several statistical tests have been run to get substantial results for the study. The collected data have been analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) research software. FINDINGS: There are optimistic results were found for the research study. A researcher found a positive and high correlation between dependent variables i.e. green practices and independent variables i.e. reduced carbon emissions, optimization, and reduced operating cost. Green practices have a significant positive impact on reduction in carbon emissions and lower operating costs. The transportation sector of Pakistan agrees to adopt green practices and enhance their operational as well as environmental sustainability. ORIGINALITY: The research paper is categorized into two divisions; initially, it emphasizes the transportation sector’s interest in environment-friendly practices. Secondly, it aids the transportation sector to avail the benefits of green logistics like optimized operations and reducing operating costs. Thus contributing empirical facets by addressing the gap in primary first-hand surveys regarding green logistics. Keywords: Logistics and transportation, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, Carbon Emissions, Green Supply Chain, Optimization, Operating Cost.

Citizen satisfaction of e-government service quality in Liberia []

There are many studies that have investigated the role of e-Government and its service quality utilizing many different approaches and methods. However, there are few studies that have explored e-Government service quality from a citizen’s perspective. Therefore, this research is seeking a more efficient and accurate method for the evaluation of e-Government service quality. It seeks to provide insight into and validates the usefulness of e-Government Citizen Satisfaction Index (g-CSIs) in e-government evaluation especially in Liberia. The study offers recommendations to enhance the overall satisfaction of citizens with e￾government portals. Among the five factors tested, all are important determinants of citizen satisfaction; namely, citizen expectation, perceived quality, and citizen trust, citizen complaint handling and citizen satisfaction. To further enhance the satisfaction level of citizens in e governance; e-government portals should provide web navigation, menus, icons, and buttons that are consistent, friendly, and easy to use. There are also practical contributions of this research, as it would help African Countries identify if their citizens are satisfied with the e-government services being provided and the factors affecting them. This will help to improve the quality of e-government services provided to meet the needs of the citizens and to make e-government more user friend Keywords: e-government; good governance; quality of services; citizen satisfaction,


Cisamping Lake is a natural tourism object located in Cijulang, Pangandaran Regency. This tourist area has a beautiful view, but due to the lack of promotion and the Covid-19 pandemic, this tourist area is empty of visitors which causes a bit of neglect due to a lack of budget for maintenance and tourism development. Therefore, management strategies are needed such as regular environmental control, innovat-ing so that this tourist attraction attracts more visitors and pays attention to the impact on each activity. So that in the future it is hoped that the Cisamping Situ tourist area will continue to grow and be able to attract more tourists.


Packaging is one of the final stages in the production process. One of the environmentally friendly packaging materials is paper packaging. Paper packaging materials can be made from new or recycled paper. Paper packaging waste is also easily degraded so it is environmentally friendly. Packaging of various types of paper is widely used for packaging food products. Food ingredients generally contain fat or oil compounds. Foodstuffs containing oil and fat must use special packaging or packaging paper that is resistant to oil and grease. The purpose of this study was to determine the resistance of various types of paper as packaging materials that are resistant to oil. This research method was carried out experimentally in a laboratory with three replications. The materials used are cooking oil and fine sand. The treatment in this study was the use of three types of paper, namely imitation parchment paper, parchment paper, and HVS paper. Tests for oil resistance are based on the length of time the oil absorbs into the paper. The results showed that the three types of significant differences (P<0.05) on the absorptionof oil on paper. The average length of time for oil absorption on parchment paper is 114.33 seconds, parchment paper is 160.33 seconds, and HVS paper is 61 seconds. Based on the length of time the absorption of oil on paper shows that imitation parchment paper and parchment paper have resistance to oil compared to HVS paper as a packaging material for fatty and oily food products.


The exposure of lead to environmental compartments, especially water bodies, has been a major concern for the past decades. It simultaneously altered the physical and chemical nature of the water and harmed its aquatic life. To tackle this problem, many tech-niques have been developed such as adsorption, filtration, electrochemical separation and bioremediation. Bioremediation, however, posses several advantages over other methods. It is green and relatively low maintainance cost, provide an interesting solution to lead problem. Microalgae is often reportedly effective as bioremediation agent, with multiple benefits including easy to handle and effec-tive removal rate. Here we try to discuss recent development of lead bioremediation using several species of microalgae. A general impact of lead to aquatic life and the mechanism of lead detoxification on the microalgae body were also discuss thoroughly, provid-ing a clear glimpse of the potential for further development.


The Covid-19 outbreak has lasted for approximately 2 years, there have been many impacts, one of which is the tourism sector. . since February 2020 the number of foreign tourists entering Indonesia has decreased very drastically, and the peak occurred in April 2020 with only 158,000 tourists. The existence of large-scale social restrictions and closing of access to and from the state resulted in a decrease in state revenue in the tourism sector by 20.7 billion. This study was conducted in order to see the extent of the impact of the pandemic on the tourism sector in Pangandaran Regency. Based on the results of the study, it shows that there has been a very drastic decrease in the number of tourists visiting Pangandaran beach. A 40% decrease in the number of local tourists and a 95% decrease in the number of for-eign tourists visiting Pangandaran beach. During this pandemic, business actors in the tourism sector must start innovating by utilizing digital technology, one of which is virtual tours.

Thermal and mechanical analysis of urethane acrylate graft copolymer Part D Synthesis and characterization methacrylic/urethane graft copolymer, urethane macromonomer (UM2) based on 4,4 diphenylmethane diisocyanate and neopentylglycol []

Thermal and mechanical analysis of urethane acrylate graft copolymer Part D Synthesis and characterization methacrylic/urethane graft copolymer, urethane macromonomer (UM2) based on 4,4 diphenylmethane diisocyanate and neopentylglycol

Governing Security Sector Reform in Zimbabwe and the prospects of positive peace in a polarised polity. []

Beginning early 2000, communities in Zimbabwe witnessed the worst forms of politically motivated violence (violent protests, pre and post-election violence, abductions etc.) by state security agents as well as civilian on civilian clashes at grassroots levels. Efforts to resolve contemporary Zimbabwean politically motivated conflicts are proving difficult if not impossible. The study assessed the role of the security sector in its role in building positive peace in Zimbabwe since independence. It also focused on identifying challenges faced by Zimbabwe security sector in building peace in the country and explored opportunities available to the security sector for building positive peace in the country. The study adopted desk research design given the Covid 19 pandemic environment not conducive to gather primary data. The study found that the Zimbabwe security sector is highly partisan due to the interference of the ruling party. The study recommended security sector transformation to promote the rule of law, voice and accountability and government effectiveness.

Effects of demolition of residential houses in selected periurban areas of Nairobi county, Kenya []

Urban Development has been a direct consequence of the growth of urban cities throughout the world. This growth is attributed to population increase and widening of economic, political as well as technological and social opportunities. While urban growth is a positive development, it is curtailed with several issues; key among them is limited access to secure land and housing. Despite access to secure land and housing being a prerequisite for poverty reduction, thousands of Kenyans live under threats of demolition of houses and eviction. This study therefore sought to investigate how demolition of houses affects selected residentialperi-urban areas ofNairobi County. Specifically, it was guided by the following objectives: Establish the effects of the demolition of residential houses on the health of the residents; assess the effects of the demolition of houses on residential ties and to analyze the effects of demolition of houses on the financial stability of residents. The focus of the study was Nairobi’s Peri-Urban areas of Syokimau, Njiru, Ruiru and Karobangi North where there have been victims of evictions related to land ownership. These areas were selected because they are majorly inhabited by the poor and lower middle income earners. Both probability and non-probability sampling, specifically purposive and snowball sampling were employed in selecting 50 respondents. The inclusion criteria were those respondents whose houses were destroyed because of standing on illegal land. Data was collected with the aid of questionnaires which were self-administered as well as interview schedules. Analysis was done at two levels; quantitative and qualitative. Quantitatively, data was analyzed with the use of SPSS and presented in form of graphs, charts and percentages. At the qualitative level, data was analyzed through thematic analysis that entailed grouping the data into themes and then using it to compliment the quantitative data. In this analysis, direct quotations and excerpts were employed. The study established that demolition has far reaching consequences on the health, social ties, and financial stability of the affected families. Based on the findings, the study recommends that government improve accountability and transparency of land transfer and registration process to reduce cases of land encroachment. Demolition should also be done inhumane way. Key Words: Land Ownership, Urban Development, Peri-Urban Areas


Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is an extremely contagious viral disease of cloven hoofed animals caused by seven immunologically distinct serotypes of FMD virus. Three of the seven known serotypes (Serotype O, A and SAT 2) have been identified in Ethiopia causing a widely distributed disease with a number of annual outbreaks. FMD is endemic in the country, though its prevalence may have significant variations across different farming systems and agro-ecological zones. Sero-prevalence studies showed higher prevalence of FMD in young and adult animals than claves, in female animals than males and in export abattoirs and feedlot animals than animals brought to veterinary clinics. Higher rates of FMD were also reported in extensively managed cattle farms than intensive farms. Presence large number of susceptible animals, absence of restriction of animal movement, as well as shared grazing pastures and watering points between wild and domestic animals are among the factors contributing for the frequent occurrence of FMD outbreaks in the country. The impact of the disease has been shown to be due to its direct effect on animal production, and its indirect effect on the economy of the country through disease control costs and losses due to restrictions from international trade acting as a barrier from high value markets. At present, only ring vaccination conducted around outbreak/infected area is used as a means of controlling FMD in the country, the inactivated trivalent vaccine consisting serotypes A, O and SAT2, produced by the National Veterinary Institute, is comprehensively utilized in view of the wide prevalence of the serotypes. Country-wide vaccination program aimed to control the disease, and restriction of movement of animals and animal products would be the recommended efficient control measure of FMD in the country


This study aims to examine and analyze the effect of leadership style on job satisfaction and employee performance at the Regional Indonesian Broadcasting Commission Office of West Sulawesi Province. This study uses a quantitative approach. The objects studied were all employees who were at the Regional Indonesian Broadcasting Commission Office of West Sulawesi Province. Data was obtained by survey method and research instrument in the form of a questionnaire. The research sample was 60 people who were selected by the sampling method in this study saturated sampling. Data were analyzed by multiple regression method. The results showed that leadership style had an effect on employee performance either directly or through job satisfaction variables at the Regional Indonesian Broadcasting Commission Office of West Sulawesi Province.

The Capability of Information Technology on Advance of Library and Information Science []

Nowadays library and information science are the twin in which both have countless impact on technological innovation. Why researchers inspire to write this paper is, there is misinterpretation about this discipline. When discourse about the library, societies intention is about building and reading substantial inside. However, it covers qualified activities such, information organization, technology innovation, resource management, human skill building, infopreneur and participate on change of new information settings. Besides, information science is a multidisciplinary field, studies about in information behavior, information seeking, information organization, information retrieval, information literacy, information policy, information society, knowledge management, software design, information management and interacts other disciplinary fields such information systems, bibliometrics, computer science, statistics, psychology and others. The objectives of the study, to realize evolutional change of library and information science, identify tasks of librarian and information science professional, to identify disciplines interrelated to library and information science and to create awareness on inspirations of library and information science. The study undergone through literature analysis methods and peer-reviewed. Results displayed library and information science are multi-disciplinary fields unified with diversity of valid philosophies and research approaches. Whereas, information technology is the knowledge domain enhance to librarians and information experts. Whatever, these disciplines have substantial to technology innovation, there is challenging issues on the area, such researchers have no permission on their research output as open access. If new investigator needs to do research on extent, no sufficient literature and still there is confusion about librarian profession around.


Fish is a food rich in protein, fat, vitamins, and beneficial minerals. Fish protein has advantages over other food ingredients because of its complete amino acid composition and ease of digest. To study the nutrition of Fish, it is necessary to know about the digestive process. Digestion is the process by which digested food nutrients such as proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates are broken down into units small enough to be absorbed across the intestinal wall. This process is achieved through the action of digestive enzymes. Enzymes that aid in protein digestion are known as proteases. For the digestion of carbohydrates, the enzymes involved are carbohydrates. The enzymes lipase and phospholipase facilitate digestion of lipids. Fish's eating habits and behaviour refers to the process of searching for and consuming food. Fish can be classified according to their diet or the food they usually eat, namely herbivores, carnivores, omnivores, planktivorous, and detritivores. Classification of Fish based on the behaviour of eating Fish according to the way they eat, namely predators, grazers, strainers, suckers, and parasites. Fish also adapt to differences in their diet by anatomy and behaviour. There is a strong correlation between the anatomical structure of the digestive tract and the eating habits of Fish.

The Influence of Access to Political Information on the Participation of Women in Politics in Ibadan, Nigeria. []

Abstract This study investigated the influence of access to political information on the participation of women in politics in Ibadan, Nigeria. The study adopted a descriptive survey design with a sample size of one hundred and eighty (180) participants of women selected from different wards in six local governments in Ibadan, four research questions and two hypotheses were drawn and answered. Data were analysed using simple percentage of frequency distribution, while hypothesis of the research was tested with a correlation. The result yielded (r = 0.198; P = 0.000 < 0.05) which shows a significant positive relationship between information sources and channels and participation of women in politics, and also (r = 0.273; P < 0.001) which shows that there is a significant relationship between accessibility of political information and participation of women in politics in Ibadan. Based on the findings, it was concluded that political information empowers women to make sound decisions that will build and expand their participation in politics, therefore information professionals, political parties, Government and other stake holders should make relevant and reliable information readily available to women in the language and formats required so as to develop their potentialities, which would bring about change in their economic, social and political condition, which would promote peace and reinforce national development. Keywords: Political Information, Access to political information, participation of women in politics, Ibadan, Nigeria.


Nicotine is recently reported for potential applications in the medical sector as a drug for Parkinson’s disease and obesity. Oman is one of the countries which suffer from obesity. This study is based on survey distribution to estimate the amount of cigarette waste produced in different areas to recycle them for nicotine extraction. Moreover, this survey will support finding the relation between smoking and obesity in Oman. It was conducted in Oman to study the obesity rate, awareness of people, and knowledge about the risk of cigarette waste on the environment and possible solutions for this problem such as recycling useful products. The study population consisted of participants from 11 governorates in the Sultanate of Oman. The findings reveal that women (11.11%) in Oman are less likely to smoke than men (88.89%). Overall, only 5% of the smokers were obese, while more than half of the smoked participants (54.4%) were having a body mass index less than 25 (underweight and healthy). A high percentage of smokers was clearly observed among workers (35%), then students, and finally job seekers especially from Muscat. About 28% of obese people have high blood pressure and high cholesterol .11.11% of people from 18-25 had more awareness towards the danger of smoking. Most of the respondents agreed with recycling cigarettes waste (57.6%). This shows that a high number of cigarettes butts have made their way into the environment, so it is strongly recommended to recycle cigarettes waste into usable and environmentally friendly medications.

College Students’ Expository Writing Skills []

This research analyzed the expository writing skills of College students in a private catholic institution in Misamis Oriental. A descriptive analysis was conducted to find out the difficulties encountered by the respondents in essay writing through Focus Group Discussion sessions, survey questionnaire, and essay writing analysis. The focus group discussion identified students’ difficulties in organization of ideas, grammar, word choice, spelling, supporting ideas, punctuation and capitalization.The survey revealed that the respondents do not like writing activities and that they find essay writing a difficult task. A pre-test was likewise given among these respondents, which manifested a Developing Proficiency level with a mean of 1.78. With these foundational data, the researchers developed a Coaching Intervention Program. This was implemented for a month, with the aid of grammarly software. In consequence, the post-test then gave a positive result of 3.62 as mean with an Approaching Proficiency level. The paper concluded that the intervention program made the research respondents acquire an understanding of the purpose and structure of expository writing. They were thus led to compose meaningful texts in both group and individual set-ups.


This paper takes a critical review of different technologies and principles that are involved in atmospheric monitoring. It went further to look at some exiting embedded systems that are associated with atmospheric monitoring and their limitations. The motive behind this paper is to trace and to establish the progress made so far in this domain in order to be able to unveil areas of further research in atmospheric monitoring. This is crucial because atmospheric pollution is an important issue that has severe effects. The effects of pollution are detrimental to the life and health of people. It was discovered that there are many advanced systems that might be able to monitor more atmospheric parameters. However, it was seen that most of these existing systems usually generalize their measurements over a very large area such as, monitoring real time parameters for a metropolitan area or large suburbs using few observation points. Furthermore, Most of these existing systems seem not to automatically monitor multiple types of air quality parameters at the same time. They seem not to monitor specifically combustible and toxic gases and at the same time monitor the atmospheric conditions such as temperature, humidity and heat Index. This makes getting the whole picture in terms of harmful particles, gases, temperature and humidity very difficult. To provide better solutions to the problem of atmospheric pollution, it is essential to use devices to identify the source of each pollution discharge accurately. Embedded system monitoring approaches to atmospheric monitoring would provide the remote atmospheric pollutant concentration monitoring platform needed. This type of systems would facilitate the cost effective collection of data over time and, to some extent, negate the need for sample, collection, handling, and transport to a laboratory, either on-site or off-site.

Parental Involvement And Learner’s Academic Performance In Nine Years Basic Education. Case Of Mukamira And Jenda Sectors In Nyabihu District, Rwanda. 2014/2019 []

This study was designed to investigate the relationship between parental involvement and learner’s academic performance in nine years basic of education in Rwanda. If focuses on the following specific objectives: To examine the relationship between parental financial support on learners’ academic performance in Jenda and Mukamira sectors, To explore the relationship between parental academic support on learners’ academic performance in Jenda and Mukamira Sectors, To establish the relationship between parental support in discipline management on learners’ academic performance in Jenda and Mukamira Sectors, To determine the relationship between parental support in school decision making process on learners’ academic performance in Jenda and Mukamira Sector. During the work of presenting, analyzing and interpreting data. The researcher used descriptive research design and also quantitative and qualitative approaches. Qualitative approach was used to analyses quantitative data while qualitative approach used to analyze qualitative data from interview. The Study used 223 as the target population and 147 the sample size. Data were collected using structured questions with 5-point Likert scales and an interview guide together with records. Quantitative data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, standard deviation, means, and correlation analysis while qualitative data were analyzed using themes that helped in analyzing qualitative data. The finding from study concluded that there positive significant relationship between parental involvement and learners’ academic performance in Rwanda. SPSS and Themes were used to calculate the correlation analysis of the study. Finally, the study indicated that there is positive significant relationship between each variable as follows: parental financial support, parental academic support, parental support in discipline management and parental support in decision making process all have a significant relationship with learners’ academic performance in Rwanda; finally, the study concluded that there positive significant relationship between parental involvement and learners’ academic performance. The study recommended people who have a strong connection with education sector: Government should train school and sector administrative staffs to involve parents in decision making process because it has discovered that some schools do not engage parents, teachers and other Stakeholders including government. Government and other educational stakeholders should work together to monitor if schools are giving parents time to express their opinions on how education of their children can be done and conducted.


The study investigated the impact of interest rate on investment in Nigeria. Annual time series data were obtained from the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical for the period 1981 to 2019 on the variables used for the study. Unit root test was conducted using Augmented Dickey-Fuller test technique and the results showed that the variables were stationary though at different levels. Co-integration test was also conducted using Johansen co-integration test method and the result showed that the variables in the model were co-integrated meaning that the variables have a long run relationship. The error correction mechanism showed that the coefficient of multiple determination (R2) in the overparameterized model was 0.92101 while it was 0.817812 in the parsimonious model. The short run regression result showed that external debt has a positive and insignificant impact on price stability in Nigeria. The short run result also showed that prime rate has a negative and insignificant impact on investment in Nigeria while interest rate has a positive and insignificant impact on investment in Nigeria. The result also showed that exchange rate has a negative and insignificant impact on investment in Nigeria while inflation has a positive and insignificant impact on investment in Nigeria while money supply has a positive and significant impact on investment in Nigeria. The result from long run dynamic analysis revealed that prime rate in the one period lag has a negative and significant impact on investment while interest rate in the one period lag has a positive and significant impact on investment. The result equally revealed that exchange rate in the one period lag has a positive and significant impact on investment while inflation in the one period lag has a negative and insignificant impact on investment. The result also showed that money supply in the one period lag has a positive and insignificant impact on investment. The result also showed that prime rate in the two periods lag has a negative and significant impact on investment while interest rate and exchange rate in the two periods lag have positive and significant impact on investment. Based on these findings, it was recommended that the government through the monetary authority should come up with monetary policies that will affect interest rate in such a way that investment will be stimulated


Kenya is determined to provide free basic and secondary education to all its citizens. However, the Education sector continues to face declining performance in Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE). This study was designed to examine barriers of performance in Kenya certificate of primary education in public primary schools in Nyamira south subcounty. The aim was to find out effect of teaching and learning resources on pupils’ academic performance targeted population was 1579 respondents who were sampled from 101 primary schools. This comprised of head teachers, teachers, PTA, board of management and class eight pupils. Simple random sampling procedure was used to get the sample size of 473 respondents from 30 primary schools in the sub county they were sampled as follows 30 head teachers, 30 PTA representative and 30 BOM, 24 class teachers and 300 class 8 pupils where 10 pupils were drawn from each school. Descriptive survey design was adopted to describe the findings. A questionnaire was used as tools to collect data. The collected data was analysed by both descriptive and inferential statistics where descriptive statistics involved weighted average and percentages. Inferential statistics involved regression analysis. The study found inadequate resources and congested classroom affected head teachers’ service delivery thus, posed a challenge in improving pupils’ academic performance. The study concluded that in the county had teacher shortage which affected effective teaching and learning. The study therefore concluded that teachers influence performance of pupils. The study recommends that the schools should be provided with the required facilities to facilitate proper learning. Head teachers should ensure that the teachers prepare the requisite professional documents and they should frequently supervise them to ensure that there is quality teaching. Key words: Education, performance, teaching, learning, pupils

An Overview of Haricot bean production and trade in Ethiopia []

Among the various pulse crops grown in Ethiopia haricot bean is one of the major food and cash crops where majority of its production cultivated under smallholder farming system and mainly produced in the lowlands area of the country. Haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is one of the most important pulse crops grown in Ethiopia in terms of both area and quantity produced. Given the importance of this crop to the economy, it is important to examine the trade volumes and productivity trends. Secondary data from the Central statistical Authority and Ethiopian custom & revenue Authority were used for the study. Results indicated an increase in haricot bean production from 457,412 tones (t) to about 552,564 tones (t) between 2014 and 2021. Interims of area coverage overall decrease in area coverage from 326,466- 311,584 ha from 2013/2014-2020/2021.Regarding the production percentage Oromia took the lion share (44%) of haricot bean production in the country, followed by Amhara (32%), Southern nation (22%) Benishangul-Gumuz and Tigraye 1.6% of total production. The result also reveals exports increased in total value from 31 million USD in 2016 to 624 million USD in 2020, quantity of 58 thousand Metric tones in 2016 to 923 thousand Metric tons in 2020. Therefore, the government should invest in modernizing bean breeding program and the national agricultural research system should continue their efforts in generating improved agricultural technologies and recommendations such as crop variety, agronomic practices, crop protection measures as well as other technical advices and practices


BANANA (MUSA SAPIENTUM) PSEUDO-STEM SAP AND ITS PHYTOCHEMICALS, PHYSIO-CHEMICALS AND POLY-AROMATIC HYDROCARBON( PAHs) CONTENTS. BY ORAGWU IFEOMA P. AND OLOKWU GIFT Department of Pure and Industrial Chemistry, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Uli Anambra State. Correspondent: ifyporagwu@gmail.com Mobile Phone: +2348035721295 ABSTRACT Investigations were carried out on the resin from banana (Musa-sapientum) pseudo-stem sap to identify its chemical compositions and their possible industrial applications. The proximate analysis carried on the bio-resin gave the pH value of 6.17, high conductivity of value of 9140, salinity of 5.10, etc. Colorimetric platinum cobalt method was used to determine the apparent color with H183300 Hanna bench photometer. The percentage yield of poly-aromatic hydrocarbons(PAH) were fluorene (12.47 %), flouranthene (16.53 %), phenanthrene (14.51 %), anthracene (9.801 %), xylene (21.89%), etc. The analysis for phytochemical compounds were performed using BUCK M910 Gas chromatography equipped with a flame ionization detector. Proanthocynin, naringin, quinine, flavan-3-ol, anthocyanin, ribalinidine, naringenin, spartein, sapogenin, phenol, steroids, flavones, epicatechin, kaempferol, phytate, flavones, oxalate, catechin, resveratol and tannin were identified as the phytochemicals from the pseudo-stem resin. Most of the compounds from the banana pseudo-stem sap had been evaluated as vital source of raw materials/chemicals for most pharmaceutical, food, and other industrial applications. Keywords: Banana, Pseudo-stem, Poly-aromatic, Phytochemicals, Bio-resin

Matrix operators on the new λ-sequence spaces of bounded and convergent series []

Abstract. In the present paper, we have concluded the -, - and -duals of the new -sequence spaces bs; cs and cs0 which have recently been introduced, and we have characterized the matrix operators acting on, into and between these sequence spaces of -bounded and -convergent series.


Paper has many functions, one of which is packaging. The goal is the same, namely to prevent food contamination by microbes around it. Paper food packaging is the type of packaging that is most often used to wrap food. This type of paper food packaging has advantages including: light weight, relatively cheap and space-saving, flexible. This advantage makes the use of paper increasing. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of different types of paper on the grammatur and density of the paper. The types of paper used are parchment paper, newsprint, paperboard and HVS paper. Data collection was carried out with two replications. The data were analyzed by ANOVA of two factors, namely the effect of paper type on density, and the effect of paper type on grammage with 95% confidence. The results showed that different types of paper showed significant differences (p<0.05) on the value of density and paper grain. grammatur of parchment paper was 20 mg/m2, paperboard paper was 150 mg/m2, HVS paper was 90 mg/m2. , and newsprint of 55 gr/m2. while the density value of parchment paper is 0.44 gr/m2, paperboard is 1.875 gr/m2, HVS paper is 1.08 gr/m2, and newsprint is 1.4 gr/m2.

The Potential of Brown Algae as Food []

The presence of brown seaweed is abundant and widespread in Indonesian waters. There are several potentials of brown algae in human life. Brown algae contain various nutrients and bioactive compounds such as proteins, carbohydrates (Polysaccharides or fibers), lipids, minerals, phlorotannins, fucoxanthin. Brown algae can be processed into various foods such as salads, noodles, soups, snacks, and so on. Some species of edible brown algae include Ecklonia cava, Hizikia fusiformis, Laminaria japonica, Pelvetia siliquosa, Sargassum fulvellum, Fucus vesiculosus, and Undaria pinnatifida, Alaria esculenta, Eisenia bicyclis, Durvillaea antarctic. Brown algae have been shown to have anti-tumor, antioxidant, anticoagulant, antithrombotic, immunoregulatory, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory effects. This review article aims to describe the potential of brown algae as food and their health benefits.


The research objective was to investigate the effect of the internal control systems on the financial performance in the Nairobi Stock Exchange (NSE) listed banks in Kenya. The study posits that risk assessment and information and communication have a weak significant effect while the monitoring, control environment and the control activities have the weakest influence on ROA and ROE in the NSE listed banks in Kenya. The study used a descriptive research design and a case study to analyze the impact of the variables on financial performance using Likert collected responses. The correlation results established that monitoring, information and communication, control environment, risk assessment and control activities have positively influenced the performance as they all had positive values. The R squared values of .0664 for ROA and 0.742 for ROE showed a good fit. The F statistic was also significant showing that the independent variables were significantly different and that each could contribute differently to the financial performance of NSE listed banks. The internal controls: risk assessment and the controlled environment have features in them that are essential in establishing any corrupt activities occurring within the banks. To enhance performance and mitigate adverse corporate governance issues management requires that the banks must have strong internal control systems that have been put in place. To facilitate faster delivery of audit activities which includes the processes of detecting and preventing of frauds and/or non-compliance with public expenditure, the Nairobi Stock Exchange listed banks should provide a conducive control environment that enables the use of cutting-edge control activities such as; ICT technology to support auditing functions, accounting packages among other which will promote continuous training and develop organizational.