Volume 10, Issue 5, May 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Analysis of the use of precast concrete, Ready Mix and Olahan Concrete on the Cimanggis Cibitung Toll Road construction project with the AHP Method []

This research aims to identify the use of ready mix concrete, processed concrete and precast concrete in the Cimanggis Cibitung toll road construction project and to understand the influence of the use of ready mix concrete, processed concrete and precast concrete on time, friendly to liungkungan, production, quality of goods, strength and cost. In its development, concrete is the most widely used building material in the world. Nowadays more and more new modified concrete is found, such as precast concrete, ready mix concrete and processed concrete. The method used to determine the best use of concrete construction between Precast concrete, Ready Mix and Processed Concrete is used AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) Method. From the results of calculations with AHP with EVN value, the criteria obtained: time 0.04, curvature 0.03, production 0.22, quality of goods (Quality) 0.48, kekuatan 0.15 and biaya 0.08. For the construction work of the Cimanggis Cibitung Toll Road, the quality of concrete is very important in the construction work of the Cimanggis Cibitung Toll Road construction, for then concrete production becomes the second important thing continued the strength of concrete to know the sturdiness of concrete used in the field then the cost is also an important factor after strength because of the cost that we can know whether the concrete cooking is the most efficient, fast and not problematic only last time in the implementation of cimanggis cibitung road construction work as well as the environment in maintaining the sustainability of the toll environment that can also serve to maintain the strength of concrete

Application of Artificial Neural Network in Minimizing Defects of Rotary Shouldered Connections: A Case Study []

The aim of this paper is to minimize defects of rotary shouldered connections in a Manufacturing Company using artificial neural network. To achieve this, simple linear regression was carried out, the data obtained was used to train the neural network. The regression obtained using the simple linear regression and ANN was 0.1764 and 0.42665. Also, from the analysis, the mean square error of the artificial neural network was 0.00860542, when compared to the mean square error (8.6953) from the data of the simple linear regression shows a closer value to the line of best fit. The gradient of the artificial neural network is observed to be 2.1092e-13 at epoch 6 during training, 1e-9 during testing at epoch 6 and 0 upon validation check at epoch 6. The results when compared, showed that the artificial neural network minimized the defects up to 47.65%. It was recommended that further study should incorporate a larger dataset as it will improve the accuracy of the model.

Improving Sand Control Strategies to Reduce Cost of Oil Well Production []

This research aims to improve sand strategies to reduce the cost of oil well production at a marginal Oil field. To achieve this, the productivity data was evaluated to determine the application of sand management processes using simple linear regression, evaluation of the effective sand control techniques, and improvement of the sand management strategy by adopting the Lewins force model. Cost analysis of selected sand management and control strategies based on the improvement was carried out for four oil wells. The simple linear regression gave a weak positive regression of 0.2502, the Lewins force model was applied and gave a percentage error of 0%, 1%, 3%, and 1% for wells A, B, C, and D respectively. The cost of existing and improvement strategies were evaluated and gave an improved result of $55524.04 from $39821.1 for well A, $29834 from $21104.16 for well B, $10991.71 for well C, and $705984.44 from $61176 for well D. It was recommended to incorporate the use of Artificial Neural Network, Random Forest and Support Vector Machine, and also compare the results obtained.


This study aims to see the effect ofInnovation, creativity, hard skills and soft skills both partially and simultaneously on the performance of Padang City DP3AP2KB employees. The population in this study is all DP3AP2KB Padang City employees as many as 40 people. And the technique of determining the number of samples taken as respondents with the technique of taking this sample using the total sampling technique (whole sample).The data analysis technique is multiple linear regression using the classical assumption test of normality, multicollinearity, and heteroscedasticity.The results of this study indicate that (1) Innovationprovide a positive influence on the performance of Padang City DP3AP2KB employees. (2) Creativityprovide a positive influence on the performance of Padang City DP3AP2KB employees. (3) Hard skills workprovide a positive influence on the performance of Padang City DP3AP2KB employees. (4) Soft skillsprovide a positive influence on the performance of DP3AP2KB Padang City employees (5) Innovation, creativity, hard work skills, and soft skills together have a positive effect on the performance of Padang City DP3AP2KB employees.


Bekasam is a traditional food product fermented from freshwater fish with the addition of rice and salt. This review article aims to get information aboutthe bacteria involved in the fermentation process of processed used fish, peranan bakteri to processed used fish and the impact of direct addition of bacterial stater lactic acid in the process of making processed used fish. Based on the results of the review study obtained information that the types of bacteria that play a role or are involved in the fermentation process processed fish bekasam is from the group of lactic acid bacteria. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus acidophilus. The role of lactic acid bacteria is to produce enzymes that are able to convert carbohydrates (glucose) into lactic acid so that it can inhibit the growth of other bacteria including rotting bacteria. The impact of the direct addition of lactic acid bacterial stater to the process of making processed used fish is to improve the functional properties of used fish as a functional food product. Keywords : Bekasam, BAL, Bacteria, Fermentation


La croissance économique demeure un objectif primordial de toute politique économique des PED. La République Démocratique du Congo, saisissant les opportunités qu’offre l’intégration régionale, devrait identifier les leviers fondamentaux de sa croissance économique capables de booster son économie, le sortir de sa trappe à pauvreté et améliorer le bien-être de sa population. Une analyse économétrique du modèle de régression linéaire multiple a permis de stigmatiser l’apport des infrastructures routières dans la croissance économique. La croissance observée dans ce pays, en ce début de troisième millénaire, est aussi et surtout la contribution des infrastructures routières. La politique économique de la RDC, devrait s’en inspirer pour une croissance voulue résiliente, non vulnérable et soutenue dans une économie diversifiée à ses secteurs porteurs de la croissance économique. Mot clé : Réseau routier, infrastructure, croissance économique, régression multiple.


In this work, selected mechanical properties such as tensile strength, hardness and microstructure analysis of a sand cast and die cast of aluminum silicon alloy was investigated and compared. An aluminum silicon alloy was cast using sand mould material and die mould material. The cast produced from both method were subjected to tensile test, hardness test and microstructure analysis test. The die Al-Si cast has the hardness test of 134.5 HV while sand Al-Si 131, 9 HV. The die AL-Si cast has the yield point stress of 118 N/m2 and sand cast was 105 N/m2. The microstructure analysis result showed the particle of AL-Si cast produced by die cast is more refined than the sand Al-Si cast. The hypoeutectic alloy shows a mixture structure of α –phase and fine eutectic phase of α +Si, though the hypereutectic alloys show a mixture of fine eutectic phase of α+Si and Si particles phase in which the size of particles increases with increasing silicon concentration of the alloy. The degree of refinement of the eutectic silicon increased as the silicon content of the alloy increased beyond the eutectic composition. Here, the primary silicon appears as coarse polyhedral particles. Conclusively die cast produced better product than sand cast method.

New Concept 'Big Ideas' []

This paper deals with the new concept of “Big Ideas” (“BID”). BID concerns the mass of ideas that can be generated and consumed by citizens in all countries of the world. this world where intelligence is trivialized and democratized. Countries of the word, will take advantages of the power of intelligence of their citizens to plan and achieve these development goals.


Full attendance at prenatal care services has been approved as an intervention that decreases the deaths of mothers and their neonates. The study aimed to assess factors associated with recommended antenatal care attendance among postpartum mothers at selected health facilities in Kicukiro District. This study used a quantitative approach and a descriptive cross-sectional design. A total of 305 postpartum mothers estimated using the Yamane formula were sampled to participate in this study. Systematic sampling with a kth value of three was used to obtain participants in each selected health facility. A well-structured data collection tool composed of demographic characteristics of participants, recommended antenatal care attendance, socio-economic factors, and health facility factors were applied for data collection. Validity and reliability of the questionnaire were tested before data collection at study areas, and a Cronbach’s Alpha of over 0.75 was recorded. Data analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the demographic characteristics of respondents and the prevalence of ANC attendance in frequency and percentage. With a significance level of 5%, bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to examine the associations between the study’s variables. Significant variables were those with a p-value less than 0.05. Prior to the data collection, Mount Kenya University Rwanda's Institute of Postgraduate Studies and Research issued an introduction letter to the researcher. The researcher requested permission to collect data, and authorization letters were given by selected health facilities before meeting with respondents to request their consent. The study’s respondents freely completed the consent form to participate. Analysis of the demographic characteristics of respondents indicated that the mean age was 28.05 years (SD=5.74 years) and the mean parity was 2.1 (SD=1.2). Most participants were either single, separated, divorced, or widowed (67.5%). Regarding participants' educational attainment, the majority were educated up to primary education (51.8%) while most of their partners had primary education. Considering religion, the highest percentage (96.7%) were Christians. Considering the location of one's home, 53.1% and 46.9% of participants lived in urban and rural areas, respectively. The majority of postpartum mothers (63.9%) did not attend recommended antenatal care visits, and 64.3% initiated their ANC attendance within 12 weeks. Marital status (AOR = 2.240, 95% CI: [1.213–4.139], p = 0.008), parity (AOR = 6.445, 95% CI: [3.137–13.240], p=0.001), health insurance use (AOR = 3.683, 95% CI: [1.805-6.675], p = 0.048), and the cost of ANC services and laboratory tests (AOR = 9.699, 95% CI: [2.42-38.78], p=0.001) influenced postpartum mothers to attend recommended ANC visits. The researcher recommends that activities related to health education regarding recommended ANC attendance and its importance should be reinforced in Kicukiro District. The Ministry of Health should plan free or subsidized maternal and child health services to increase recommended antenatal care uptake.


The management of sustainable stakeholder relationships for continuous existence is critical for service firms since they are expected to create value for all stakeholders including those who can impact or be impacted by the actions and inactions of the firm’s purpose and objectives. However, being able to create as much value as possible that will satisfy the needs of stakeholders through project implementation remains a challenge. The study therefore examined strategic project management components and stakeholder satisfaction of selected service firms in Nigeria.


This research has developed a checklist of physical planning measures which can be used to mitigate the negative effects of involuntary migration within Nigeria. The objective of the study was to examine the physical planning measures that can be used to mitigate the negative effects of involuntary displacement on the population of Finima. The study was a mixed methods study that employed both quantitative and Qualitative techniques and tools. They include; general questionnaire administered to 100 participants, individual in-depth interview using structured questionnaires, focus group discussion with people that experienced the resettlement, key informant interview, (Chiefs, Finima relocation committee members and NLNG Personnel) and Personal observation (Participatory Transects). The findings revealed that the resettlement and siting of the NLNG changed the employment status of the Finima people as more people gained employment after the resettlement. In other words, the negative impacts have been ameliorated by the improved quality of life.

Review article "TILAPIA FISH DENDENG Products" []

Tilapia fish is a processed fish product based on flat-shaped tilapia fish (slabs) made from sliced fish or whole fish seasoned and dried. This review article aims to get information about the stages of making tilapia jerky. Based on riview literature that the stages of making fish jerky consist of preparing fish, turning / turning and drying. Keywords : drying, reviewing, quality, seasoning, stages.


Mackerel is an industrial fish, because it can be processed into various processed products, one of which is corned beef. The purpose of this paper is to get information on the stages of making mackerel corned beef and its marketing in Indonesia. Based on riview literature obtained infor-mation that the processing of mackerel corned beef products is not much different from beef corned beef and chicken meat. Mackerelcorned beef consists of the stages of preparing mackerel meat, making dough and canning. Mackerel corned beef products are certainly still rarely found, so to improve the product to be more in demand by the public, namely having to do marketing or promotion.


Pindang cob is a traditional fish processed product that is highly developed in Indonensia. This review article aims to get information on the stages of making cob pindang, the quality standards of cob pindang and the benefits of consuming cob pindang Based on the literature study obtained the following information: The stages of making cob pindang consist of 7 stages, namely the selection of raw materials, preparation of equipment and materials, weeding and washing, preparation of fish, salt and seasoning, boiling fish and stor-age. The quality standards of cob pindang are assessed based on organoleptic, chemical and microbial parameters. The benefits of consuming cob pindang are preventing heart disease, maintaining brain function and health, supporting bone health, preventing thy-roid damage and maintaining eye health.

The Teaching Challenges of IELTS Test Preparation; Speaking Section: An Exploratory Research. []

The primary focus of this study is to explore some of the teaching challenges of Pakistani IELTS instructors in teaching students specifically for the speaking section of the International English Language Testing System. This study employs a qualitative approach with face-to-face semi-structured interviews of 10 participants who are IELTS teachers. The instructors involved in this study have belonged to different IELTS preparation institutes of Lahore, Pakistan. Several types of research have been done on the difficulties faced by IELTS preparers but seldom have been conducted on the challenges experienced by IELTS teachers (Soatova, 2021). The focus of this study is to extract the major obstacles during teaching IELTS speaking and look for possible solutions to cope with those difficulties. The major findings of this study are some of the challenges of the instructors in getting students prepared for the IELTS speaking section. 1) Lack of intrinsic efforts from the learners. (Roza, 2019). 2. IELTS teachers’ teaching experiences. Moreover, teachers have also devised some strategies to motivate them and overcoming the difficulties in teaching IELTS. 1) Engaging and interesting communicative tasks, encouraging them by sharing the opportunities of passing IELTS.


There is currently plenty of research that can be found the Enterprise Resource Planning and company performance. However, there is a research gap in the Sri Lankan context. This study examines the effect of ERP system implementation and company financial performance in the Sri Lankan context. Two prominent organisations have been selected in the Sri Lankan in the telecommunication sector. The return on assets (ROA), asset turnover (ATO), return on sales (ROS) and return on investment (ROI) financial indicators are used to find the financial performance of each firm separately while incurring the secondary data using published annual reports. The analysis showed that the ERP implementation does not affect the organisation’s financial performance. However, external factors such as ERP vendor support, country’s economic factors, and customer and supplier capability are not considered for evaluation. Future scolers can conduct the same research for other sectors in Sri Lanka and can do the same research to find the other non-financial performances and organisation capabilities.

3D Printing Technology: Changing the Manufacturing Industry's Narrative. []

Science and technology are transforming our daily lives with ground-breaking technologies that make what was previously thought to be science fiction or inconceivable futuristic a reality, making our lives much easier and more interesting. One of these technologies is 3D Printing Technology. It is a rapidly developing technology that involves the layer-by-layer addition of material (plastic, metal, nylon, and over a hundred other materials) to create three-dimensional physical items from a geometrical representation using a computer-aided design program (CAD). Currently, this technology is revolutionizing the manufacturing industry by allowing for mass customisation and the creation of any form of open-source design. This technology has proven to be both fast and cost-effective. This paper provides an overview of the various types of 3D printing technologies, as well as their applications and contributions in the fields of agriculture, healthcare, automotive, locomotive, and aviation technology manufacturing industries, as well as the materials used and, finally, the disadvantages of this technology in the manufacturing industry.


The human variable, responsible for the various disturbances following the anthropic actions shows that the flora of the wetlands in the district of Allada (South-Benin) which is under high anthropogenic pressures was studied. The global aim is to even evaluate the impacts rising from the human activities on the flora of the wetlands within the framework of a sustainable management of the environment of the wetlands through a spatialization of the traces of activities. The methodological approach used consisted with the socio-economic investigations of real medium. The matrix of Léopold was used to characterize the activities sources of potential impacts of the interaction activities and components of the biophysics medium and human. The framework of reference of the Beninese Agency for Environment was used for the importance of the impacts. This activities such as the exploitation of the crop products and with agriculture carry more damages to the wet flora to differing degree. The negative impacts (243) are more dominating than the positive reveals that several human activities are sources of impacts positive or negative on the wetlands flora. The impacts (126). What is explained by a total disappearance of the savanna raised (0,00 %) in the wetlands of the sector of study. This led to a distribution card of the traces of human activities for a management idoine of the aforesaid resources. Key words : Impact, Human activities, Flora, Wetlands, Allada (South-Benin).


Traditional products produced by fisheries that are very popular by the people of Indonesia, one of which is used. The purpose of this article is to review traditional Indonesian fish processed products in terms of the manufacturing and development process. Based on the results of a review of several literacy articles obtained information that the principle of making used products consists of three stages, namely the preparation of raw materials (fish), the addition of salt - a source of carbohydrates and anaerobic fermentation. The development of the manufacture of bekasam can be carried out with the addition of a lactic acid bacteria starter to reduce the use of high amounts of salt and increase its functional value.

Review Article "SHRIMP CRACKERS" []

A very popular snack food in Indonesia is shrimp crackers. This article aims to get information about the stages of making shrimp crackers and factors that affect the quality of shrimp crackers. Based on library studies that have been done, information is obtained that the manufacture of shrimp crackers in general consists of three important stages, namely dough making, printing dough and drying. Factors that affect the quality of shrimp crackers, among others, are water content, development volume, and packaging.


Introduction: The female condom offers an important source of protection against both sexually transmitted diseases (STIs), Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and pregnancy. It was introduced on the market in 1992 by the Chicago based female health company. The female condom has however been hailed as a method that contributes to women’s empowerment because it places a degree of power in the hands of the women to control their sexual health and well-being and thus can be used to reduce HIV/AIDS transmission. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze attitudes that contribute to low use of female condom as a preventive measure for the spread of HIV/AIDS in Isoka District of Muchinga province in Zambia. Results: This study reveals that 65% of the respondents feel female condoms make noise when used during sexual intercourse while 25% disagree to this statement. 88% of the respondents feel using a female condom during sexual intercourse is not comfortable while 12% disagreed to this feeling. Furthermore,53% of the respondents did not know whether female condoms have unpleasant scent while 8%agreed as 39% disagreed. The study further reveals that 72% of the respondents feel female condoms are associated with prostitutes while 18% disagreed and the remaining 10% did not know. Conclusion: In conclusion, it may be said that low use of female condoms is in part due to some attitudes that young women have towards female condoms such as association with prostitutes, condoms making noise, breaking the trust that their partners have for them and the unpleasant scent that the female condoms produce. Future research should aim at mind set change among the young women so that the use of female condoms can improve and further contribute to reduction in the contraction of HIV/AIDS among young women in the District. Additionally, manufacturers of female condoms may look into redesigning the commodity so that the noise they make during use is reduced. The public health specialists and maternal child experts should make sure that the advantages of female condoms in preventing HIV/AIDS are talked about as they interact with women during family and child health week and whenever they have chance to interact with the women at health facility level. Key words: Female condom, transmission, attitudes, awareness, protection,

Apport de la Mutuelle de Santé dans l’utilisation des services de santé « Cas de la mutuelle de santé de Kabinda » []

RESUME Introduction : Une mutuelle de santé est une association à but non lucratif, basée sur les principes de solidarité, d’entraide et de partage collectif des risques de maladie entre des personnes physiques qui y adhèrent de façon libre et volontaire. Les membres versent des cotisations régulières qui ne sont pas liées à leurs risques personnels de tomber malades. Objectif : déterminer l’apport de la mutuelle de santé de Kabinda dans l’utilisation des services de santé dans la zone de santé de KABINDA. Méthodologie : Pour la collecte de nos données, nous avons recouru à une étude descriptive transversale afin de déterminer l’apport de la mutuelle de santé de Kabinda (MSK) dans l’utilisation des services de santé. Cette étude s’étend sur une période d’une année allant du 1er janvier au 31 décembre 2021. Elle inclut les membres de la mutuelle de santé de Kabinda dans les 26 aires de santé de la zone de santé en général pour l’exercice 2021. Résultats : Au terme de cette étude, nous avons obtenu les résultats suivants : la proportion des personnes ayant adhérées à la Mutuelle de Santé de Kabinda est de 0,6% par rapport à la population totale couverte (taux de pénétration de la Mutuelle de santé dans la population de 0,6%), cet apport est très insignifiant car n’atteignant même pas un pourcent de la population. Cette étude démontre également que 85,1% d’enquêtés trouvent que les difficultés financières influencent négativement l’adhésion à la mutuelle de santé. La proportion des enquêtés ayant déjà été pris en charge par la mutuelle de santé pour leurs soins est de 80,7%. Concernant le mode de prise en charge, 64% d’enquêtés ont utilisé les services de santé en ambulatoire. 94,7% d’enquêtés sont satisfaits quant à l’apport de la mutuelle de santé de Kabinda dans la prise en charge de leurs soins. Quand un membre de la mutuelle de santé tombe malade, celle-ci (la mutuelle) prend en charge 50% du coût de ses soins. Conclusion : la sensibilisation intense, l’implication des autorités politico-administration et leaders d’opinion et l’appui des partenaires techniques et financiers devraient contribuer à l’amélioration du taux de pénétration de la mutuelle de santé dans la population couverte de sorte à hausser également son apport dans l’utilisation des services de santé. Mots-clés : Mutuelle de santé, utilisation des services de santé.


Spirulina flour has good prospects in general trade both in Indonesia and in other countries. This review article aims to get information about spirulina flour production. Based on riview literature obtained information that the production of spirulina flour can be done simply, namely cell propagation or cultivation in ponds, harvesting and drying. Spirulina flour can be used for food and fish feed.

Bangabandhu Island in the Bay of Bengal: Potentials and Challenges []

Bangabandhu Island (BBI) is a newly emerged offshore island in the western shelf zone of Bangladesh. The Island is a newly awakened Island in the Bay of Bengal. The island is such an island which is enriched with lots of natural heritages, potentials as well as opportunities. The island covers an area of 7.84 square kilometre and which has huge potentials in marine tourism as well as eco-tourism sector of Bangladesh. Like St. Martin’s island, which is the only coral island of Bangladesh, Bangabandhu island can also be an fascinating and landmark as well as ideal island for the tourists both inbound and outbound. The article has a sanguine effort to depict the landscapes of the island so far. The article has a sincere endeavour to illustrate the Island including the history and background, potentials as well as challenges of the Island. Finally, the article has also drawn some in-depth and visionary recommendations for the overall development of the island which can assist to reconstruct the island as a sustainable marine tourism island of Bangladesh.

Estimation of Radiological Health Risks in Soil Samples of oil and gas fields and Communities, Southern part of Bayelsa State []

Abstract The radiological health risks in soil samples of oil and gas fields and communities in the southern part of Bayelsa State, Nigeria was estimated from the measured soil samples associated with naturally occurring radionuclide of 40K, 238U and 232Th. The external hazard index varies between 0.095 and 0.635 which is less than unity. Also, the internal hazard index (Hin) is regarded as an internal exposure to alpha particles emitted from the short-lived radionuclide and from the estimation, (Hin) ranged from 0.113 to 0.695 which is less than the set limit of 1 as compared to world standard. The calculated results of the absorbed dose rate (D) from soil samples values ranged from 17.8 nGy-1 to 113.1 nGy-1 with an average value of 60.5 nGy-1 which is within the permissible maximum limit of 60 nGy-1.The estimated results of the annual effective dose equivalent (AEDE) values ranged from 0.02 µSvy-1 to 0.14 µSvy-1 with an average value of 0.07 µSvy-1 and is far lower than the recommended safe limit of 0.48 mSvy-1. The excess lifetime cancer risk (ELCR) estimated values ranged from 0.06 x 10-3 to 0.35 x 10-3with an average value of 0.19 x 10-3. These values of ELCR were lower than the safe limit of 0.29 x 10-3. This implies that the radiation hazard to the general public due to exposure to natural radionuclides is minimal but may have long term health risks. Keywords: External and Internal hazard indices, ELCR, Absorbed dose rate, AEDE, oil and gas fields and Communities

Impact of Climate Variability on Tea Production in Rwanda []

Abstract: The goal of this study was to determine the impact of climate variability on tea production. The study considered Mulindi Factory Company (MFC) located in the Northern Rwanda within 11 years (2010-2021). Secondary data on rainfall and temperature variability and tea production were collected from the factory and neighboring meteorological stations. Microsoft Excel and Pearson Correlation of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software analyzed the relationship between temperature and rainfall variations and tea production. The results indicated that 2014 and 2020 years recorded high rainfall of 105.5 and 126.2 mm, respectively while temperature was quite stabilized and/or constant. The tea production increased from 8,383.41 Kg/Ha in 2010 to 10,131.40Kg/Ha in 2021. A statistically significant (positive) relationship between rainfall variation with tea production (r1= 0.990) and between temperature variations and tea production (r2=0.993) was obtained. Regardless of the fact that tea production recorded increasing production, it is good to recognize the fact that fertilizers also were increasing, which likely contributed to the production. Whereas if only rainfall and temperature were considered as major contributing factors to tea production, there would be decreasing trend of tea production. This calls for further studies on the impact of unstated factors like soil, tea varieties in tea production and adapting climate resilient methods. Keywords: Climate variability, Mulindi Factory Company, Rainfall, Tea production, Temperature, Rwanda

Fintech’s - A Gateway to Achieving Financial Inclusion in Zambia: Case Study of Trader at Bauleni Market []

Financial inclusion for all sectors and genders continues to be a challenge in most emerging markets across the Africa including Zambia due to limitations inherent in both the operating models and governance requirements for Traditional Commercial banks. This has particularly resulted in a large number of individuals and small businesses requiring access to financial services being excluded. Most of the prohibitive requirements against individuals and startup businesses engaged in the informal sector includes lack of valid documentation to support registration, source of incomes and inability to meet the minimum account opening balance threshold. As a result, individuals and entities operating in this sector are unable to enjoy the benefits of belonging to the financial system which includes access to working capital from short term loans such as overdrafts and earning interest from investments in time deposits as well as securities on the capital market such as treasury bills and bonds. In 2017, the government of Zambia embarked on a deliberate strategy aimed at promoting financial inclusion. However, the was skewed toward encouraging traditional commercial banks to ease some of their account opening requirements through creation of a new type of accounts that promoted lite Know Your Customer (KYC) requirements. However, due to international Standards governing most commercial banks and associated Sanctions and Money Laundering risk requirements, the progress has been slow due to incremental compliance cost financial institutions would need to introduce to ensure that controls and monitoring is adequate for this mass category of clients. Notwithstanding the above constraints experienced by traditional banks, Fintech’s providing transactional and savings accounts to their clients do not face similar restrictions like commercial banks from a regulatory and governance perspective. The KYC requirements are lite and in most instances only require an account holder to have a registered mobile phone number and a national issued Identification Document such as passport or national registration card. This makes almost all individuals and businesses, including those in the informal sector eligible for account opening. There is no requirement for minimum account opening balance and other requirements needed for opening an account unlike commercial banks. Therefore, there is need to reshape the Financial Inclusion strategy adopted for most markets in Africa such as Zambia to boost financial inclusion by promoting use of both traditional commercial banks as well as Fintech’s. This will help the nation drive financial inclusions because the two entity types will complement each other. Fintech’s will be able to cover entities and individuals that cannot directly open accounts with commercial banks and provide a gateway into the financial system. Thus, a deliberate ploy is required to successfully develop this by educating individuals and small businesses accordingly.

Nutritional qualities, sensory characteristics, lipid oxidation and microbial assessment of meat floss marketed locally in Sabo-Mokola in Ibadan, Oyo State []

Meat floss (MF) is one of the popular, traditional read-to-eat meat product produced and sold by local Northerner women in Nigeria. Due to the informal nature and procedures involved in its production, hygiene procedures are given little or no attention. Producers (P) were painstakingly sought in Sabo-Mokola. Freshly prepared MF (500g each) were purchased from three producers (PMF1, PMF2 and PMF3) and on the same day of purchase, Laboratory MF (LMF) was prepared following standard procedures. The experiment was completely randomized and replicated three times. Sensory characteristics using 9-point hedonic scale, protein (%), ash (%) saturated and unsaturated (%) contents using standard procedures were determined immediately. Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) (MAmg/kg) and Total Heterophilic Counts (THC) (cfu/gx103) were assessed at 0, 7, 14 and 21 days. The LMF protein (47.66) was higher (P<0.05) than 37.57 (PMF1), 39.62 (PMF2), 40.19 (PMF3) while ash 5.50 (LMF), 4.97 (PMF2) and 4.73 (PMF3) were higher (P<0.05) than 3.40 (PMF1). Saturated fatty acid found in PMF ranged from 70.38-75.67 while unsaturated fatty acids ranged from 24.33-29.62. The LMF TBARS (1.12 -1.92) were lower (P<0.05) than 2.90-4.51, 3.51-4.90, 4.13-6.15 and 5.24-7.03 obtained in all PMF during storage. The PMF aroma (3.00-4.13), flavour (4.19-5.81) juiciness (3.56-3.75) were lower (P<0.05) while THC (0.30-5.67) was higher (P<0.05) than LMF aroma (5.13), flavour (5.81), juiciness (6.56) and THC (0.13-0.23). The low sensorial attributes, high saturated fatty acid, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and microbial load revealed that meatfloss sold in Sabo-Mokola were low in quality. Effective steps should be taken to educate these producers on food safety including personnel hygiene and good manufacturing practices in order to improve and ensure safety of products.


This study assessed the influence of conflict management as a strategy on performance of Garissa level five Hospital in Kenya while locking the knowledge gap. The specifically, the research was to; establish the relationship between conflict strategies; avoidance strategies, accommodating strategies dominating strategies as well as compromising strategies and performance of Garissa level five Hospital in Kenya. The underpinning theories included the Thomas Kilmann theory, the Human Relations theory, and the Expectancy theory. The study used mixed approach (quantitative and qualitative approaches) and employed the pragmatism philosophy while adopting descriptive research design. It used the 297 health workers of Garissa level five Hospital in Kenya as its target population. Using Yamane's formula, a sample of 168 participants was obtained and the participants was chosen using purposeful proportional random sampling. Data for this research were gathered from primary sources that used a questionnaire administered through a drop and pick method. The data was analyzed quantitatively for descriptive s and inferential statistics (correlation and multiple regression. The study found that each of avoidance strategies (r = 0.582; β= 0.193; p= 0.021), accommodating techniques ((r = 0.586; β= 0.093; p = 0.024), dominating strategies (r = 0.421, β= 0.167; p-= 0.035), and compromising strategies (r = 0.491; β= 0.065; . p< 0.01) had a moderately significant effect on the performance of Garissa level five hospital. The study recommends that the public hospitals in Kenya should; strengthen their conflict management policy to indicate usage ant of; avoidance strategies, accommodating strategies, dominating strategies as well as compromising strategies


In this study, the term "habitat" is employed metaphorically. Shopping complexes are transforming becoming leisure destinations. Various leisure components are being introduced into retail and shopping areas in order to attract more customers and increase customer retention. Concurrently, recreational activities became one of the most popular leisure activities among many social groups as a result of consumer culture's influence. Malls' internal spaces are designed to resemble a city street and a city lifestyle, creating the appearance of shopping arcades. According to recent studies, shopping malls are now closely associated with recreation. People are becoming increasingly interested in recreational shopping, attending various leisure venues and events, and browsing through shopping malls. Although, in the case of industrialized countries, this uniqueness is frequently discussed. Inthe mall, customersengage in a varietyof behaviors,the mostcommonofwhich is the purchaseof goods and/orservices, resulting in a wide range of requirements. The vast majority of retail malls do not cater to these diverse client needs. Based on the idea of living space developed from ecological sciences, case studies, and evaluation of existing shopping malls, the interrelationships of consumers with shopping malls as locations of consumption are investigated in this study. Data was gathered from primary sources, such as field investigations, c a s e s t u d i e s , a n d a p p r a i s a l s o f e x i s t i n g m a l l s , a s w e l l a s s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e s , s u c h a s o n l i n e s i t e s , d o c u m e n t a t io n s and journals, surveys, and other sources. Consumers have a variety of demands outside shopping, according to the findings of the study, including leisure. This study looks at disparities in mall habitat activity patterns and identifies mall-related shopping orientations that can help explain them, as well as the mall's effectiveness as a consumerhabitat. Keywords: Habitat,shoppingmall, ConsumerBehavior, Services.


The operation of mining companies in any society has many implications for the host community and surrounding communities. The mines do respond by mitigating the risk and impacts to maintain access to the resource and share benefits with the community. This paper shows the results of a study conducted to assess the impact of Lumwana mine Company on Education improvement in the host community in Kalumbila District of the Northwestern province of Zambia. The study used purposive sampling in selecting the participants who provided information using the designed questionnaire. The finding from the study depicts that the Mine has both negative and positive impact on education improvement in the area. The positive impact is because the mine through its corporate social responsibility shares its benefit with the community through a number of interventions which have seen the schools increasingly improving the learner performance. According to the findings, Income generating activities was highly ranked among others (infrastructure and Scholarship) that contributed to the school improved due to the local empowerment programme supported by Lumwana that has enabled the host community to be engaged in alternative livelihood besides formal employment with the mine. Members of the community through empowerment initiatives have developed to the level of being suppliers and compete on the supply chain of the mine. Others supply their goods and services to the catering service of the mine and on the available market within the district. However, the contributions to the mine to education is still far-fetched to match with ever increasing number of learners. Thus, the negative impact is undoubtedly reckoned with the In-migration influx in operational area of mine that exalted pressure on the existing social infrastructure and education is non exceptional. Worse the government of Zambia has no policy direction of how the new mines in the remotest part through the royalties paid to the country could be directed to address issues surrounding Influx. As such the mines are perceived by the host community as duty bearer or de facto government. With the foregoing, the overstretched budget under corporate social responsibility for Lumwana mine would not tackle all factors that are critical in achieving the desired educational outcomes because of other many competing needs in the host community. However, as observed from study, stride improvement on student performance has been recorded from the time the mines began supporting the education sector. It is on record that during the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic the learners continued to learn as a result of the space created through construction of infrastructure for example Manyama primary school which was housing both primary and secondary pupils was decongested by the construction of 6 classrooms at a new site for the secondary. As such learner performance in the last exam for grade nine pupils performed better than in the previous years. However better results could have been observed if the fiscal tax regime could be reviewed to allow part of the loyalty paid to the government to trickle down to where more impact is felt as a result of mine operations.

Contextual factors surrounding psychosocial care access among adolescents using cannabis in the city of Goma []

Abstract The extent of psychosocial care provided to adolescents affected by cannabis exposures and the results of the current level of care provided are limited, scarce and less adequate to inform actions to be taken to improve overall health and well-being to the adolescents affected by the effects of substance abuse in the country. Effects such as continuous exaggerated insomnia, perpetual aggressiveness, spontaneous forgetfulness, digressively, perennial anxiety, loss of social and parental friendship, perennial isolation, absence of definitive cure, regular depression, and excessive consumption of narcotics are common. Methodology: This study is a systematic analysis of available evidence to describe the current state of psychosocial care for adolescents dependent on cannabis in the city of Goma. Results: the following services have implemented in Goma mainly: Medical, Psychoeducation, Group Therapy, Motivational Psychotherapy, Occupational Therapy and Therapeutic Workshop. Moreover, for a large number of addicts, the persistent effects such as continuous exaggerated insomnia, perpetual aggressiveness, spontaneous forgetfulness, depression, lasting anxiety, loss of social and parental friendships, lasting isolation, absence of definitive cure, regular depression, excessive consumption of narcotics. Conclusion: The literature available to us suggests that the psychosocial care of drug addicts should be holistic, that is to say facilitate the rehabilitation of the drug addict by relying on the care services according to the WHO standard, especially in taking into account the involvement of everyone, for example the individual drug addict, his family, the community, the State, etc.


Although human resources management (HRM) is so important in boosting competitiveness in the tourist and hotel business, this study intends to increase awareness of practical HRM difficulties, especially since it entails coordinating human resource management to fulfil organizational goals. It also shows that the problems are caused by either external forces like technology development, law, and regulation, or internal factors like corporate culture. When it comes to human resource capability training, this research review advocates giving a range of possibilities for professional development as well as a proper working environment to improve productivity. It's also crucial to consider the relationship with the employees. Employee attitudes and productivity, employee-employer relationships, and gains and declines in capital instruments should all be evaluated