Volume 10, Issue 2, February 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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This paper started with the introduction where it was stated that the funds available to school managers in public secondary schools are very limited compared with the needs of the schools. Therefore, it becomes very crucial for the managers to manage the available funds very judiciously for quality service delivery for students’ academic performance. The followings were also discussed. The meaning of finance and fund, rationale for management of funds, responsibilities of the school managers in the management of funds, funding and financing public education, and problems associated with management of funds, sources of funds for quality service delivery, responsibilities of the school managers in the revenue generation. Management of funds is an indispensable function of the school manager in the school system. It is the life wire of the system and the route to achieving quality education. School managers should display high level of responsibility in the attraction and generation of revenue and in the management of all revenue available to the school so that the quality service delivery for students’ academic performance can be achieved.

A Product Binomial Modelling of Advanced Maternal Age on Pregnancy Outcome []

The maternal age is an important component in determining the pregnancy outcome. The age of the mother at time of delivery influences the chance of having adverse pregnancy outcomes. Such outcomes constitute public health issues due to increased risks of still birth, preterm birth, low birth weight, jaundice, macrosomia, Down syndrome, perinatal mortalities and an increased risk of caesarean delivery. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between advanced maternal age and pregnancy outcome using a product Binomial model. A retrospective study of pregnant women was done to ascertain the effect of advance maternal age on pregnancy outcomes across the six Area Council of Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja, Nigeria. Delivered pregnant women who were medically and obstetrically free before pregnancy were sampled across six area council of FCT, and data on maternal age, sex of the baby and pregnancy outcomes were collected and analyzed using a product binomial sampling scheme and location as strata. Therefore, 6x2x2 contingency table were formed and a Product binomial distribution was adopted to model the relative effect of advance maternal age on pregnancy outcomes using Cochran’s and Mantel Haenszel statistic (CMH) and Breslow-Day(BD) statistics to test for conditional independent and homogeneity of odd ratio respectively. The preliminary analysis revealed variations in maternal age across the area councils. The results further revealed that Gwagwalada has the highest number of a normal delivery among maternal age (>=35) 19 (63.3%) while the highest frequency for an adverse delivery in the same category was observed in Kwali27 (65.8%). The analysis based on the CMH statistic confirmed that pregnancy outcome was conditional dependent on maternal age. This suggests that maternal age is a strong determinant of a healthy pregnancy outcome. Likewise, results from BD shown that the odd ratio across the six Area Council of FCT was not homogenous. This study reveals the significant influences of maternal age on pregnancy outcomes. Therefore, it could be used to formulate policies on controlling adverse pregnancy outcomes and to create public awareness on the effect of maternal age on pregnancy outcomes within the study area.

Land use Dynamics in the Gambia River estuary basin between 2000 and 2019 in the context of climate change []

This study is conducted on the Gambia watershed, particularly the estuarine part. It aims to evaluate the types of land use in this region following the various practices observed in the exploitation of the resources of this wetland. Thus, the analysis of the dynamics of the different land use units of the Gambia River estuary basin between 2000 and 2019 was carried out. It focuses on the determination and interpretation of land use types in 2000, 2010 and 2019 and is based on the exploitation of Landsat TM images of March 13, 2000 and ETM+ of March 17, 2019. Different methods were applied to obtain statistics that could be used to analyze and interpret the land cover types in the Gambia Basin estuary. The analysis of the results shows that during the last decades, the estuarine basins have experienced important mutations of their surface units in the context of a particularly changing climatic and hydrodynamic environment. These results show six land use units unevenly distributed in the basin that would explain environmental and social mutations. These important changes as observed in the dynamics of water bodies, mangrove ecosystems to the benefit of salt lands are only the manifestation of the vulnerability of the natural capital of the estuary basin to anthropogenic and natural factors such as climate variability. Keywords: Occupancy dynamics -Estuary - Hydrosystem - Gambia River Basin - Climate variability


Land is one of the most important resources that humans need. The population’ need for space has led to always want to open in space. With the increasing population in urban area, the demand for land increases while the land is fixed and the price of land varies respectively. Rwanda is experiencing land price variation in most urban areas since the emergence of master plan especially in Kigali city. Land prices have been varying over the years in Nyarugenge District and prices of land is constantly changing according to the way the land is closer to central business district (CBD) With the process of urbanization in Kigali City, land value increased in Nyarugenge District and the native dwellers have been affected due to the limited capacity to comply with high price of land as well many dwellers shift from the area unwillingly. In this research we analyse the trends of land price variation in different places as well as investigate the factors behind the variation of land prices in Nyarugenge district. After extraction by mastk the slope of Nyarugenge District was calculated and later classified into three categories (Low slope, Mediun slope and High slope). The analysis reveals that the stipness of the some areas are direct corelated with the variation of land prices. By using zoning and land use data in ArcGIS 10.6, we found that zoning and land use regulations in Nyarugenge district determines the quantity of land supply for a specific use. According to findings and analysis using GIS, we reveals that land price increased in all sector of Nyarugenge district, however some sectors experienced high rate of increase than others. In general, the range of land price increase fall between 4% to 94%. we found that the majors factors contributing to the variation of land prices in last ten years are concentartion of economic activities, infrastructure provision such as transportation, electricity and water related infrastrure, zoning and land use regulation that limites the land released for specific use, facilities and accesssibilty to econmic amenities such as bus stop, schools, and recreation areas. Government need to increase land released for residential use to accommodate all people according to their capacity therefore each categories of people can get land parcel that can afford themselves Keywords: Land, Price variation, Land value, Zoning and Land Use and Land Supply

Role of Internal Control on the Profitability of Commercial Banks in Rwanda, a case study of Banque Populaire du Rwanda (BPR/Atlas Mara Headquarter (2017-2019) []

This study entitle “Role of Internal Control on the Profitability of Commercial Banks in Rwanda, a case study of Banque Populaire du Rwanda (BPR/Atlas Mara Headquarter (2017-2019)” dealt with the summary of findings on the following specific objectives of the study: to find out the level of existing internal controls used by BPR Atlas Mara; to assessthe level of profitability of BPR Atlas Mara from 2017 to 2019 and to find out the relationship between internal control and profitability of BPR Atlas Mara… The respondents were 62 employees of BPR Atlas Mara. A questionnaire was used to collect data and descriptive and correlation analyses were used to analyze data. The findings revealed that internal controls used by BPR Atlas Mara were effective at a very high extent in terms of control environment with a very high mean of 4.43, risk assessment with a very high mean of 4.34, control activities with a very high mean of 4.48, information and communication system with very high mean of 4.42 and monitoring activities with very high mean of 4.33. The findings revealed that over the last 3 years, the average net profit margin over thelast 3 years was 8.96% while the standard deviation was 4.93% which implies that the major net profit margin of BPR Atlas Mara over the last 3 years were between 4.03% and 13.89 percent. The results indicated that over the last 3 years, the average return on assetsover thelast 3 years was 0.99% while the standard deviation was 0.54% which implies that the major return on assetsof BPR Atlas Mara over the last 3 years was between 0.45% and 1.53 percent. The results indicated that over the last 3 years, the average return on equityover thelast 3 years was 7.07% while the standard deviation was 4.01% which implies that the major return on equityof BPR Atlas Mara over the last 3 years was between 3.06% and 11.08 percent. The findings revealed that there is a positive and significant-high correlation between the internal control system and the profitability of BPR Atlas Mara at (ρ =0.782*,sig=0.000<0.01). The study recommends that every bank should ensure that strong internal control systems are in place by establishing an effective internal audit and risk management department to benefit from its advantages including the senior financial performance with no room for fraud and embezzlement.


Lawyering and legal practice requires proper certification by the regulatory bodies in the legal profession in line with extant legislations. It is getting worrisome to see persons not called to the bar rendering services to undiscerning clients, albeit, illegally. The vice of impersonation is on the increase within the Nigerian legal market. Cases of fake lawyers across the Nigerian legal hemisphere are being reported almost on a monthly basis. The aim of this paper is to reconcile the extant provisions dealing with impersonation of lawyers in Nigeria and examines contemporary impersonation practices in other jurisdictions. The research methodology is doctrinal. The paper ends with suggested reforms such as a review of the provisions of extant statutes in this respect and call for other socio – legal alternatives towards curbing the menace. Keywords: impersonation, Nigerian legal market, undiscerning clients.


ABTRACT Society is defined as a group of people living as a community or an organized group of people for a common purpose, a group of people who meet from time to engage in a common interest, a group of animals or plant living together in a single environment, constituting a homogenized unit or entity, its long - standing group of people sharing cultural aspects such as language, dress, norms, behavior and artistic forms. The high increase of the population brings about societal challenges that affect the wellbeing of the masses (human) and the plants. The high rate of environmental degradation, lack of portable drinking water, failure of infrastructures and depletion of energy among others issues is a major course of concern for engineers to intervene for better living standard of the population. This paper reviewed that natural source of energy such as oil and gas sector are highly diminishing without replacement, Nigeria as a developing country needs renewable energy as an alternative. This paper also highlights the challenges of inadequate drinking and domestic water and its consequences as it affects the society. Finally, the paper point out how natural environment must be preserved through engineers adhering to good engineering principles, good decision makers and good policies. Keyword: Society, Challenges, Water, Infrastructure, Energy and Engineers.

Prevalence of nasal carriage of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococci in the asymptomatic healthcare workers, at a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan []

Abstract The presence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococci is very common in hospital environment. It includes, Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (MRSA and MRCoNS). These are likely to cause deadly nosocomial infections in immunocompromised patients. They can be transmitted by direct contact through the Healthcare workers to the hospitalized patients. Aim: To know the nasal carriage prevalence of Methicillin Resistant Staphylococci among asymptomatic healthcare workers in a tertiary care hospital of Pakistan. Methodology: Nasal swabs were collected, cultured and tested for MRCoNS and MRSA by the clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI) protocols using Blood agar medium. Later Gram stain, disc diffusion method with cefoxitin and DNAse test were performed as per CLSI standards. Results: A total of 200 nasal swabs were collected and processed for culture from the healthcare workers. Out of 188 plates showing bacterial growth, 140 (74.6%) were Gram positive cocci & 48 (25.4%) were gram negative rods. All the gram-positive cocci showed positive catalase reaction. Coagulase testing was then performed to differentiate between CoNS and S. aureus. Ninety-six samples (68.6%) were found to be coagulase negative (CoNS) and 44 (31.4%) were coagulase positive. Sensitivity pattern showed that 14/96 and 6/44 among identified CoNS and S. aureus respectively were methicillin resistant. Conclusion: The prevalence of MRCoNS exceeds the number of MRSA positive scenario among the healthcare workers but is still in a high ratio.

Synthesis & Characterization of multifunctional MnO coated Ag Doped γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles by sono-Chemical Method []

In this research work the synthesis of multifunctional γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles was carried out by wet precipitation method through magnetic stirring and sonication. The method logy employed for this work has base on iterative experimental approach to optimize synthesis route. MnO2 coating was also applied to form core shell structure to enhance magnetic , electronic & catalytic properties of γ-Fe2O3 . Ag doping was carried out to promote the functionality of core/ shell structure in term of catalytic performance. The morphology & crystal structure analysis was carried out by scanning electron microscope & X-ray diffraction respectively. The Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to investigate structure variations as a function of synthesis route & coating of MnO with doping of silver.

The significance of digitalisation in public sector institutions in the COVID-19 era. []

The COVID 19 pandemic led to a restrictive lockdown period which disrupted social life and marked the dawn of a new era of remote working and digital experiences in confined environments. This paper sought to establish how the COVID 19 lockdown restrictions affected the delivering of services by selected public institutions in Zimbabwe. A cross-sectional survey of clients from the selected public institutions was conducted in Zimbabwe’s Harare metropolitan province using self-administered questionnaires, using a sample of 300 participants. It was established that the selected institutions had no facilities and technology to provide their services from home given the restrictive lock-down. The study concluded that the COVID 19 situation had negatively impacted on the service delivery of the selected institutions by constraining systems and limiting the number of clients being served. The implications of the findings are discussed and recommendations made. Keywords COVID 19; Digitalisation; Public institutions; Public service delivery; Performance.

Human-Wildlife Conflict (HWC) a threat to the food security and livelihoods of the villagers in Mangwe Rural District, Matebeleland South Province, Zimbabwe. []

Mangwe Rural District which is situated in ecological region 4 and 5 of Matebeleland South Province Zimbabwe has 17 wards, 13 806 households and a population of of 67 005 people that are threatened with food insecurity, hunger and poverty as a result of the destruction of their crops, fields, infrastructure, depredation of their livestock, physical injury and potential loss of life due to wildlife. The District community also encounters big and venomous snakes which enter their homes and at times bite their pets and eat their chickens. With a community that has a lot of young children this is a precarious situation as they are endangered thereby altering their activity patterns. The District is a beneficiary of the Command agriculture program, Pfumvudza program and the Presidential input scheme in a bid to ameliorate the effects of climate change. However, these noble initiatives are greatly threatened by Human-Wildlife Conflict which bedevils Mangwe Rural District. The District is faced by 9 Problem Animal Species which range from Baboons (Papio cynocephalus), Elephants (Loxodonta africana), Kudu (Tragelaphus strepsciceros), Jackal (Canis aureus linnaeus), Hyena (Crocuta crocuta), Bushpig (Potamochoerus larvatus), Quelea birds (Quelea quelea) and several Snake species. The data was obtained from the Human-Wildlife Conflict reports submitted to Mangwe Rural District Council and the Zimbabwe National Parks Plumtree office that deals with Problem Animal Control (PAC). These reports on Human-Wildlife Conflict incidences in each and every ward were collected and collated on an ad libitum basis. The implications of each problem animal species (PAS) on food security and livelihoods of the Mangwe district communities was highlighted and a Human-Wildlife Conflict mitigation framework was proposed in the promulgation of mitigation strategies. The PAS control strategies applied by the communities were highlighted and discussed. It can be concluded that the Human-Wildlife Conflicct in Mangwe Rural District requires urgent attention and requisite policies promulgated and mitigation strategies employed to curb a potentially catastrophic situation.It is quite clear that a holistic approach in addressing this scenario is critical as both the animal and ecosystems need the appropriate management that will then ultimately bring a balance which will ensure that the lives and livelihoods of the humans are secured in conserving wildlife to bring a peaceful co-existence to Mangwe Rural District communities and wildlife.


Huge Electricity cost is the key issue for large-scale data center operators. These companies have deployed their data centers across different geographical locations for efficiency and reliability purposes. A Lot of research work is done for the minimization of the overall energy cost of these operators. A section of researchers haS focused on hardware-based techniques while otherS work on soft-ware based techniques. In this research, the software-based techniques and model are targeted and the various approaches used in this field is presented along with pros and cons. Furthermore, this research provides a simplified overview and categorization of the work done in the area of energy cost minimization for geographically distributed data centers. The overall work done is categorized in four major sections which are Future Predication models, Competitive Online Algorithm, Dynamic Programming, and Lyapunov optimization technique.


The purpose of this study is investigating the effect of job satisfaction on employee performance at Ethiopian Customs Commission Modjo branch office. This study focused on experts who work Modjo branch office. The total population was 664 out of which 200 employees were surveyed using stratified and simple random probability sampling techniques. Researchers used questionnaire to collect data from the respondents. A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed and 180 usable responses were received. Descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis were used to analyze the study by using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 22. For this study, the dependent variable (employee performance) and six independent variables such as nature of work, pay and benefits, supervision, interpersonal relationship among coworkers, career advancement and workplace environment were identified. The results provide understanding that how these variables are related with and affect employee performance. According to the correlation output, nature of work, pay and benefits, supervision, interpersonal relationship among coworkers, career advancement and workplace environment were positively related with employee performance. The result of the regression analysis also indicated that all of the independent variables are making 85.6% contribution for employee performance of experts of Modjo Customs’ branch office. Then, the researchers recommend that the office should focus on the most influential factors that affect employee performance identified by this study and take appropriate measures so as to increase employee performance and the office should take bold steps to enhance the level of job satisfaction of their employees in areas of nature of work, pay and benefits, supervision, interpersonal relationship among coworkers, career advancement and workplace environment factors to motivate them to attain higher performance.

Study of Data Warehouse Architecture []

One of the most important components of decision support, which has become a rising emphasis of the database industry, is data warehousing. Many commercial products and services are now available, and these services are provided by all of the main database management system manufacturers. Decision support, in contrast to normal online transaction processing programs, places some specific demands on database technology. Back-end tools for extracting, cleaning, and loading data into a data warehouse, front-end client tools for querying and data analysis, metadata management and warehouse management, and back-end tools for extracting, cleaning, and loading data into a data warehouse are all defined in this paper, as well as back-end tools for extracting, cleaning, and loading data into a data warehouse.

Statistical Evaluation of the effect of Highway Geometric design of truck accident involvement on Benin-Ore Express Road. []

This project aims at investigating roadway Geometric features critical to the safe accommodation of large trucks within Edo state.With emphasis on Benin-Ore multi lane road.Accident data covering a period of 5 years was collected and sourced from Federal Road Safety Corps and other relevant Engineering Consults.Geometic details such as the horizontal and vertical alignments regarding such routes were obtained from the Federal Ministry of Works(Edo state).Poisson Regression Method and Negative Binomial Regression were the modeling tools employed in this project,since data were considered as count data and discrete in nature.

“Moral Ambition within and Beyond Traditional justice: Reflections on the effectiveness of traditional courts (dare) in conflict transformation in Madziwa communal area Zimbabwe”. []

The study sought to evaluate the effectiveness endogenous methods of conflict resolution in Madziwa communal area using the case of dare (traditional court system). The community has experienced various conflicts since the attainment of independence in Zimbabwe. As a result, various conflict resolution and peace building initiatives have been put in place in trying to ensure peaceful coexistence. Although the peace building approaches had limited success they lacked a comprehensive and inclusive approach. Using Galtung,s three Rs Reconciliation, Restoration and Reconstruction the study explored and revealed the extent to which dare as an endogenous strategy of conflict resolution has been effective as a model of peace building in Madziwa. The integration of dare knowledge system has promoted a platform for cooperation among all stakeholders to bring peace to a community where conflict fault lines are present at all levels of the society. The major finding of this research was that annihilation of indigenous knowledge systems and traditional leaders will make dare irrelevant in Madziwa communal area. Data was collected through focus group discussions, key informant interviews, direct observations and documentary reviews so as to triangulate the evidence. 13 participants provided information concerning the effective of dare in Madziwa communal area. The study showed that there are a number of challenges which are being faced in the use of dare as an approach of peace building. These challenges range from anthropological dynamics to a perceived political affiliation by Non-Governmental organisations to opposition politics in the country. There is also strong need to depoliticize traditional leaders so much so that they can be conveniently used as agents of peace and justice in collaboration with dare system. Key words: Conflict transformation, endogenous, exogenous, peacebuilding and traditional leadership

Educational Technology: Abridging the Distance for Students with Learning Disabilities Through Electronic Learning []

In most societies, the impacts of the mentally and physically disabled/challenged have not been given considerable attention. These challenged persons, who suffer from mental and physical handicaps, ranging from mental illness, intellectual disability, hearing impairment, mobility impairment - deformed legs, withered (emaciated or thin) hands or fingers, acquired brain impairment, medical impairment, vision impairment, and learning disability. Consequently, mobility and other impairments may be severely affected, which may require special aids or mobility device(s). Eventually, this may interfere with their opportunity to study in formal school set-ups. Citizens with these types of disabilities have suffered untold hardship in an attempt to meet their social, political, educational, and other life realities. Academically, some have been deprived of admissions due to their physical and mental challenges, believing that they will not cope with the required academic demands in schools; or, that management cannot bear the responsibility of taking extra care for such individuals’ special needs. They have received less attention, or completely been neglected in terms of their educational and other needs. As a result, these underprivileged individuals need special services or assistance that will aid their full participation in society. Therefore, we are in a digital era where citizens are no longer constrained or restricted to a particular place or environment, and where most times, physical mobility may not be necessary to perform some duties. Thus, this paper examines the major challenges faced by this group of people, and how electronic education could specifically ameliorate their academic needs in our society by suggesting inclusive education, principally in the Nigerian context, where admissions into educational higher institutions have become a nightmare in view of inadequate facilities. The authors systematically reviewed some related literature on the topic and suggested/recommended a number of measures that could be employed to solve the academic or learning needs of this group of neglected citizens in society.

Preparing Teachers and Learners for the 21st Century Technologies in Education []

There is a paradigm shift in educational institutions worldwide. The 21st Century has come with a new educational trend that is critically replacing the traditional method of educating the citizens. This paper reviewed some related literature on the need for teachers’ technological competency, and what it takes for the teachers and students/learners to cope with the present instructional strategies in educational institutions. The paper further looked into teachers' possibilities of harnessing the available technologies devices for educational use. From the teachers, school, and school administrators’ angles, the paper generally examined and enumerated the major technological and other challenges inhibiting teachers’ quick technological acceptance and adaptation in our educational institutions. Additionally discussed and listed are major technological tools required for teachers’ to function efficiently and embrace the technology of the present time. The government's role on teachers’ technological/computer competence was in addition discussed. Also reviewed are the technological benefits of adopting or using these technological devices in teaching and learning processes. Finally, the authors made some salient suggestions/recommendations on how teachers and learners could adequately and totally embrace the technological advances to improving teaching and learning at all levels of our educational institutions.

Opinion of Newborns on Obstetric Interventions and Maternal Mortality at the General Provincial Reference Hospital of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo. []

Objective: The aim of this study is to understand the opinion of women giving birth on obstetrical interventions and maternal mortality at the maternity ward of the provincial general hospital of reference in Kinshasa. Methodology: It is a descriptive study of qualitative phenomenological type. Our approach has targeted women who have given birth who have themselves experienced these phenomena on various occasions when they attend maternity wards. We used the unstructured interview technique, the interviews being done on an individual basis using a face-to-face interview guide. Results: From the main theme selected, the results of the thematic and categorical analysis revealed three sub-themes in this study, namely: Perception of maternal mortality, Opinion of the new mothers on obstetrical interventions and Expectation of the new mothers in their care. charged. Maternal mortality is experienced by those who have given birth as a situation of deep concern; it is favored by Delay in the reference process; Lack of rapid intervention by the healthcare team; Bad fate of the family; lack of follow-up by the ANC. In the opinion of women giving birth on obstetrical interventions, they appreciate the care team in their work. However, they raised the demand for money as a difficulty during obstetrical interventions. In addition, they consider obstetrical interventions as early decision-making by the maternity team. Faced with the expectation of those giving birth in their care, they are asking for a reduction in the costs of interventions.


Information security for institutions is very meaningful to assure client and organizations themselves secured; with advanced technology that drives to data vulnerability issues in these organizations’ data as well as the storage are most exposed to the public. Various researches including those reviewed in this study have tried to bring up solutions to the issue using different methods of authentication, but have not completely solve the problem. Even though users might be aware of information security policies, they might not comply in various situations. For achieving the goals of this study, it was necessary to collect data from end users via questionnaires using google form and then be used to form a dataset; data analyses were carried out with use of Rapid Miner tool for dataset exploration and visualization to study the current information security situation in Liberia. Sixty-four participants from six companies were participating in the current study, and their answers confirm to have a poor system to onboard the employees in Liberians’ companies where they need a practical model to assure the data security awareness behavior among employees. Following the model proposed in this study, we assure the promotion of positive security behavior among companies’ employees in Liberia.

Methodologies for Low Power Physical Design of a RISC Processor []

In VLSI circuits, power dissipation is a critical design parameter as it plays a vital role in the performance estimation of the battery operated devices. The decrease in chip size and increase in chip density and complexity increase the difficulty in designing higher performance low power consuming system on a chip. It is very important to have better design approach and power optimization methods with constraint on timing closure and physical verification. The IC’s designed today are complex and hence require a good Physical Design optimization and strategies. The primary objective of this project is to obtain a layout that is power efficient and meets timing and DRC requirements. Various power optimization methods are used in Synthesis and Physical Design. Since performance and power consumption are inversely proportional, experiments are conducted to obtain an optimum value which satisfies both these requirements. Each stage on netlist synthesis and layout generation is analyzed in order to find their impact on power and performance. Physical Design is carried out on the 28nm technology node. All the analysis has been done on a functional block which contains both macros and standard cells. The prime objective concentrates on designing an efficient low power functional block in SOC and to conduct a detailed analysis on Power, Performance, Congestion and DRC to check whether the design meets the tape-in quality.

Atom Probe Tomography of Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4) Battery Electrode Material []

We have measured the Lithium iron phosphate battery electrode system by using Atom probe tomography and also reconstruct the measured data. The systematic study of laser-assisted APT for LiFePO4 provides an insight into the problems associated with APT analysis of lithium iron phosphate by using UV laser. Different material classes have been investigated by this measurement. In this study, some trials have been performed on APT of Lithium iron phosphate.