Volume 10, Issue 2, February 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Microfinance Banks forms a crucial component of any nation's economy and represents one of the most critical components of a nation's capital. These institutions operating in competitive markets are consistently under pressure to attract and retain customers. Hence, they adopt several solutions, including process management such as process governance, strategic alignment, process method, Information technology, people and culture, to create and maintain profitable relationships by aimed at improved and sustainable customer retention. This is based on the notion that customer retention is crucial for Microfinance Banks because keeping clients' is less expensive compared to the cost of getting new ones, and loyal customers are the company's most critical assets. Furthermore, a high attrition rate will lead to the failure of the entity, as evidenced in the loss of more than 400 Microfinance Banks (MFBs), which may be orchestrated by lack of good business process management. Hence, this study examined the effect of business process management dimensions on client retention of MFBs in Nigeria. This study adopted a survey research design. The population for this study consists of 916 MFBs licensed by the Central Bank of Nigeria as of October 2020. A sample size of 296 was determined using Krejcie and Morgan's formula. A mixed or multistage sampling method was adopted. Primary data was used for this study which was collected through a validated questionnaire with an 85% response rate. These data were analysed using inferential and descriptive statistics. The study revealed that business process management dimensions had a significant joint effect on client retention of the MFBs in Nigeria (Adj. R2 = 0.455; F(6,284) = 41.382, p<0.05) The study concluded that business process management dimensions significantly affected client retention of MFBs in Nigeria. The study then recommends that MFBs improve their process management to create and maintain profitable customer relationships by delivering superior customer value for improved and sustainable customer retention.


The banking sector consists of financial institutions, including Microfinance Banks, that thrive and compete on quality in pursuit of customers seeking quality. Hence, these institutions adopt a business process aimed at achieving this goal. This is premised on failure to meet the service quality expectation of customers will lead to dissatisfaction, low purchase decisions, loss of revenue and business closure, as evidenced in the collapse of more than 400 Microfinance Banks (MFBs), orchestrated by lack of business process management dimensions such as process governance, strategic alignment, process method, information technology, people and process culture. Hence, this study examined the effect of business process management dimensions on the service quality of MFBs in Nigeria. This study adopted a survey research design. The population for this study consists of the total MFBs licensed by the Central Bank of Nigeria as of October 2020. A sample size of 296 was determined using Krejcie and Morgan's formula. A mixed or multistage sampling method was adopted. Primary data was used for this study which was collected through a validated questionnaire with an 85% response rate. These data were analysed with descriptive and inferential statistics. The study showed that business process management dimensions had a significant joint effect on the service quality of the MFBs in Nigeria (Adj. R2 = 0.424; F(6,284) = 36.576, p<0.05). The study concluded that business process management dimensions had a significant effect on the service quality of MFBs in Nigeria. The study recommends that MFBs improve their process management for enhanced service quality.

Proximate Analysis and Characterization of Fish Feed Produced From Locally Sourced Materials []

A robust experimental design setup and stepwise procedure for the production of fish feed using different locally sourced feedstock was investigated in this research study wherein the design methodology for the setup was developed in a clear concise manner. In addition, the end product composition of the different locally sourced feedstock (raw materials) was comparatively evaluated in terms of end product composition content of three interest variables of crude content, fibre and fats. Nevertheless, amongst the different feed stuffs, it is observed that blood meal as a feedstock, had the most comparative end product composition of crude protein (CP) content (above 80kg) whereas soybeans feedstuff had the most end product composition content in terms of fibre (about 30kg) and palm kernel cake (PKC) had the most end point composition for fat content (about 50kg) in a 100kg feedstock basis. However, flour as a feed stuff was found to contain approximately zero end product composition content of the aforementioned variables, the obtained results with respect to the three variables of crude protein (CP), fibre and fat contents for all feedstock were comparatively analyzed against standard literature values obtainable and waas found to be consistent to literature and industrial findings. Additionally, an optimum feed rate for the production of fish feed using the different feed stuff was determined wherein it was discovered that 100kg feed rate was the optimum feed rate, furthermore, the cost efficiency was analyzed on a 500kg feed material with foreign feed costing N514, 800 while produced fish feed cost N201,300 which is 50% less production cost against foreign feed

Decreasing cytotoxic effect of sofosbuvir treatment by vitamin B12 in hepatitis C virus infected cells in-vitro []

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) belongs to the family Flaviviridae and contains a positive-sense single-strand RNA assembled within a small core protein. Sofosbuvir, traditionally named Sovaldi (SOV), is a new medication for treating patients with chronic hepatitis C induced by HCV. Here, we investigated the possible cytotoxic effect of SOV treatment in hepatocellular carcinoma using HepG2 cell line and normal hepatocytes. Moreover, we tested the potential impact of vitamin B12 in combination with SOV to avoid the cytotoxic events and improved its ability to block HCV replication. Our findings revealed that SOV treatment decreases the cell viability rate of both cancer and normal cells parallel with a high production level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from treated cells. However SOV treat-ment showed significant inhibition of HCV replication in infected cells, the production of proinflammatory cytokines including IL-6 and IL-8 was dramatically increased in a time and dose-dependent manner. Importantly, the combination of vitamin B12 and SOV in equal concentration resulted in a competent inhibition of HCV replication indicated by fold changes of HCV-NS5A gene expression. Furthermore, the level of produced IL-6 and IL-8 was strongly decreased in infected HepG2 cells that were pretreated with the combination of vitamin B12 and SOV indicated by ELISA assy. In conclusion, we hypothesis that the combination between sofosbuvir, as a sufficient anti-HCV drug, and vitamin B12 is resulted in increasing its safety profile and improving its antiviral activity in-vitro in infected HepG2 cells.


Aims: The proposed research aims to analyze and identify the impact of social media activities on the relationship of trust and social commerce satisfaction by exploring different determinants of social media activities employed by the online clothing industry of Karachi, Pakistan. Online shopping through social media has increased the intensity of buying power in consumers whereas the determinants of social media activities play an important role to relate the relationship between trust and social commerce satisfaction in online shopping firms. This research explores the impact of social media activities which impacts on the relationship between social commerce and trust. Data of this research is gathered from 300 respondents through online questionnaire having 5 questions from each variable asked form the respondents. The data is collected form respondents living in Karachi having much experience in online shopping. The research is being tested through PLS SEM which is used to analyze the model using smart PLS. The results explain the impact of social media activities and trust on social commerce Satisfaction aligning different determinants of social media activities in the context of online clothing industry. Methods: The following research has employed 300 participants for the data collection purpose. For the analysis SPSS and further PLS SMART has been used to test the relationship of variables and their variance simultaneously. The collected information has only been gathered from the participants who have knowledge about the designed aims and objectives and have an experience in online shopping. Analysis: By using PLS-SEM, the proposed research has articulated that trust is the significant factor that plays an essential role in ensuring the competitiveness for the online businesses. Therefore, the significance of the word of mouth, interaction, entertainment, trendiness, interaction and customization especially when it comes to the positive attributes of the products and services cannot be denied. Furthermore, the proposed research has also vi articulated that, trust factor of the participants also cross-validates with the satisfaction level of the customers. Keywords: Social Commerce Satisfaction, Trust, Online Shopping, Online Websites, Social Media, Clothing Industry.


Electricity interruptions have become a great concern for consumers of electricity and for electricity utility companies in many countries of the world. Many businesses have shot down due to the recurrence of prolonged electricity supply, especially in Africa. Hospitals, companies, households, schools etc. have all suffered due to electricity supply interruptions. This paper seeks to review available literature on the impact of sporadic, chronic and momentary electricity interruptions. Publications around the world on these distinctive electricity interruptions types were researched and synthesized critically to provide information about the impact of electricity interruptions that can be applicable to small and medium size businesses. Since electricity interruptions are associated with economic costs which can be of severe magnitudes, the paper also provides findings on preventive measures against electricity interruptions that can help reduce the occurrence of electricity interruptions.


During the COVID-19 pandemic, PT. Sucofindo Head Office implements a work-from-home system for their em-ployees in turns. An online attendance application is used by the company to monitor the employees’ work discipline. This online attendance application is expected to give a positive influence on PT. Sucofindo Head Office’s work discipline and commitment. This quantitative study is aimed to test the effects of the online at-tendance application on employees’ discipline level and commitment. This study uses work satisfaction as a mediating variable. A small sample of as many as 200 employees become the respondents of this research. Data was collected through questionnaire distribution and analyzed using the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with the AMOS software. Results show that work satisfaction is capable to mediate the influence of application quality on work discipline and organizational commitment.


The study focused on the effect of total quality management practices on project performance in hospitality industry. The study established the relationship between top management commitment, employee involvement, customer focus and benchmarking and growth of Hotels. The study used a cross-section survey design and the study focused on Fatima Hotel . The population of the study was 120 respondents and the sample size was 92 although actual participants were 72. The study used both qualitative and quantitative research approaches for data collection. The study found a positive and a significant relationship between top management commitment and business growth by a value of 0.556. The study found a positive moderate significant relationship between employee involvement and business growth by a value of 0.654. The study found a positive moderate and significant relationship between customer

Analysis of factors affecting banana market participation in the case of Assosa zone of Benishangul gumuz regional state, Ethiopia []

Banana is an important commercial fruit crop for smallholder farmers in Assosa zone, western Ethiopia. However, its sector is experiencing many constraints and limited attention given to productivity and marketing. Therefore, this study was conducted to analyze the factor affecting market participation of small holders on banana. Data were collected through a survey, key informants’ interviews, and focus group discussions. Different analytical and statistical tackles were used for data analysis. The study was based on the cross-sectional data collected from 193 sample households which were purposively selected from 7 rural kebeles. Both descriptive statistics and econometric analysis were used to identify and analyze factors that determine the market participation of smallholders. Accordingly, out of the included 10 variables, 3 were found to significantly influence the banana market participation of small holder farmers. The Probit regression model results showed that the market participation of smallholders includes land owned, road quality, and distance to main market are the significant determinants of banana market participation. Therefore, the government should also invest in rural infrastructure, especially on the road network to ease conveyance of the banana produced from the area of production to marketing point in order to lower transaction costs and to motivate market participation.

Enthobotany and Phytochemistry of Andrographis paniculata (Burm F.) Wall. ex Nees []

The practice of modern-day medicines is on the increase, which results in the replacement of traditional methods. Medical research which has been conducted recently started delving into the complete chemical characterization of many medicinal plants available and analyzing the different classes of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, and terpenoids. A. paniculata have been known extensively for pharmacological activities, such as analgesic, anticancer, antidiabetic, antifertility, anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, antimicrobial, antioxidant, antipyretic, antiretroviral, antivenom, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory, etc. In this study, phytochemical analysis is quantitatively carried out on the leaves of Andrographis paniculata to determine the chemical constituents of the plant. Results of the study indicate that the plant contains a very high percentage of Alkaloids (63.75%), high percentage of flavonoids (23.01%), moderate percentage of tannin (4.57%). Phenol (0.51%), saponin (2.87%), glycoside (0.45%), steroids (0.50%), terpenoids (0.30%), anthracyanin (3.32%), carotenoids (1.72%) were in trace amount. The presence of the above metabolites confirms the usefulness of Andrographis paniculata to treat various diseases in ethnobotany, use as food, and as a potential source of raw materials for drug production.


The study examined organizational culture as a determinant of principal’s commitment in public secondary schools in Rivers State. Four (4) research questions and four (4) null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. Correlational design was adopted and the population of the study consists of 276 principals in the public secondary schools in Rivers State. The sample of the study is 162 principals determined through a stratified random sampling technique. The sample was composed of 93 (57%) were male and 70(43%) were female. The instruments for the study were a self designed questionnaires tagged "Organizational Culture Questionnaire (OCQ) and Principal Commitment Questionnaire (PCQ) with reliability coefficient of 0.86, and 0.88 respectively. Mean score and rank order was used to answer the research questions while Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to test the hypotheses. It was revealed that to a high extent, clan culture, adhocratic, and hierarchy culture influence principals’ commitment in public secondary schools in Rivers State. It however concluded that organizational culture can be constantly created, changed, and splintered to ensure principals’ commitment and hence recommended that the principal should be committed to create a school environment that supports teamwork, mentorship, flexibility, discretion, internal focus and integration to ensure that teachers and students have the opportunity to develop, grow and have sense of belonging which can boast high rate of employees’ commitment.


This research study reviews and assesses women's participation in community-based organizations (CBOs) that operate and maintain rural water supply schemes in Ratnapura district in Sri Lanka. The article analyzes women's participation at all levels, from the bottom to the top of CBOs, and discusses the socioeconomic and cultural factors that influence women's participation. The study used both qualitative and quantitative data to construct a participation ladder for determining the level of participation of women in CBOs. The research revealed that women were more actively involved in the project implementation stage when it was supported by projects than when it was implemented by the community on its own. Women were actively engaged in the lower and middle levels of the CBOs. However, women's representation in leadership positions, which are significant in decision-making, is still low. Women have been excluded from leadership positions as well as paid job positions offered by CBOs, especially in mega-scale CBOs with over 500 members.

Impact of Environmental Analysis on Planning of Entrepreneurial And Vocational Skills Acquisition Programmes in Niger-delta, Nigeria []

The planning and implementation of Entrepreneurial and vocational skill acquisition programme in Niger - Delta, Nigeria has been plaguing by myriad of factors. Thus, necessitated the study. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. The study population comprised, the personnel and facilitators of EVSAP of the Ministries , where the programmes are domiciled in Niger-Delta States, Nigeria, (Edo, Ondo, Delta, Balyesa, Rivers, Cross-Rivers, Akwa-Ibom, Abia and Imo).The sample size of the study was Two hundred and seventy (270) respondents, selected through purposive sampling techniques.A self-developed research instrument titled, Impact of Environmental Analysis Entrepreneurial and Vocational Skill Acquisition Programme in Niger-Delta, Nigeria”. It was fashioned on four likert rating scale; Strongly Agreed (SA), Agreed (A), Disagreed (D) and Strongly Disagreed (SD). The research instrument was validated by an expert in test and measurement, while its reliability was determined through, test-retest method and 0.68 coefficient reliability was obtained. One research questions was raised, while two research questions were formulated. Data obtained on research question was analysed, using descriptive statistics (frequency counts, simple percentages and mean), while inferential statistics (Correlation Coefficient Analysis) was used to analyse data generated on the research hypotheses. Based on the results of the study, conclusion were made that cultural, environmental and government policies inconstitiency are affecting EVSAP in Niger-Delta, Nigeria. Recommendations based on the conclusion were made that the providers of EVSAP should considered cultural environmental factors in the planning of EVSAP in Niger-Delta, Nigeria.


This study entails the hydrothermal synthesis of Zeolite Y catalyst from locally sourced kaolin clay obtained from Okpella in Edo state, Nigeria. The experimental procedure was carried out following established standard procedures for zeolite synthesis. Calcination of the beneficiated kaolin was done at 750oC using an electric furnace followed by dealumination of the metakaolin using H2SO4. The synthesis gel was formed by reacting Dealuminated metakaolin with sodium hydroxide pellets according to the ratio of 2.5:1 by weight and molar composition of 6SiO2 : Al2O3 : 9Na2O :24H2O. The Gel obtained was aged for 7 days at room temperature and then hydrothermally crystallized at 1000C for 24 hours. Characterization of the synthesized zeolite was carried out using X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscope. The results obtained showed that Zeolite Y with SiO2/Al2O3 molar ratio of 3.46 was successfully synthesized from locally sourced kaolin clay. Keywords: Kaolin clay, Zeolite Y, Characterisation, XRD Analysis.

Persistent Low Level Viraemia In Antiretroviral Treated Patients: Associated Factors and Virologic Outcome Among HIV-1 Infected Patients at Nyakach County Hospital []

Purpose: Antiretroviral treatment (ART) assists patients in controlling their HIV infection and ensuring long-term survival. Despite this advantage, a significant number of HIV-positive individuals do not attain full virologic suppression. The purpose of this research was to determine the prevalence of low-level viraemia, its impact on ART outcome, and related factors in HIV-1 infected patients receiving ART at Nyakach County Hospital in Kisumu, Kenya.Patients and Methods: This observational cohort research included HIV-1-infected persons who were registered at Nyakach County Hospital between January 2005 and February 2018 and were receiving WHO-recommended antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens and viral load monitoring. Persistent low-level viremia is defined in the 2018 Kenya ART guidelines as having a detectable VL (above the low detectable threshold) but less than 1,000 copies/mL on two or more consecutive tests. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations for low and middle-income countries (LMIC) define virologic failure as plasma HIV-RNA concentrations more than 1000 copies/mL. The outcomes of this study were viral failure and its related factors. Cox proportional hazard models were used to assess risks.Results: The analysis comprised 738 individuals on first-line antiretroviral therapy, of whom 81 encountered virologic failure and 657 did not. The median duration of ART in the virologic failure group was 6.6 years (IQR 3.5–9.5), while in the non-failure group it was 7.2 years (IQR 4.4–9.7). Increased likelihood of virologic failure was related with higher levels of low-level viraemia (hazard ratio [HR] 9.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 4.32-22.54; p0.001) compared to virological suppression of fewer than 50 copies/mL. A longer duration of antiretroviral therapy was related with a 38% reduction in the probability of virologic failure (hazard ratio [HR] 0.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.55-0.68; p0.001). Low-level viraemia occurred at a rate of 35.4 per 100 person years of follow-up.Conclusion: Low-level viremia of 500–999 copies/mL at baseline is linked with an increased probability of virologic failure during follow-up in this group.


Analysis of solar radiation measurement in south–west geo-political zone of Nigeria has been carried out in this paper. Twenty years (2000-2021) data of daily global solar radiation and monthly average hours of bright sunshine are sourced from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Nigeria Meteorological Agency (NIMET), respectively. Monthly average solar radiation on horizontal surface and monthly clearness index values ranges from 3.5 kWhrm-2day-1 to 5.18 kWhrm-2day-1 and 0.35 – 0.57, respectively, for the geopolitical zone. August is considered as the worst month of solar radiation harvest in the zone. Six seasonal classification periods are identified for Abeokuta, Akure, Ibadan and Oshogbo. While, five seasonal classification periods are observed in Ado-Ekiti and Ikeja. Coefficients of determinations are estimated for Angstrom-Page equation for the study locations and the zone. Key words: Angstrom-Page, clearness index, seasonal periods, sky condition, solar radiation, south-west, sunshine hour

Pasta industries in Ethiopia, challenge and Opportunities []

7 local industries included in the study namely, kaliti food complex; K.O.J.J food processing complex PLC; Ahwan Food complex PLC; Asteco Food Complex PLC; Booze and Kebrone Flour Factory and food complex; Adea food complex PLC and Ahfan food complex PLC. Questionnaires needed for local industries were prepared as lead questions and the companies' heads or representatives have filled questions based on the willingness. Besides, focused group discussions have done following the lead questions lead by the researcher. Due to low volume of durum wheat grain, Ethiopian pasta industries continued to rely on bread wheat flour for pasta making by supplementing colorants and pasta zymes and affected by the huge import costs and by the recurrent shortage of hard currency in the country. Based on the study, local farmers are expanding durum wheat cultivation and providing the durum wheat grain with good quality. The weak supply chain from the producer to the factory is hurting both the producers and the industries due to the interference of brokers, inabilities of unions/cooperatives, and non-involvement of the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange.

Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf) Variety “Tesfaye” Performance in Ethiopia []

Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) is an industrial crop and recipe for traditional food in Ethiopia and the North African Countries. After subsequent evaluation in the national variety trial, this variety was selected and evaluated at Debre Zeit, Minjar, Enuary and Chefe Donsa one on -station and three on farms in 2014/15 and it was proved to have stable, high yield and excellent industrial qualities. A durum wheat variety: Tesfaye CDSS04Y01186T-OTOPB-12Y-0M-06Y-1M-1Y-0B) developed by CIMMYT and released for production in the mid to highlands of Ethiopia and similar agro-ecologies. It has also partial resistance to stem, yellow and leaf rusts. The multi-environment testing in the national variety trial for two years confirmed its productivity with above-average yield performance in all environments and a yield advantage of 8% and 13.3% over the current commercial durum wheat varieties Mangudo and Hitosa, respectively. The name “Tesfaye” given to commemorate the late Dr. Tesfaye who was a senior durum wheat researcher.

Status of Rural Household Poverty In West Hararge Zone: In Case Of Some Selected Woredas, Oromia, Ethiopia []

This study was conducted in a rural area of West Hararghe zone to evaluate the status of household rural poverty. To undertake this study, both primary and secondary data were used. The data was collected from 375 sample households for the study purpose. In doing so, the maximum likelihood estimation method of the logit model was applied to estimate the logit regression model. The study used consumption expenditure as an indicator of welfare in general and the cost of basic needs approach in particular to classify households as poor and non-poor. The result of this study shows in the study area the proportion of people who are stated under the poverty line is 52.8 percent from the surveyed households. The incidence of poverty among the sampled households is 23.8% and 13.54% for the poverty gap, and poverty severity index respectively. In line with, poverty alleviation policies that are based on this identified status should be key ingredients of poverty reduction strategy and targeted groups should involve in development efforts that could address the identified problem to minimize the rate of increased poverty severity from rural areas of West Hararge zone.

An Adaptive Learning Platform for teaching Practical Repair of Micro-Computers in the COVID-19 Era []

This research is aimed at developing an adaptive Learning Platform for teaching Practical Repair of Micro-Computers in the COVID-19 Era. The objective of study is to develop an adaptive e-learning platform were learners are taught one on one on computer repairs and maintenance of microcomputers to encourage practical learning in the COVID-19 pandemic era. This paper was motivated because of lack of interest amongst students, immediate stopping of academic classes during the COVID-19 pandemic, high increase in search of computer maintenance engineers and poor service delivery. Top down approach was adopted in the system design of this study, in concurrence with prototyping as its methodology adopted, programming language used was JavaScript, HTML, CSS and MySQL for the database design. The result of the study is an e-learning platform that was bale to easily teach student/people practical approach to computer repairs and maintenance remotely.

Effect Of Financial Management Practices On Survival Of Savings And Thrift Cooperative Societies In Makurdi Metropolis []

This study was carried out to examine the effect of financial management practices on survival of savings and thrift cooperative societies in Makurdi metropolis in Nigeria. The study specifically examined the effect of budgeting, cash management and credit risk management on competitiveness and adaptability of savings and thrift cooperative societies in Makurdi metropolis. The population of the study included 2066 members of 7 savings and thrift cooperative societies considered for the study in Makurdi metropolis. A sample size of 369 was determined using Taro Yamene’s formula for sample size determination. The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design and a Four-point Likert like scale of close-ended questionnaire was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics such as simple percentages, means and standard deviation were used for data presentation while regression analysis was used for data analysis and test of hypotheses. Data collected from participants were analyzed with the aid of the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 23). Findings of the study indicated that budgeting, cash management and credit risk management have positive and significant effect on competitiveness and adaptability of savings and thrift cooperative societies in Makurdi metropolis. Hence the study concluded that integrating financial management practices is expected to highly improve the cooperatives chances for survival. It is recommended that cooperative societies should evaluate their structures before adopting financial management practices in order to ensure that practices adopted are well suited for that particular cooperative society as they differ in capital structure.

Existentialism in the Works of Rabindranath Tagore and Ghani Khan: A Comparative Study []

This article will study existential notions embedded in Rabindranath Tagore and Ghani Khan’s works. Both Tagore and Ghani Khan belonged to the colonial age where persecution of people dwelling in the sub-continent region was deeply rooted in social, political, cultural and economic spheres, that too, perpetrated by the imperial British Empire. The social and geo-political landscape of that era portrayed plethora of structural shackles that were conspicuously highlighted and criticized by Rabindranath Tagore and Ghani Khan pertinent to their respective regions. This study would be based on examination of various poems and prosaic pieces of Tagore and Ghani that shed light upon their respective narratives about the true essence of freedom and finding constructive meaning of life. Their quest was also to forefront the domains that largely substantiate freedom and spirit of liberty in the masses. The subject matter of their narrative was to present the prevailing socio-moral loopholes that are largely responsible for lethal degradation of the socio-political fabric of the colonized region. The study will also focus on the works of the two poets that are based on notions pertinent to the widely prevalent fault lines in the domains of society, culture, politics and economy.

Enhancing the Dynamical Behaviour of Bolted Joints under Alternating Thermal Loads using Finite Element Method []

The behaviour of the local sliding between the threads and bearing surfaces when subjected to Alternating thermal loads is usually non-linear; this gradually accumulates with the thermal cycle, causing the threaded fasteners to loosen. In this paper, finite element analysis uses to assess the behavior of the dissimilar bolted joint (medium Steel carbon grade 8.8 with Aluminum Alloy 6061-T6) under Alternating thermal load using three different bolt diameters (12mm,16mm, and 20mm) with changing in parameters thread angle and thread pitch to find the maximum preload losses and later attempt to reduce the preload loss by redesigning the thread bolt and nut. Eight novel anti-loosening structures have been redesigned metric thread to withstand losing preload. All these structures can impede the alternate slippage that occurs on the thread surface under the effect of Alternating thermal load. The results show that preload loss is directly proportional to the bolt diameter. The bolt thread redesign for the 20mm diameter resulted in an improvement of preload losses by 14.36%. In the case of the 16mm and 12mm bolts, the resultant losses improved by 14.96% and 4.41%, respectively. Based on the study of the process by which the bolt loosened, it was proposed that the key to preventing local slippage accumulation and sustained loosening was to inhibit the slippage or relative motion occurring on the thread surface. Thus, several novel thread structures were designed to reduce the phenomena of loosening based on the above findings. Finally, their superior anti-loosening abilities were validated by the FEA method.