Volume 10, Issue 2, February 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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This study aimd to provide a review of the determinant factors in influencing the information quality of the local government financial statements. The research type in relation the research purposes was explanatory research. The total sample comprised 98 respondents chose from 138 population of financial administration officer of local government units in the Government of Takalar Regency. The research used the quantitative method with the questionnaire instrument, and the data were analyzed using smartPLS path analysis test. This study used two moderation variables. The research results indicated that the financial accounting system had no effect on the quality of local financial management but the reviews of the local government financial reports had a positive effect on the information quality on local financial statements. The effectiveness of the government's internal control system and leadership commitment moderated the positive relationship between the regional financial accounting system on the quality of the financial reporting information. The effectiveness of the government's internal control system of the local financial management and the quality of the information on regional financial statements. The effectiveness of the government's internal control system and the leadership commitment moderated the negative relationship between the evaluation of local government financial reports and the quality of the financial report information. The leadership commitment moderated the positive relationship between information technology systems on the financial statements.


The African pear tree (Dacryodes edulis) is a tropical oleiferous fruit tree that possesses enormous potential in Africa. Dacryodes edulis fruit is popular in the diets of many Africans. It can be eaten raw, roasted or boiled in hot water and is eaten alone or used in garnishing cooked or roasted maize. It could also be used as butter to eat bread. The nutritional quality and microorganisms associated with the spoilage of Dacryodes edulis fruit (African Pear) was investigated. Dacryodes edulis fruit samples were obtained from Eziobodo Community farm and Eziobodo market in Owerri West L.G.A, Imo state, Nigeria. Bacteria and fungi species were isolated and characterized from the fruit. The organisms isolated were bacteria; Bacillus sp, Erwinia sp, Xanthomonas sp, Pseudomonas sp, Staphylococcus sp, Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus sp. Fungi; Alternaria sp, Trichoderna sp, Geotrichum sp, Aspergillus sp, Fusarium sp, Cladosporium sp and Sacchromyces sp. The nutritional quality of the fruit was determined using standard methods. Observation shows that the most prevalent bacteria and fungi species isolated from both farm and market samples were Bacillus sp (36% and 86%) and Aspergillus sp (14% and 43%). The least prevalent are Lactobacillus sp (2%) and Geotrichum sp (3%) for farm samples and Xanthomonas sp (12%) and Saccharomyces sp (21%) for market samples. Moisture contents increased from 12.3 to 18.2 for 0 to 7th day, while crude fibre, ash content and fat contents decreased from 13.1 to 8.5, 2.81 to 1.49 and 53.21 to 38.31 within 0 to 7th day respectively. Spoilage microbes not only reduced the nutritional quality of the fruits, but pose public health challenge to the populace. Thus proper washing of the fruits should be ensured before consumption.

the effect of monetary policy on economic growth in Mogadishu Somalia case study central bank of Somalia []

THE EFFECT OF MONETARY POLICY ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN MOGADISHU SOMALIA CASE STUDY CENTRAL BANK OF SOMALIA. Farhan bashiir Ali Salaam university mogadishu +252, SOMALIA farhanbashiir02@gmail.com Abstract The Main purpose of this article was examining the effect of monetary policy on economic growth in Mogadishu Somalia. to describe the effect of unemployment rate on economic growth in Mogadishu Somalia, to examine the impact of inflation on economic growth in Mogadishu, to investigate the relationship between currency exchange rate and economic growth in Mogadishu Somalia. The back ground of the study was historically. The target population was 60 and sample size was 38 contains managers, employees at central bank; The study was conducted through descriptive research design and used questionnaires as the main instrument for collecting data. Data was analyzed using SPSS by assessing the frequency of respondents per question. The findings of study that the effect of unemployment rate on economic growth at the have objective one, agree which represents76.3%, the second groups are answered strongly agree which represents 13.2%, third groups are answered neutral which represents 2.6% and fourth groups are disagree which represents are 7.9%. There is inverse relationship between economic growth and unemployment. While objective two examine the impact of inflation on economic growth have the following findings under this objective.The majority of the respondents are answered agree which represents 57.9%, the second groups are answered strongly agree which represents 26.3%, third groups are answered neutral which represents 2.6% and fourth groups are disagree which represents are 2.6% and fifth groups are answered strongly disagree Which represents 10.5%. The impact of inflation on economic growth is nonlinear which means negative effect. Third objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between the currency exchange rate and economic growth. The majority of the respondents are answered agree which represents 55.3%, the second groups are answered strongly agree which represents 26.8%, third groups are answered neutral which represents 5.3% and fourth groups are disagree which represents are 5.3% and fifth groups are answered strongly disagree Which represents 7.9%. The relationship between the exchange rate and economic growth is certainly an important subject, from both a positive (descriptive) and a normative (policy prescription) perspective. The result further showed that there is a significant relationship between monetary policy and economic growth. The Article recommends the study concluded Formulating and implementing monetary and exchange rate policies. Maintaining and enhancing the value of the Somali shilling. Central bank federal of Somalia should a clear mandate and objectives. Central bank of the federal of Somalia government should control foreign currencies and domestic currency. Central bank of the federal of Somalia government should be center of financial Management. Key words monetary policy; Economic growth


This study is on macroeconomic determinants of economic growth in Nigeria between the period of 1991 and 2019. The main objective of the study was to investigate some macroeconomic determinants of growth in Nigeria and further assess the variables and their influence on economic growth. The study made use of secondary data sourced from the 2021 Statistical Bulletin of the Central Bank of Nigeria and from the 2021 database of the World Bank. The Ex Post Facto research design was employed for the study. Both Simple Linear and Multiple regression analysis using SPSS were employed using Gross Domestic Product (GDP) as the dependent variable while Unemployment, Inflation and Foreign Direct Investment were considered as the explanatory variables. The Johansen Co-integration test and the error correction model were also applied in the study. The results showed that Unemployment and FDI had positive effects on Economic growth while Inflation had a negative effect. It also indicated the validity of short run equilibrium relationship between variables under study. The study recommended the need for government to create a business friendly environment and enact policies to encourage foreign investment inflows. Government should further develop critical and urgent policies that will support and drive production activities in all sectors to arrest the rising unemployment then proffer fiscal and monetary policies to assist in tackling inflation.

Efficacy of Covid-19 Vaccines, Through Correlating Vaccine Coverage and Death by Covid-19 []

ABSTRACT Aims: In the wake of compulsory vaccination measures against covid-19 and the global effort to tame the Sars-Cov-2 pandemic, the present study examines the correlation between vaccination coverage and the reduction of covid-19 deaths. Methods: The research sample consists of 27 European countries, which officially declare the data of their vaccination coverage to the ECDC for 18+ years old and 60+ years old. Linear regression and Quadratic regression model were used for statistical analysis of the data. Results: From the statistical analysis of the vaccination coverage (43% -95%) in the 18+ years and the cumulative deaths (duration of 14 days to 23/11/2021) of the countries, a moderately negative correlation emerged (RLinear = 0,76 / RQUADR = 0,78), p <0,05 => 0,00 <0,05, while a moderately negative correlation was also found on the vaccination coverage (61% -100%) and cumulative deaths(duration of 14 days to 23/11 / 2021) on individuals of 60+ years old (RLinear = 0,78 / RQUADR = 0,81), p <0,05 => 0,00 <0,05. However, the statistical analysis revealed two different groups in terms of deaths (See Tables 2 and 6), with a marginal point of group’s difference at 71% of vaccination coverage at 18+ years old and 85% at 60+ years old. Because this difference in deaths at this point may indicate the existence of a latent variable, which forms a false correlation, two additional correlation analyses are performed, between vaccination coverage and deaths in the two subgroups, as formulated for 18+ with vaccination coverage (43% -71% and 71% -95%), and two analyses of correlation between vaccination coverage and deaths in the two subgroups for 60+ with vaccination coverage (61% -82% and 85% -100%). All 4 sub-analyzes are expected to show correlations, otherwise the initial correlations are judged to be plausible due to the existence of a hidden variable that forms false results. Statistical analyses of the four groups did not show a correlation between increased vaccination coverage and a decrease in covid-19 deaths in all four cases, suggesting that the initial correlations were due to one or more variables underlying the vaccine. Conclusions: In conclusion, the results of the present study show that the increase in the rate of vaccination coverage at 18+ years old and 60+ years old is not related to the reduction of deaths from covid-19.

Biofortification in Pulses: A Nutrientcrafting Blessing in Current Scenario []

With the extensive use of advanced technologies in agriculture, much anticipated increase in crop productivity and yield have tremendously improved .But even sufficient amount of meal is not able to combat the problems like malnutrition or hidden hunger , which is the main reason initializing various health problems worldwide. This led to the revolutionary idea of Bio-fortification, when the same amount of food on table can provide much better nutrition , with the help of various techniques .Thus bio-fortification is increase in nutrient content in a given crop by means of the biotechnology and other techniques. Pulses or grain legumes consists of a group of crops , which are major source of proteins, carbohydrates and minerals. Hence major bio-fortifications applications in pulses cultivation can help combat the problems of suppressed nutrition or hidden hunger especially in Asian and African countries . This article is focused on the techniques, applications and the advances of bio-fortifications in pulses in current scenario .Dr Howarth Bouis is the pioneer of Biofortification under worldwide HARVEST PLUS programme to improve the nutritional accessibility and to ensure global food security. This shift from calorie dense to nutrient balanced diet has become a high priority research area in pulse crops and several improved varieties have been developed and released for consumption.


The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible effect of an organophosphate insecticide (Baygon insecticide) on the liver function, sperm count hormonal assay and hematological parameters. 20 albino rats were separated into 4 groups; group A (3 mins daily exposure), group B (6 mins daily exposure), group C (9 mins daily exposure) and group D (control), the baygon insecticides was administered from the aerosol container to each group for 10 seconds in closed air-tight rat cages for a period of 3 weeks before blood samples were collected. The result obtained from the hematological parameters revealed that WBC for the test groups had the highest value of 4.7 and lowest value of 3.4, for the lymphocyte, the highest value was 6.75 and the lowest was 5.50, while for the PCV, the test group had the highest value of 36.0 and the lowest value was 33.0, showing that there was a significant difference (p<0.05). The total sperm count for the test groups had the highest value as 14.0 and the lowest value as 10.25 with a significant difference (p<0.05). ALT for the test groups had the highest value as 0.39 and lowest value as 0.26, AST had the highest value as 0.016 and the lowest value as 0.013 within the test groups while testosterone had the highest value as 2.60 and lowest value as 2.13. This shows that organophosphate insecticides (baygon insecticides) had a negative effect with a very high significant difference (p<0.05) on sperm count and testosterone in the test when compared with the control. These findings demonstrate that exposure to organophosphate insecticides may result in defects in hematological parameters and can also affect the sperm which may lead to infertility in males.

God’s will in the establishment of management between the universe and man []

God’s will in the establishment of management between the universe and man * an introduction: Infinitely great... creativity in the mind... Ehsan in the calendar... Mastery in science calculations... The universe with God is based on truth... Comprehensive and complementary in the knowledge of every creature created by God... He is just in his balance, and his weight is an atom in all his creatures... We have sent down the Dhikr, and we will memorize it... The miraculousness of the universe and the straightening of the body is between dust and water, and the human being is between flesh, bone and blood. The infinitely large universe also indicates the greatness and oneness of God, in terms of its management, organization and correction, and nothing was created in it in vain. Rather, everything that exists has its own system and follows it within the natural laws (chemistry and physics), and this is what science has confirmed with the existence of man and knowledge.  This is what makes the Qur’an the Book of God sent to the Prophet Muhammad as a miracle and a challenge to humanity, because of the comprehensive and integrated clarification and interpretation of all topics related to the universe, which man is still discovering and is unable to, despite the great and tremendous progress of science and technology, and here come the verses of God in the universe  And the greatness of his character. And in the creation of humans and non-humans, they are qualities stored in the depth of self and existence that are not disclosed, nor are they placed in the place of mental sensory perception of them except by the bearer of them, the individual human only, who senses them in his being as a uniqueness of his.  Whereas, beings that are not rational by nature are not aware of their essences or hidden essences from their apparent external attributes... With regard to the mind, philosophers, ancient and modern, differed in the definition of the mind, and if most of the definitions pour into each other, this philosopher looks at the mind from one angle and the other from another angle, and I think that all of these definitions limit our ability to understand and comprehend what the mind is.  The mind according to Aristotle is the ability to perceive the total forms and abstract entities directly and a picture that unites it with all members of the species. The will and management are two different words in pronunciation, but they are intertwined, they are like the heart and the mind of the human being, the microcosm of the universe. (And He created you in phases. Have you not seen how God created seven heavens in layers, and made the moon in them a light, and made the sun a lamp) [p.: 124]. - Beginning with everything, the will first, followed by management, what he wanted and wanted, to achieve the goal and reach the goal. Almighty’s saying: {And I did not create the jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me} [Al-Dhariyat: 56]. {He who came down from the sky water for you from a drink and it is a tree in it.  You in the land are different. {And I am created for you with a warmth and benefits, and they are eat.  . - Just as will and management are power, strength, contemplation, authority and control over action and accordingly, it is creativity, innovation, perfection, balance, evaluation, coordination and organization since the beginning of the creation of existence and creation. The Almighty said: “The Creator of the heavens and the earth” {Al-Baqarah 117}. {Say: Behold what is in the heavens and the earth, and what signs and warnings are of no avail to a people who do not believe} Yunus (101). {Indeed, We created man in the best of stature} (Al-Tin 4). "Say to you to break the earth in two days and make him an ancestral of the Lord of the Worlds * and make a Roissy from above, and gain in which their forces are estimated in four days, whether for the liquids * and then settled to heaven.  the seven heavens in two days, and He revealed its affair in each heaven, and We adorned the lowest heaven with lamps and treasures (12). Definition of will: Will in the Qur’an: The substance "rad" and its derivatives appeared in the Qur'an (132) times, and its types are: The Divine Will: “God desires ease for you, and He does not desire hardship for you.” - Human will: "The Hereafter wanted and seeking her seeker, a believer, believing that they were thankful (, or be the will of evil, Allaah says:" Satanic Will: “Satan only desires to cause enmity and hatred between you.” Will of some philosophers: Engels explained that free will means nothing but the ability to make decisions with self-knowledge.  The voluntary nature of an act appears very clearly when a person has to overcome certain obstacles, external or internal, to achieve his goal. The first stage of a voluntary act lies in setting and understanding the goal, and this is followed by the decision of the act and the choice of the most successful means of action.  An act cannot be described as an act of will unless it is the implementation of a self-decision, and willpower is not a gift of nature. The skill and ability to choose a goal, take sound decisions and implement them, and complete what was started are the fruits of knowledge, experience and self-education. The idealists hold that will is a property independent of external influences and conditions. Marxists see it as the fruit of knowledge, experience, and education. As for the Stoics, they believe that the will is the basis of knowledge and behavior, because it is a psychological effort on which mental awareness is based. Descartes held that there is no will where there is no ability.


Cardiovascular illnesses are the leading cause of death worldwide, and they have a significant influence on both quality of life and healthcare expenses. An enormous amount of work has gone into research to develop new techniques for diagnosing and forecasting the prognosis of these diseases in a timely and efficient manner. Epigenetic pathways have been discovered, and they have been connected to the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular illnesses. This has consequences for disease progression and can help with treatment trials for new drug designs and prevention tactics. Advances in methodology and large-scale data analysis have identified novel components and targets linked to various diseases, allowing for more individualized epigenetic mapping for personalized diagnosis and treatment. This provides for pharmacogenetics, which anticipates pharmaceutical reactions and supports personalized treatment based on differences in each patient's epigenetic basis. DNA methylation has also emerged as a promising tool for the accurate detection and prediction of cardiovascular disorders. They are excellent for use in clinical practice because of their considerable openness and possible localization techniques. As a result, this review focuses on DNA methylation as an epigenetic biomarker for cardiovascular illnesses. It also aims to highlight how DNA methylation can enhance cardiovascular patient diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy.


This work examined participation of Parent-Teachers Association’s (PTA) in the development of secondary schools in Edo State, Nigeria. Three (3) research questions guided the study. The descriptive survey design based on ex-post-facto research was adopted. The population was made up of 614 principals of public secondary schools in Edo State while a sample of 206 principals was studied. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire titled: Participation of Parent-Teachers Association in School Development Questionnaire (PPTASDQ). Reliability test was carried out on the instrument and the reliability coefficient was 0.82. The analysis of the result was carried out using frequency and percentages. The results of the analysis showed that PTA provide financial assistance to schools, help in facilities provision, helps in manpower provision and development and maintenance of students’ disciplines in secondary schools in Edo State.


The paper sheds light on the importance of ratio analysis as a tool to measure financial performance and management efficiency by focusing on two heavily contrasting banks in Oman – Bank Muscat and Bank Nizwa. The differing status and nature of both banks makes for a more well-rounded analysis as it gives an insight on how a established market leader and a newer emerging bank, both, use ratio analysis as a metric for their financial performance and management efficiency. In order to preserve the sanctity and reliability of the study, very specific research instruments, methods and sources have been used. A variety of literature from different parts of the world such as Pakistan, Nigeria, Jordan and more has been reviewed in order to get all different types of arguments, debates and opinions on the topic. Furthermore, the study makes actual use of profitability, liquidity, efficiency, capital structure and market ratios in order to visually see the impact of all the theoretical discussion being done. The comparative case study has also been backed by descriptive statistics and correlation, so as to see the entirety of the trends in financial performance and management efficiency using ratios for both banks. Hence, the report covers the importance, possible links and impacts that come with using ratio analysis to monitor financial performance and management efficiency.


Cell phones are one of the moving web-based media nowadays. It's turning into a piece of life as it becomes impeded without this. The cell phone is assuming a significant part that has returned our TV, Radio FM, watch, and so forth in this innovation and cutthroat period, this review will be more fundamental intended for Mobility organizations that their business &profit will be founded on client prerequisites and insights. Every one of the shoppers use cell phones to make their life more straightforward and to embrace the digitalized world by associating the web with the entire world. Highlights/credits that considered by clients while purchasing cell phones are, for example, brand picture, useful, highlights, and applications, battery use, working framework, goal of camera, pixels, stockpiling limit, solidness and similarity, cost. These likewise incorporate various brands like ex-china telephones.


Abstract The Real Estate Market of Sri Lanka consists of diverse income sectors and cash flows into the country. Covid 19 has been a dramatic change to the overall market in the global and Sri Lankan industries. Accordingly the paper has been clearly defined the significance of the Covid impact towards the Sri Lankan Real Estate Sector. Global changes, demand and supply gap, negative and positive growth impacts have been discussed with detail explanations to the Sri Lankan real estate sector. Impact of the Easter attack continued by the Covid 19 pandemic to the Sri Lankan markets also have been described with residential, leisure related, retail space, office space and logistics sectors with diverse measurements. Government backups, funding sources, concessions have been elaborated accordingly to the global recessions and Sri Lankan industries. Introduction of the report detail the drop in the tourism activities, Chinese, Indian and European closure of markets, restrictions of visa which led to hold real estate activities. Global, Sri Lankan status were compared with economic, industrial, sector wise performance and impact due to direct and indirect Covid 19 related concerns. Discussion disclosed present and past records related to the sector and major consideration was allocated to industry wise performance. Further developments of the private sector and government major projects also discussed along with the current trends and future prospects of the real estate industry. Key Words: Covid-19 Impact, Economy, Global Changes, Real Estate, Sri Lankan Market

Impacts of Processing Methods on the Microbial Loads and Proximate Composition of Tagelus adansonii Bosc, 1801 (Mollusca: Bivalvia, Solecurtidae) in Mangrove Swamps of Iko Estuary, Southeast, Nigeria. []

Globally, the aquatic ecosystem is constantly polluted resulting in bioaccumulation of pathogenic microbes in clams that inhabit such ecosystems. Tagelus adansonii has served as man’s food around the world from time immemorial. Some like it salted, some like it fried, raw clams eating is popular too. Paucity of information on the safety of the food organisms for consumption and how these pro-cessing methods can help in eliminating the microbes while retaining the useful nutrients remains a challenge. Such information is necessary to curb the menace of outbreaks associated with eating T. adansonni from our waters. This research was therefore conducted to characterize microbes, access the biochemical composition and determine the effects of different processing methods on the microbial load and proximate compostion of T. adansonii from mangrove swamp of Iko estuary, Nigeria. Microbial and proximate compositions T. adansonii were evaluated. Standard microbiological techniques methods of AOAC were employed. Results showed that Bacillus substilis, Micrococcus species, Proteus species, Klebsiella species, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerea, Vibrio para-haemolyticus, Enterobacter sp, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, and Chromatium species were the probable bacteria while Rhizopus sto-lonifer, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium species. Candida tropicalis, Fusarium species and Aspergillus flavus were the probable fungi isolated from the sample. Extant processing methods adopted were freezing, parboiling, Deep-frying and Dry-salting. THBC was significantly (P≤0.05) low in salted sample, TVC was significantly (P≤0.05) low in fried sample and completely removed in salted sample. Total coliform count (TCC) was significantly (P≤0.05) low in frozen sample. Total staphylococcal count (TSC) was completely removed by frozen and fried samples. Total fungal count (TFC) was completely removed by freezing and significantly low in fried sample. Among the THBC, Micrococcus sp, Chromatium Sp, and S. aureus were eliminated by freezing, all other THBC except Chromatium sp, and Staphylococus aureus were eliminated by parboil-ing. Frying could not eliminate Proteus sp and S. cereus while salting could eliminate all THBC except B. substilis and Micrococcus sp. Among TVC, freezing, cooking and salting were efficient in eliminating V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae respectively. In the TCC group, freezing could remove all except Enterobacter sp, and Proteus sp. while Enterobacter sp., Chromatium sp., Proteus sp., Chromatium sp., Enterobacter sp and Micrococcus sp were not eliminated by parboiling, frying and salting respectively. Freezing, frying and salting eliminated S. aureus in the TSC group. Among the TFC, salting eliminated all except Candida tropicalis. Crude protein contents were generally high in the clam. Par-boiled and fried fish recorded the highest crude protein content, crude fibre and nitrogen free extract. Caloric value significantly (P<0.05) increased in frozen, fried and salted samples. Generally, ranked result showed that salting emerged the overall best. However, a combination of salting with other methods may produce a synergic effect. Government to check pollution of the aquatic ecosystem and proper processing of T. adansonii adopted before consumption for good public health.


Abstract Determination of entropy heating value of deep cycled lead acid batteries in terms of adiabatic temperature rise during discharge has been done. The materials used for this work are; a 250 watts monocrystalline solar module, a digital multimeter, an inverter, a timing device, 200 watts bulb, six 12 volts deep cycled lead acid batteries and a digital thermometer. The study shows that the battery adiabatic temperature rises as the battery discharges continuously and the discharges result into power loss from the battery. The average entropy values for the six different battery models under consideration are 1.97J/K, 2.18J/K, 2.40J/K, 2.93J/K, 3.11J/K and 3.13J/K. The average entropy heating value for all the considered models of deep cycled Lead acid batteries is thus 2.62J/K. Keywords: Lead Acid Battery, Entropy, Adiabatic temperature, Discharge, Digital thermometer.


The purpose of this research is to determine the optimum dose of probiotic addition that is best used in catfish culture. The research was conducted at the Laboratory of aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Universitas Padjadjaran, Jatinangor. The fish used in this research were sangkuriang catfish (Clarias Gariepinus). The treatments tested were without the addition of probiotics (control), 10, 15, and 20 ml/L probiotics. Each container was filled with 100 fish densities. The experimental design used was Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with four treatments and three replications. The parameters observed were the fish's specific growth rate, survival rate, and water quality. The results showed that there was no significant difference in specific growth rates. The highest specific growth rate of cat-fish was obtained in treatment C, which was 1.82%. There is a significant difference in the survival rate of catfish fingerlings between ex-perimental groups. The highest survival rate was obtained in treatment C, which was 91%. In conclusion, the optimum dose of probiotics addition for sangkuriang catfish culture was 15 ml/L.

Review on Characterstics, Causes and Factors that affect Crop Weed Competition []

Competition between weeds and crops is generally associated with a negative interference involving physical factors that induces decreased growth in both types of plants because of an insufficient supply of a necessary growth factor (Radosevich et al., 1997; Harper, 1977; and Rizvi and Rizvi, 1992).Competition occurs when each of two or more organisms seeks the measure they want of any particular factor or things and when the immediate supply of the factor or things is below the combined demand of the organisms” (Clements et al., 1929).


The study aims to have an overall understanding on working and functioning of a sanitary landfill from the siting to the closure stage and identifying various landscape design techniques that can be implemented in a landfill site and come up with a set of guidelines by analysing the existing policies and guidelines pertaining to landfills. In order to achieve the same, what constitutes to municipal solid waste, methods of landfilling, issues, impacts, Mitigation strategies, Landscape design strategies, design approaches towards a landfill, infrastructure requirements, end use opportunities have been discussed. The comprehensive study methodology is used and the findings suggest that the landscape work in a landfill site should start at siting stage itself to achieve a successful end use of the site. De-centralization, Source reduction, Composting, Neutralizing waste and generating public awareness are the key factors in reducing the amount of waste to be landfilled, while the by-products of the same can be used in revenue generation. Keywords: Sanitary landfills, landfill landscaping, Municipal solid waste, landfill gas, Phytoremediation, leachate management, vegetative capping.