Volume 10, Issue 2, February 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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An Internet of Things (IoT) architecture generally consists of a wide range of Internet-connected devices or things such as Android devices, and devices that have more computational capabilities (e.g., storage capacities) are likely to be targeted by ransomware authors. In this work, we present a machine learning based approach to detect ransomware attacks by monitoring power consumption of Android devices. Specifically, our proposed method monitors the energy consumption patterns of different processes to classify ransomware from non-malicious applications. We then demonstrate that our proposed approach outperforms K-Nearest Neighbors, Neural Networks, Support Vector Machine and Random Forest, in terms of accuracy rate, recall rate, precision rate and F-measure


Food contamination in the world has become an issue of serious concern since food materials are predisposed to certain contaminants during cultivation, production and packaging processes. Cereal is seen as an ideal example of the types of food affected by contaminants like trace metals such as Fe, Mn, Cu, and Zn. This study investigated the presence of trace metals in baked bread sold in wukari, Taraba state. Three samples of bread were purchased from three different bakeries (F.U.W.B, B.B.B and V.S.R.B) in Wukari, Taraba state, Nigeria. The bread samples were oven dried at 60 oC to constant weights. The dried samples were ground to powder in an agate mortar to obtain adequate granulometry for the analysis. The ground samples were thoroughly mixed to get homogenous and representative samples. 5.0 g of the homogenized sample was weighed into “high form” porcelain crucibles. The crucibles with the samples were then put into murfle furnaces and the temperature was increased gradually until it got to 550 oC. When the samples in crucibles were observed to be grey and ash in form, the ashed samples were mixed with 2ml of concentrated HNO3. The dissolved ash samples were transferred into 100 ml volumetric flasks and diluted to volume with distilled water (dH2O), shaken up and then filtered. The method of Khalid and Rehman (2013) was used to investigate trace metal level in the three bread samples which were analyzed against known standards using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) with specific lamps for Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn. The concentration of Cu in the samples of bread baked and sold in Wukari were 4.68mg/g, 5.35mg/g and 62.96mg/g for F.U.W.B, B.B.B and V.S.R.B respectively, with V.S.R.B having the highest concentration of Cu. The concentration of Fe in the samples of bread baked and sold in Wukari were 47.88mg/g, 54.89mg/g and 62.96mg/g for F.U.W.B, B.B.B and V.S.R.B respectively, with V.S.R.B having the highest concentration of Fe. The concentration of Mn in the samples of bread baked and sold in Wukari were 50.79mg/g, 58.36mg/g and 62.83mg/g for F.U.W.B, B.B.B and V.S.R.B respectively, with V.S.R.B having the highest concentration of Mn. The concentration of Zn in the samples of bread baked and sold in Wukari were 23.43mg/g, 25.45mg/g and 28.62mg/g for F.U.W.B, B.B.B, and V.S.R.B respectively, with V.S.R.B having the highest concentration of Zn. Consistent consumption of bread samples with high concentration of these trace metals above the recommended dietary allowance could result to a number of health effects over time.


The average activity concentration for the three primordial radioactive nuclides were; 2±0.1Bq/kg with a range of 0± 0.03Bq/kg to 4±0.24Bq/kg for 238U, 55±2.78Bq/kg with a minimum value of 32±1.6Bq/kg and a maximum value of 87±4.38Bq/kg for 232Th and 51±2,56Bq/kg with a minimum value of 27±1.37Bq/kg and a maximum value of 76±3.8Bq/kg for 40K. The mean activity concentrations for 238U and 40K were below the world averages of 33Bq/kg and 420Bq/kg respectively. Radium equivalent varied from 6±0.32Bq/kg to 986±Bq/kg with an average value of 230±11.51Bq/kg. This was below the world’s permissible value of 370Bq/kg. Internal and external hazard indices ranged between 0±0mSv/y to 2.6±0.13 mSv/y with a mean of 0.6±0.003mSv/y, 0±0 mSv/y to 2.6±0.13 mSv/y with a mean of 0.6±0.003mSv/y respectively. These radiological parameters show an insignificant radiological health risk associated with the harvesting and use of sand in construction from the selected rivers. This study is essential to the general and inhabitants of Bungoma County as they are able to know the risks associated by the use of sand from the selected reivers in Bungoma County.


The study was on entrepreneurship education and for economic development in Federal Polytechnic, Damaturu, Yobe State. To accomplish the research objectives, a survey, research design was conducted and a convenient sampling technique was employed to draw a sample size of one hundred and seven (114) respondents from the population. Instrument of the study was self-developed questionnaire which were personally administered. Data extracted from the questionnaire forms were presented in tabular form and analyzed using simple percentage methods. The study revealed that entrepreneurship education has significant impact on economic development, that entrepreneurship education has improved the economic development of Nigeria, that skill acquisition, creativity and job creation are some of the advantage of entrepreneurship education in Nigeria. USING Chi-square test, the study found that the entrepreneurship education significantly improves the economic development of Nigeria {the critical X2 (23.47) is less than the calculated X2 (8.26)}. The study recommended that the federal government should introduce more capable lending programmes so that the entrepreneurs can get the required assistance from this program for their survival in future, also management should ensure that there are qualified facilitators that will always be there to impact good skills on students or future entrepreneurs.

Compound Birthday magic square of order 16 []

The new method of constructing 16×16 magic square from this method everybody can create 16×16 birthday magic square by putting his and his friend or any other person date of birth in the top row of magic square.

The need to curb national threat and State of emergency in Ethiopia: compatibility to international human rights obligation. []

Till this time Ethiopia witnessed five emergency declarations including the current proclamation which is proclaimed to avert the danger and protect the sovereignty of the state which is the main concern of this paper. Starting from its endorsement many peoples criticize the proclamation as it restricts many fundamental human rights and freedoms as well as includes vague and ambiguous words. As well as many academicians claim that the exclusion of the judiciary is also against the constitution as well human rights treaties to which Ethiopia is a state party. The main concern of this paper is analyzing the derogation of human rights during a public emergency that threatens the life of the nation. And the paper particularly examines the compatibility of the declaration of the state of emergency proclaimed by the Ethiopian government to avert the threat against the sovereignty and integrity of the state with the internationally established human rights norms governing emergency declaration. To explore the problems identified, the researcher has employed a qualitative research design. Accordingly, for this research work mainly doctrinal qualitative research methods have been used. The researcher finally argues that even though the Ethiopian government has a sufficient cause for declaring a state of emergency decree, the declaration does not meet some of the substantive and procedural conditions which are provided under ICCPR and other human rights instruments. Specifically, it is possible to conclude that the protection accorded to the non-derogable rights in the SOE proclamation, as well as the practice, prevailed in the ground is not consistent with article 4 of ICCPR as well as with the emerging human right understanding and interpretation which is implicated in the general comment of the human right committee. The austere clause under the proclamation is also against the human rights obligation of the state to guarantee effective due process right of individuals during emergencies as well as to provide independent and impartial tribunal which is considered an absolute right that may suffer no exception. The SOE proclamation also includes sweeping and vaguely worded restrictions on a broad range of actions that undermine basic rights, including freedom of expression, association, and peaceful assembly, and go far beyond what is permissible under international law.


A key challenge for the agricultural sector is to feed the increasing alarming population of the world while at the same time reduces the environmental impacts. Preserving natural resources for sustainability in the future generation. Environmental impacts assessment is the formal process used to predict the environmental consequences (positive or negative) of a plan, policy, program, activity or project prior to the decision to move forward with the proposed action. This paper brings to our notice some of the major agricultural activities such as farming (crops/animal), irrigation schemes, pesticide and herbicide application and many more that have posed significant impacts on the environment and Nigeria economy at large, it stress the negative impacts which include pollution and degradation of soil, water and air e.t.c., this paper also reviewed that, bad cultivation bring about erosion and flooding despite the good mind set of agricultural sector, it is clear from this article that an impact assessment may propose measures to adjust impacts to acceptable levels or to investigate new technological solutions (Encyclopedia, 2015). This paper highlight how those posed threat can be looked into via EIA (Environmental Impacts Assessment) for sustainability of agriculture and the environment by assessment, analysis and mitigation measures/policies adoption to curtail certain agricultural practices that are detrimental to our environment. Keywords: Monitoring, Regulation, Sustainability, Agriculture and Environment


ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to design an energy efficient monitoring and control of district heating systems through the use of Q-learning agent technology. This research is of utmost importance because as the world grapples under the impact of COVID-19 pandemic and its attendant effects, it becomes pertinent for the stakeholders in the academia to come up with solution to various socio-economic events bedeviling human existence. A district heating system comprises of production units, a distribution network, and a host of consumer substations. The operations of district heating system usually involve conflicting goals, e.g., to satisfy customers, minimize production costs and maximize profit. Hence an intelligent agent must be capable of optimizing between maximizing supply to substations and minimizing production cost. Current substations employ purely reactive devices making local decisions without taking into account the global state. Moreover the substations determine the flow in all parts of the district heating system. The optimal operation of the district heating system is therefore limited to providing sufficiently high temperature and pressure to all customers by taking local measurement to achieve this goal without considering other factors such as cost of production and time. The approach studied in this paper is to equip substations with software agents to form a multi-agent system using Q-learning. The purpose is to dynamically control the district heating system using demand-side-management strategies. Results from simulation studies indicate that the approach makes it possible to reduce production cost by 18% when compared to predictive heating system, while at the same time maintaining the quality of service. The study also shows that it is possible to control the trade-off between quality of service and degree of surplus production as well as the possibility of extending the system with new consumers without increasing production capacity. Finallyan experiment was conducted in a controlled physical environment, where the Q-learning approach used in this paper was compared to two agent-based approaches. The experiment shows an improvement of 12% in automatically load balance of a small district heating network over predictive systems.

Recapitalization and Financial Performance: Experience from Deposit Money Banks of Nigeria []

The study examined the determinants of recapitalization and their influence on the financial performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria over a period of sixteen years covering 2014–2018. The observation of Gopar and Eba (2019) that banking sector reform remains an on-going phenomenon around the world and has become more pronounced in recent times because of the impact of globalization has called for a continuous review of bank capitalization in Nigeria. The population for the study is the entire DMBs in Nigeria as at the end of 2018. The financial statements of 15 out of the 22 deposit money banks for the period of this research were selected purposively. The study employed quantitative tools for data analysis and interpretations were based on standard econometrics principles. The study found that the capital base of DMBs has a positive significant influence on the return on assets and that interest rates and inflation have a negative significant influence on deposit money banks in Nigeria over the years studied. The study concluded that recapitalization significantly influenced the performance of deposit money banks in Nigeria. Thus, it was recommended that the government make policies that will reduce the high inflation rate, interest rate, and enable a stable exchange rate for better banking sector performance. Keywords: Recapitalization, Capital Adequacy, Deposit Money Banks, Financial Performance, Nigeria

Production Potentials and Strategic Constraints of Natural Resource Management in Gedeb District, Gedeo Zone, SNNPR, Ethiopia []

Gedeb district is known for its traditional agroforestry system and various natural resources conservation mechanisms although some socio-economic and institutional factors among others were the main bottlenecks of trials of natural resources conservation by various stockholders. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify and document the main efforts made to conserve natural resources and constraints in their conservation/management so as to base research and development works on the output. To achieve these objectives, checklists were prepared; sample Kebeles, focus group discussion (FGD) participants, and key informants were purposively selected, interviewed and discussions were made. Secondary data were collected from the districts and selected Kebeles. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. The result indicated that trends of using indigenous soil fertility improvement practices such as FYM, and compost; physical SWCs such as soil bunds, micro basins and Biological SWC such as stabilizing by using Desho grass, pigeon pea; use of irrigation; suitable sites/lands for nurseries and good water availability; practices of agroforestry such as boundary plantation, homestead plantation, Backyard, Live fence, Roadside, Dispersed trees in the farm, trees and shade trees were identified as major potentials and opportunities of natural resource management. Whereas declining soil fertility; high soil erosion; lack of interest to be involved in SWC activities, declining forest resources and fast-growing of deforestation; endangered tree species such as Dokima, podocarpus, hygenia abyssinica; bamboo diseases; Forest tree disease and poor regeneration, root and leaf disease which dries up eucalypts and bamboo were identified as major constraints of natural resource management. Based on these results, researches and training on soil fertility improvement work; on SWCs; on afforestation and reforestation; research on how to rehabilitate engendered tree species; researches and training on bamboo and other trees disease management; research on forest tree poor regeneration; and training on strengthening extension system among others were some of the ways forward recommended to be undertaken to achieve sustainable natural resources base in the study district. Keywords: natural resources, conservation efforts, constraints, descriptive statistics


A Latin Hypercube Design (LHD) is a statistical design of experiments, which was first defined in 1979. An LHD of k-factors (dimensions) with N design points, xi = (xi1, xi2,· · · , xik) : i = 0, 1, . . . , N−1, is given by a N×k- matrix (i.e. a matrix with N rows and k columns) X, where each column of X consists of a permutation of integers 0, 1, · · · , N−1 (note that each factor range is normalized to the interval [0, N −1]) so that for each dimension j all xij , i = 0, 1, · · · , N −1 are distinct. We will refer to each row of X as a (discrete) design point and each column of X as a factor (parameter) of the design points. We can represent X as follows: such that for each j  {1, 2, · · · , k} and for all p, q  {0, 1, · · · ,N −1} with p ≠ q; xpj ≠ xqj holds. let D = {d(xi, xj) : ≤ i < j ≤ N}. In order to optimized LHD an optimal criterion need to set for searching through LHDs. We consider the Opt(φ,D1) criterion. In this publication we will discuss about the optimal maximin LHDs obtained by ILS approach in Euclidean distance measure and comparison with existence literatures. At first, we will display the optimal LHDs to show the performance of ILS approach regarding Euclidean distance measure.


A complex number is a number of the form a + ib, where a and b are real numbers and i is a square root of -1, that is, i satisfies the quadratic equation i2 + 1 = 0. Gauss thought of a complex number z = a + ib geometrically as a point (a, b) in the real two-dimensional space. This represents the set C of complex numbers as a real two-dimensional plane, called the complex plane. The x-axis is called the real axis and the real number a is called the real part of z. The y-axis is called the imaginary axis and the real number b is called the imaginary part of z. Cube root can also be denoted in index form as numbers raised to the power 1/3. The cube root of unity meaning is the cube root of ‘1’. There are three values of the cube root of unity. In case of cube root of unity there are two complex values and one is real value. In this paper we will try to show that the representation of this three-cube root of unity is an equilateral triangle.


Security is a basic necessity for the existence of any human entity. It is a major area of human interest, a lot of resources have been invested in it and the investments continue as long as the human race exists. In this research, we focused on securing the home of the elderly from intruders using smart technologies by determining whether the Elderly is the one performing the recognized activities or not. The elderly person in this research is assumed to live alone. A machine learning algorithm, Logistic Regression (a classification algorithm) was used to develop a model to determine whether the Elderly is the one at home performing the recognized activities in the home or not. This was achieved by training the algorithm with dataset gotten from IoT source. The data was captured using sensors mounted in the home. When the outcome of the model classification is yes, it means the home is safe and the Elderly is the one carrying out the recognized activities and when the model outcome is no, it signifies that the activities recognized are likely to be that of an intruder as they do not match that of the Elderly and an alarm is automatically turned on. The output of the model was built into a system which uses it as its brain to recognize if that same activity is being performed by an elderly, hence determining if the home is secure or not. A common characteristics of the elderly is slowness in speed while performing most of their daily activities. This attribute was used to determine if an activity is being performed by the elderly or young person. Hence, within the home, the speed of a pre-determined activity was used to predict if the home is being occupied by an elderly or an intruder. Testing the model gave an accuracy of 98.7% which is good enough for securing the home.

Aquifer Testing and Parameter Determination of Selected Communities in Katsinala Local Government of Benue State, Nigeria []

Katsinala communities are captured between latitudes 7o 09’ and 7o 20’ north of the equator and longitudes 9o 15’ and 9o 30’ east of the Greenwich meridian and it is predominantly of the crystalline basement complex rocks of the middle Benue Trough, comprising of mainly quartzite, siliferous rocks, migmatite gneises, older granites and other undifferentiated basement rocks. Pumping test with single well was investigated for their yield, transmissivity and specific capacities in ten (10) communities of katsinala local government. Yield estimations of aquifer parameters through suitable analytical models from field data recorded as drawdown against time to obtain the change in draw down. The Cooper Jacob method was employed and the investigation showed that the area have low to moderate yield and can supply water for local to private use. The average yield of the well is 0.95 l/s with a transmissivity average of 8 m2/day. 60% of the investigated area showed very low yield and about 40% were tested for low yield.


The outbreak of covid-19 pandemic and its preventive measures has posed significant impacts for supply chains globally and Cameroon in particular. multiple national lockdowns continue to slow or even temporarily stop the flow of raw materials and finished goods, disrupting manufacturing as a result. The outcome is expected to affect businesses indefinitely; thus, the SC is unlikely to resume its pre‐COVID‐19 status. This article assesses the impact of the COVID‐19 pandemic measures on supply chains in Cameroon. This paper brought to lights that the COVID-19 pandemic accelerated preexisting issues in the supply chain and brought priorities such as visibility, resilience and digitization to the fore. While some sectors were negatively affected by the measures, there were some winners, especially health sectors. But across the board, protecting, retraining and reskilling the workforce is a major focus, along with investing to make the autonomous supply chain a reality. Keywords: supply chain, COVID‐19 pandemic, preventing measures

The Impact of Logistics Service Provision management on the Growth of Aviation Company Case of Camair-Co. []

This piece of work is titled “the impact of logistics service provision on the growth of aviation companies” case of Camair-Co. it has been written due to the problem of customer satisfaction that impact the growth of aviation industries and subordinates. This led to the development of the following specific research objectives; consumer service, information flow, and forecasting. Due to the objectives the following specific research questions were asked; is there a link between customer service and the growth of aviation companies? Is there a link between forecasting and the growth of aviation companies? Is there a link between information flow and the growth of aviation companies? This work was backed by two theories; the cause effect theory by karou Ishikawa (1960) and the Vrooms expectancy theory of 1933 for customer satisfaction. Major findings revealed that even though they are aware of the use of logistics service decision making techniques, they do not implement it in their institutions, and this affecting them negatively as they at times face forecasting problems and customer satisfactory problem. The researcher then concluded that logistics service has an impact on the survival/growth of aviation companies. The researcher recommended that if institution desires to exist for long, they should implement logistics service like the aspect of forecasting as it will help them to manage their aspect of planning activities in their institution. Key words: logistics, growth, service provision, aviation companies


Concurrency is a situation where more than one processes are running at the same time. In such scenarios, there are tendencies that there will be conflict in reading and writing of data items Concurrency is associated with four major problems (P1 – P4): Unrepeated Read (P1), Inconsistent Analysis (P2), Lost Update (P3) and Phantom Read (P4). A Concurrency Control techniques need to be put in place to ensure that data items are serialize in a structured pattern to avoid an adverse compromise on data integrity and consistency. Basically, there are two major techniques of controlling Concurrency on Databases; Pessimistic and Optimistic Control techniques. This paper is aimed at handling the Pessimistic technique. Pessimistic Control Technique has two inherent problems; Frequent Lockouts and Deadlock Detection. This paper is limited to the Deadlock Detection aspect of the problem. We explore the various methods of handling Deadlock issues in Pessimistic Concurrency Control Technique, we paid particular attention to Time stamping as one of the methods of handling Deadlock issues when dealing with Unrepeated Read problem (P1) of Concurrency. KEYWORDS: Concurrency, Pessimistic Control, Deadlock, Timestamping, Unrepeated Read.

A Survey of Selected Ethiopian Leather and Leather Product Exporters []

Ethiopia's government has made significant efforts to promote the growth of the leather industry. However, leather exports were unable to meet yearly export objectives. This study examined the firm-level determinants of export performances on 15 factories of Ethiopian leather and leather product exporters. It found that firm characteristics, management characteristics and firm export marketing strategic capability were statistically significant predictors of export performance. The findings indicated that several management characteristics, such as export commitment, export barriers and international experiences, are important determinants of export performance and have a positive connection.Similarly export marketing strategic capabilities like Product Development Capability, Pricing Adaptation Capability, Distribution Capability, and Technological Capability which made a statistically significant positive influence/prediction in predicting the dependent variable (export performance) have very strong positive relationship and significantly contribute to predict the export performance. As a result, managers (stewards) and policymakers are advised to concentrate their efforts on improving internal firm-level factors that enhance or boost competitiveness, as well as capacity building programs, in order to ensure better performance of the leather export and enable it to meet its intended objectives. Key words: Firm level determinants, firm characteristics, management characteristics, export marketing strategy capability, export performance.


Abstract This paper explored cancer incident in Nigeria and their types. The research used a descriptive survey design with a five years cancer patient’s record available at the cancer registries. The instrument used for data collection is a self-developed instrument tagged Cancer Incidence Assessment Instruments (CIAI) which enabled the researchers to estimate the cancer incidence in Nigeria and their types. A simple frequency distribution table was used in organizing the data and in describing the information obtained. The study revealed that cancer may start in the early stage of life and may also occur in old age but it is more frequent at youthful ages in both males and females. It also revealed that women are more affected by cancer disease than their male counterparts. Among other findings, the study revealed that cancer is more frequent among civil servants and especially females, followed by traders/business and also housewives. Even though there is a variation of the ranking of the disease every year but Breast and Prostate cancers maintain the number one in both females and males respectively for the period under investigation. Based on the interview conducted there is no reliable treatment protocol that ensures complete recovery of the patients. Keywords: cancer, treatment protocols, lethal


Blockchain is the decentralized system that store record of all transactions done by different nodes of network. So, it is used in many fields for record keeping. The blockchain technology is used in the arena of education for record keeping and digital certification. There have been published many credentials on the use of blockchain in education but we cannot find a single paper which cover all the educational projects related to blockchain. So, there is a breach of up-to-date educational trends. Today, Use of blockchain in education firmness many matters of teachers and students. On that origin, we deduce that there is a necessity to conduct the review.