Volume 10, Issue 5, May 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Banking marketing: Customer Relationship Management (CRM) at the International Bank for Commerce, Industry and Agriculture of Burkina Faso (BICIA-B) []

Le marketing bancaire attire de plus en plus l’attention des responsables dans les institutions bancaires du Burkina Faso et plus spécifiquement la gestion de la relation entre les banques et leurs clients. Nous abordons le cas précis de la Banque Internationale pour le Commerce, l’Industrie et l’Agriculture du Burkina (BICIA-B). Ce choix réside dans le fait que cette banque est la plus ancienne et qu’elle jouit d’une certaine notoriété de type Top-of-mind. L’étude révèle que les clients de la BICIA-B attendent beaucoup d’elle, plus d’efforts afin que leur satisfaction soit parfaite (NPS : - 32,3). Et en déduction nous dirons que la BICIA-B n’évalue pas la satisfaction de sa clientèle suivant un intervalle régulier afin d’adapter son offre à l’évolution perpétuelle des besoins de sa clientèle. Le fichier client que nous avons reçu de la BICIA-B date de 2015 et le précédent, de 2012, d’où un intervalle d’actualisation de trois (03) ans environs. Dans la mesure où nous n’avons pas eu accès à toutes les informations pour une question de confidentialité, nous disons que la majorité des clients hésiterons beaucoup avant de recommander la BICIA-B soit à un ami, un proche ou un connaissant. Les NPS étant négatifs : - 36,3 pour les particuliers et - 45,3 pour les professionnels avec une tendance globale de - 37,9. Ce qui signifie que la clientèle est en baisse en nombre de façon générale, les fichiers du portefeuille client que nous avons reçus, confirment cette tendance et montrent que les clients de petite importance (initialement très nombreux) sont en baisse en tandis que les gros clients augmentent en nombre à un rythme moins rapide. C’est-à-dire que les uns (gros clients) sont satisfaits au détriment des petits clients. Nous pouvons dire que la rentabilité de la BICIA-B n’est pas stabilisée voire pérenne et le levier y relatif n’est pas maîtrisé à cause des mauvaises tendances en terme de satisfaction. Partant de ces constats nous pouvons déduire que la seconde hypothèse spécifique est aussi confirmée.

Impact assessment of Land Use and Land Cover Change on Soil Erosion in Ethiopia using Geospatial techniques []

The impact of land-use land-cover (LULC) change on soil resources is getting global attention. Soil erosion is one of the critical environmental problems worldwide with high severity in developing countries. Land use and land cover (LULC) dynamics, in general, and the conversion of the natural vegetation cover into cultivated land, in particular, are major human-induced problems in Ethiopia, which have played a significant role in increasing the rate of soil erosion and altering the hydrological balance in the country. The main aim of this review was to view previous studies in Ethiopia that quantify the change in the rate of soil erosion and the change in land use and land cover in the country. From the past researches reviewed in this paper, the expansion of cultivated land at the ex-pense of forest land, shrub land, and grassland in Ethiopia has increased the mean rate of soil erosion, sediment yield, and surface runoff, mean wet monthly flow, and mean annual stream flow in the last four decades. On the other hand, the change has reduced the dry average monthly flow, groundwater recharge and groundwater flow, and evapotranspiration (ET) in the country. Future research works should pay more attention to the investigation of the impacts of land use and land cover change on soil erosion and the prediction of future soil loss and the changing land use and land cover in the country since little information is available from past researches on these issues. Research works are also required in lowland arid and semiarid areas in Ethiopia to effectively manage soil and landuse planning in all parts of the country

Contribution of Mining Practices on Forest Degradation in Rwanda []

Mining is among the sources of income to communities but also one of the key drivers to deforestation and water and soil pollution as well. This study assessed the contribution of mining practices on forest degradation, case of DUMAC, Rwamagana district, Eastern Rwanda between 2018 and 2021. Secondary datasets on DUMAC’s applied mining practices, occupied land and mining production were analyzed by using Microsoft Excel form its record/database. Landsat images collected from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) generate periodical land over images. These maps were then analyzed by Spatial Analyst tool of Geographic Information System (GIS) toward detecting changes on forest cover. The Pearson Correlation Analysis of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) estimated how mining practices affect forest cover. The results show that mining area increased form 18.4 ha to 64 ha in 2018 and 2021, respectively. The mining harvest showed an upgrading record of 32,738 to 81,835, respectively. For forest cover change within mining areas, the record decreased form 15.3 percent in 2018 to 14.3 percent in 2021. The statistical analysis of the relationship between mining practices and forest degradation generated a low statistical significance, P value of 0.028. This can be resulting from the reason that regardless the reduction in forest cover, other land uses increased mainly built-up lands, croplands and grassland which expresses that mining practices are not the only factors of forest degradation in this area. This study shows that mining practice contribute to forest degradation and the provided recommendations can help in better practicing mining in a friendly land management manner. Keywords: Deforestation, DUMAC, GIS, Mining, Land Management, Rwamagana district, Rwanda

Aluminum Dross: Cost-Efficient Aluminum Waste for Production of High Grade Potash Alum []

The disposal and recycling of aluminum dross residue has been a global challenge for a long time. Aluminum residue is one of the major wastes produced during aluminum smelting in chemical industries. The dross generated in Nigeria is approximately 120000 tons/year and little has been done on the large amount of the dross residue in terms of conversion to other useful products. About 98 % of the dross residue generated is land-filled due to the unavailability of advanced technology for recycling. The results of the studies in this work indicated that aluminum dross has a potential to be a cost-efficient source for aluminum-based materials. The potash alum, a commercially important chemical, produced through this technique can be used in water treatment.

"Judgmental failure factors (JFF) of ERP Implementation" Literature-based review on case comparison of ERP Implementations projects. []

The current literature on ERP implementation challenges during implementation stages and causes of ERP implementation failure is examined first. To investigate "why" and "how" certain ERP systems could not be implemented successfully, a case study research methodology was used. The ERP implementation process and challenges in each phase of ERP implementation were studied using an ERP life cycle framework. There were three common significant failure elements discussed: inadequate consultant efficacy, project management effectiveness, and business process re-engineering quality. It is intended that this study will contribute to closing the current knowledge gap and providing practical recommendations to academics and practitioners alike.

High Speed Low Power 16 bit Multiplier based on Vedic Maths []

High-speed parallel multipliers are required in RISCs, DSPs, and graphics accelerators.. Standard ways for creating binary multipliers that are suited for VLSI implementation include array multipliers, Booth multipliers, and Wallace Tree multipliers. The Urdhva Tiryakbhyam (Vertically and Crosswise) Sutra of Vedic Mathematics is used to create a basic digital multiplier (henceforth referred to as Vedic Multiplier in short VM). A new low-power, high-speed multiplier of two binary values (16 bits each) has been devised. On 16nm CMOS technology, an algorithm is presented and implemented. The planned 16x16-bit multiplier consumes 0.17 mW of electricity. The suggested design has a propagation latency of 27.15ns. These findings outperform the Vedic and Booth Multiplier literature in terms of power dissipation and latency.

Optimizing Flexible Gallery Spaces, As Strategy to Improve User Experience in Art Galleries []

The study looks at how flexibility of gallery spaces has improved the experience and sociability of art gallery visitors. The demand for architectural adaptation has increased as present social needs have changed. Due to insufficient systems or poor design planning, most structures designed with flexibility in mind are blocky, ugly, and excessively rigid. Individual galleries will also face future underutilization of space, which will be financially unsustainable. The concept of flexible approaches has been implemented into the design of visual arts galleries, according to recent studies, and is considered to improve social connections and sociability through effective space planning as a community hub. Exhibition venues are increasingly becoming into centers capable of creating lively and friendly interior spaces, rather than just being a gallery or a social symbol. Temporary exhibition space, for example, is ideal for showcasing local artists' work at art events and festivals, providing community people with art experience and information while also enticing tourists to visit the gallery over time. As a result, visual arts galleries are thought to have been designed with the community in mind and to function as a gathering spot. Data was acquired from primary sources including field investigations, case studies, and appraisals of existing art galleries that used flexible methodologies as a strategy for gallery spaces, as well as secondary sources like online sites, documentations and journals, surveys, and other sources. This research looks at the concepts of flexible architecture and how adaptable they are for art galleries in order to meet the demands of boosting the sociability of the user experience. Keywords: Flexibility, Adaptability, Sociability, Gallery Spaces, User Experience

Socio-demographic and life style factors associated with COVID-19 infection in Kigali City, Rwanda []

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan Hubei, China in December 2019 and spread worldwide and resulting to 509,164 confirmed cases and 23,335 deaths reported by WHO on 27th March, 2020. The COVID-19 declared as a global pandemic on 11th March 2020. In Rwanda 129,942 confirmed cases and 1,459 deaths were reported. Since the occurrence of Coronavirus 2019, this infection sought to be complex, and little was known about the risk factors associated with coronavirus 2019 infection of infected people around the world and Rwanda. Whereby, this study sought to assess factors associated with COVID-2019 among COVID-19 cases in Rwanda. This research was a case-control study. The target population including respondents aged of 18 years or older positively confirmed using quantitative RT-PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) from October, 2020 to December, 2020. Then Data analyzed using SPSS IBM version 21. The P-value <0.05 was considered to demonstrate the level of statistical significance. Both research and medical ethics including privacy and confidentiality of the respondents were respected. Findings shows that the majority 391(73.7%) of respondents were from Gasabo District, of them 185(51.2%) were COVID-19 patients. Female respondents dominated in the study 275(56.1%), of them 147 (53.5%) were cases. For cases and controls, a total of 178 (38.2%) were aged 46-64 years old, majority 368(75.1%) were married, 231(47.1%) had completed primary school, 335(68.4%) were unemployed, 51.2 % were catholic and the majority 245(50.0%) were in Ubudehe Category E. The findings show that age of respondents is significantly associated with COVID-19 infection (P=0.029). The results revealed that among 63 respondents aged 24 years and less 37(58.7%) were from the cases. Occupation of respondents was statistically in relationship with Coronavirus 2019 infection (p=0.011). Majority of unemployed respondents were observed among the cases 183(54.6%). Ubudehe classification was statistically associated with COVID-19 infections (P<0.001) in bivariate analysis. The results shows that alcohol drinking (p=0.015), travel in COVID-19 high risk zone (p<0.001), being in contact with a person with a fever (p<0.001) and living with a COVID-19 patient (p-value=0.016) were importantly linked with Coronavirus 2019 infection in Bivariate analysis. We recommend that the Ministry of Health, Rwanda Biomedical Center and its partners to train of health workforces on COVID-19 prevention and control measures in order to support groups at high risks and mitigate the transmission or recurrence of COVID-19 infection.


Mental health is one of the crucial issues in this generation. The World of Health Organization defines mental health as “a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stress of life, can work productively, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community”. A person’s mental stability manipulates how a person’s social, economic, and physical environment operates. Healthy mental health does not correspond to a lack of mental disorders. Distance learning is new to most students nowadays. Major adjustments have been done to effectively observe and learn in this new normal. The researchers conducted a survey, and the results showed that there is no significant difference between mental health and online classes. Results also revealed that there is no difference in the mental health of the respondents when they are grouped according to their demographic profile. The respondents’ mental health in terms of emotional well-being and social well-being is high or stable while in terms of psychological well-being, it is moderate.


Alginate in the form of natirum alginate is needed for the food and non-food industries. This article aims to re-view the methods of extraction of alginate from seaweed sargassum sp and the quality of alginate. Based on the results of the literature study obtained information that alginic extrcation from seaweed sargassum sp can be done with 3 methods, namely the acid path method, the calcium path method and the Microwave Assited Extraxtion method. The quality of alginate according to the Food Chemical Codex (FCC) is a yield of > 18%, Water Content <15%, Ash Content 18-27%, Viscosity (Cps) 10-5000, pH 3.5-10, and brightness level 50-80.


Abstract The study was entitled “Effect of bank service quality on the performance of commercial banks in Rwanda. It was guided by five research objectives namely: To assess the impact of tangibility on the performance of the Bank of Kigali, to assess the impact of reliability on the performance of the Bank of Kigali, to examine the impact of responsiveness on the performance of the Bank of Kigali, to assess the impact of assurance on the performance of the Bank of Kigali and to determine the moderating influence of the economic environment and competition on commercial bank performance. The study population consisted of 74 bank of Kigali employees, with 50 purposively chosen as a sample size. Primary and secondary data were collected using questionnaires and interviews, as well as a documentary review. The analysis was performed using SPSS. Percentages and frequency tables were used to present the data. The findings concluded that tangibility significantly affected performance of the bank (mean=4.173) hence banks should always prioritise modern equipment and technology, atmosphere, number of open tellers and waiting time at the counter. The findings further concluded that reliability, responsiveness, assurance and moderating influence all had positive and significant effect on performance of bank of Kigali. The study recommends that commercial banks should embrace assurance, responsiveness and tangibility. Key words: Banking services, quality, Performance, commercial banks, assurance, Profitability

Contribution of Chemical Fertilizers on Maize Productivity in Rwanda []

This study aimed to analyze the contribution of chemical fertilizers in increasing maize productivity in Rubengera sector of Karongi District. Field based observation study where different doses of chemical fertilizers was applied on three maize varieties namely WH 504,WH 505 and ZM 607 grown over 190.9444 m2. Their productivity was measured in agricultural season B of 2020 (January – July 2020). The Microsoft Excel and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) facilitated the data analysis. The results showed that in the plots without chemical fertilizers, maize plant germination rate was 97.03% whereas development parameters were 217cobs and 12.04 tons of maize harvested on the area of 61.98 m2. For the plots with chemical fertilizers at dose of 100kg/ha of DAP during sowing with addition of 50kg/ha of urea during weeding, maize plant germination rate was 94.43%, development parameters were 379 cobs and the yield of maize harvested were 30.19 tons per 64.0144 m2. Also, for the blocks with chemicals fertilizers at doses of 100kg/ha of DAP and 50 kg/ha of urea during sowing with addition of 50kg/ha of urea during weeding, the results maize plant germination rate was 100%, development parameters were 314cobs and yield of maize harvested were 33.79 tons per 64.95 m2. Furthermore, the productivity by variety was 29.45 tons /72.4296 m2 for WH505; 23.36 tons/ 62.0178 m2 for ZM607 and 21.85tons /70.777 m2, respectively. Therefore, the application of chemical fertilizers contributes positively in increasing the yield of maize. This research can serve as additional information to policy makers to how applying chemical fertilizers contributes to increasing the crop productivity. Key words: Chemical fertilizers, Karongi district, Maize productivity, Rwanda


In this paper, quantum tunneling phenomena is simulated in the neutron – Fe-56 interaction using a modified Woods-Saxon potential. The one-dimensional Schrödinger equation is numerically solved using finite difference method implemented with Jacobi transformations in order to satisfy the boundary conditions. The standard Woods-Saxon potential parameters were kept constant at W_0=50 MeV,a=0.65 fm,V_0=47.78 MeV and R_0=4.9162 fm respectively. The wavefunctions and the transmission coefficients of the neutrons as it tunnels through the Fe-56 nuclide with different angular momenta l =0,1,2,3,4 and various energies of the projected neutron were obtained. The simulation algorithm is coded in MATLAB computer language. The results obtained show that the projected neutron can tunnel through the barrier even when the energies of the projected neutron are less than the energy of the barrier. For neutron with purely translational kinetic energy (l =0), it is observed that after tunneling there is no attenuation or reduction in its intensity and amplitude after interacting with the Fe-56 nucleus, indicating perfect tunneling and transmission of the neutron through the Fe-56 barrier. At other angular momenta (i.e., l=1,2, 3…) the wavefunction of the transmitted neutron attenuates after tunneling, with a change in amplitude as it tunnels through the barrier. Further results show that the transmission coefficient attains saturation at an incident energy approximately equal to E_s=-0.1309 eV. The E_s value may serve as an experimental guide (given the barrier parameters) in neutron-Fe-56 scattering experiments particularly in elastic regime. It is recommended that further research be carried out using other target nuclei as this could significantly contribute to a better knowledge of tunneling probabilities for neutron-nucleus or nucleus-nucleus interactions.


Cuttlefish are marine animals that are perishable and their availability is seasonal. Therefore, it is very important to do the processing. This article aims to review smoked cuttlefish products. Based on the literature study obtained information that efforts to diversify processing of cuttlefish can be done by smoking. The smoking methods that can be done against cuttlefish are heat fumigation and liquid smoking. Liquid accosts are more recommended because smoke cuttlefish can be obtained that are more hiegines and safe. The stages of the liquid fumigation process consist of the preparation or weeding of cuttlefish, deepening the cuttlefish in a saline solution, soaking the cuttlefish in a liquid smoke solution and finally drying.


ABSTRACT This research examined how training influences public institutions performance. In this research, researcher was guided by general concept that is staff training influences and Public Institutions performance. Staff training is a practice of developing existing talent of personnel in addition to the knowledge acquired from school that enable them to accomplish Public Institution objectives, is also an education process where employees are given new knowledge and skills that enable them to work duties brought by new technology (Azara, 2013). Public Institution Performance Refers to the status to which the Public Institution has accomplished its expectations in terms of production, competitiveness, service delivery, profit or loss, and performance contract concluded (Algharibeh, 2014). The general objective of this study was to examine the influence of training platform on the performance of an Public Institutions and specific objectives were: to assess perception of employee on training programs towards Public Institution performance; to examine the competencies of trainers and how they enhance Public Institution performance; and to investigate the relevance of training content and how it affects Public Institution performance. The population was all Rutsiro District staff equal to 350 including junior and senior staff at district and sector level. The researcher designed questionnaires and distribute them for data collection from a sample size of 186 respondents. Stratified sampling method (proportional allocation) was used to obtain the number of staff who was eligible to receive questionnaires. Close-ended questions and open-ended questions were used to collect quantitative and qualitative data respectively and data that were obtained in this study were analyzed by means of descriptive statistics. More than one source such as interview, documentation and websites were used to come up with relevant results. Primary data were presented using graphs, tables, pie and chart. In testing hypotheses, Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS v21) was used and Pearson Product Moment Correlation (r) was adopted to perform these tests. The results from the research were the following: The majority of respondents equal to 73.1% confirmed that staff training affects Public Institution performance at high level, 71% confirmed that training is a valuable instrument that affects Public Institutions performance. The majority of respondent equal to 57.5% confirmed that there is high level correlation between staff training and Public Institution performance, and 51% positively agreed that past training has effect on the Public Institution performance.76.3% respondents confirmed that after training quality of service is observed while 52% of respondents confirmed that the level of confidence on performance of daily activity is increased after training is delivered to an employee. In terms of trainer competencies and skills 55.4% of respondents agreed that trainers’ competencies enhance Public Institution performance while 49.5% confirmed that training skills identification should be considered when selecting trainers. 49% of sampled respondents said that good training content must resolve existing problems and 83% of sampled respondents confirmed that better performance after training is a factor that affects training effectiveness and outcome. Throughout the findings, it was established that there is a lower positive level of relationship between staff training and Public Institution performance, this was indicated by (r =.359, P=.000, where N= 186). This tells us that increases in staff training will lead to the increase of Public Institution performance. The researcher recommends that public institutions have to make sure that every employee has been trained before embarking on duties and responsibilities of a given position and also to include training in their annual plan and provide budget for it. Before training take place competence of trainers have to be observed because they impart necessary knowledge and skills that enhance capacity of staff hence good performance can be expected. KeyWords Staff training, Public Institutions Performance, Human resource management

An Ethno-botanical survey of Some Medicinal Plants Available in Some Localities of Kogi State, Nigeria []

Information on plants is obtained through ethno-botanical surveys, which involves the study of plants in relation to the culture of the people. Many plants are used in African traditional medicine, but little information is available on their active ingredients/constituents. Ethno-botanical surveys involve the interaction with the people and their environment and are therefore participatory approaches, in which local people are able to contribute their knowledge on the uses of plants within their environment. This study presents an ethno-botanical survey of the traditional medicinal plants that are available in some localities in Kogi State, Nigeria. The species name, family name, common name, part used and medical applications were compiled for reference sake and further study. Available information about the traditional medicinal plants and ethno-botanical studies were conducted. The study showed the species, and families of medicinal plants recognized as being used by most of the people in Nigeria for the treatment of various common illnesses, sicknesses and diseases. The traditional medicinal practices have a wide acceptability among the people in the localities, resulting from believe in their effectiveness in treating varieties of diseases. The study also revealed variations in the applications of the medicinal plants. The parts that are used include leaves, roots, stem, bark, fruits, or a mixture or solution of two or more of the plants species.

African Countries being categorized as developing countries should not be an excuse for having a Weak/Poor Health System []

To ensure optimal health status of Africans, we need a strong health system, we shall surely have it if all health concerned stakeholders understand and put into the consideration the fact that achieving optimal good health status is an important and primary goal to be primarily considered in all planned actions. Health system strengthening has been clearly stated in many African countries. However, weak health system still exists in many of these countries. As such poor health status continues to appear for many Africans. To be categorized as developing countries seems to have been equalized to existence of weak health system in Africa which is not true, because to be in the phase of development would mean to do all possible actions so as to achieve such needed development. In line of that one would suspect strong health system to take the first priority because health and development are closely related and development provides the means for health while health is the key component of development. This paper highlights viewpoints that, to be categorized as developing countries should not fairly be an excuse for having the chronic weak health system in Africa.

Application of Condition-Based Maintenance Monitoring to a Palm Oil Processing Plant: A Case Study of SIAT Nigeria Ltd. []

This study is aimed at evaluating the maintenance management strategies of a palm oil plant using condition-based monitoring techniques. Failure rates of the component, downtime, the cost of monitoring equipment to conduct condition monitoring and the cost of labor, depreciation cost of the measuring equipment and the total cost of inspection for the machine were evaluated using data obtained from the palm plant for years 2017, 2018, 2019 and 2020. The result showed that the MTBF of the rotor component decreased from 2717.5 hrs in the first year to 468.6hrs in the fourth year, the MTBF of the bearing decreased from 1881.7hrs in the first year to 468.6hrs in the fourth year, the MTBF of the cracking pot decreased from 1558.7hrs in the first year to 292.9hrs in the fourth year while the MTBF of the drive shaft decreased from 5435hrs in the first year to 585.75hrs in the fourth year. The cracking pot had the highest of 0.00341 in the fourth year, inspection cost analysis was evaluated and was observed to be deprecating. The cost of measuring the equipment increased from 2800000 in the first year to 3550000 in the fourth year, the total inspection cost increased from 3708870.9 in the first year to 4995000 in the first year. It was recommended that there should be continuous review and improvement of the condition-based maintenance strategies to help the firm competes in the market and that the management should invest time, money and resources for the successful implementation of a good condition-based maintenance strategy.

Improving Maintenance Management Strategy for Rotating Equipment in Refineries Using Monte Carlo Reliability Model. []

The aim of this research was to use reliability techniques to improve the maintenance management strategies of rotating equipment of compressor components of bearing, cylinder, piston, rings and crank shaft in Port Harcourt refinery located in Rivers State as a case study. The reliability analysis was carried out on compressor failure components for a period of five years from 2015 to 2020. From this research, it was observed that all the components of the compressor have frequent failures during production. This research was carried out successfully using the Monte Carlo reliability model for which the parameters such as meantime between failure (MTBF), Failure Rate (FR), Lost Time to repair also known as Downtime (DT) were determined. Also, the reliability (R), unreliability (UR), availability (A) and Unavailability (UA) were evaluated using data obtained from refinery plant over a five years period (January 2015 to December 2020). The operating time per year also known as uptime (UT) and repair time per year (RTY) were evaluated as well. The research showed that the highest failure rate of the component was 0.00126 for bearing, 0.00114 for cylinder, 0.00149 for piston, 0.00136 for the rings and 0.00171 for the crank shaft. The reliability of some of the compressor components such as bearing was at 53.25% in the first year and then decreased to 8.90% after the fifth year. The reliability of cylinder for the first year was at 38.86% and the fifth year 11.20%. Reliability of the piston for the first year was at 38.86% and the fifth year 5.72%, reliability of rings was 20.63 % first year and decreased to 7.34% for the fifth year and crank shaft 28.36% for the first year and it decreased to 3.75% of the fifth year. The availability of the 5 components for the five years was greater than 90%. The production quantity decreased from 20,730,000 bbl for the first year (2015) to 5,356,800 bbl in the fifth year (2020) a drop in 50% production. This research work recommends that the compressor components should be readily available for replacement in the storeroom to reduce the downtime in a year thereby enhancing productivity.

Modeling of Production Plan and Scheduling of Manufacturing Process for a Plastic Industry in Nigeria: A Case Study []

This research work seeks to model a production plan and scheduling of manufacturing process for a plastic industry in Nigeria using Indorama Petrochemical & Plastic Industry, Rivers State, Nigeria, as case study. The flow chart of operations in the production process of plastic was assessed, the different raw materials and production inputs for the production of plastics were analyzed, and a linear programming model based on the production variables and constraints with objective function of maximizing profit, was developed. Ultimately, an optimal schedule of raw material for the variables in the production industry that maximizes profit was determined. Data of raw materials available for daily production of five parts (Handle of paint bucket, Cover of paint bucket, Body of paint bucket, Cover of ice cream container and Body of ice cream container) of two particular plastic products (paint bucket and ice-cream container) and profit contribution per each unit brand of plastic produced was collected and Linear Programming method was employed to analyze the production data collected from the plastic industry. TORA computer software was applied to simulate the linear programming model developed and Broad based result for the optimum solution of the LP model showed a profit [z (max)].

Biomass Fuel Dependency in Rwanda and its Environmental Impacts. A case of Secondary Schools in Gisagara district. []

Rwanda’s main energy source is biomass (firewood and charcoal), which 83.3 % of Rwandans depend on it for cooking. This study aimed to identify biomass fuel consumption trends in Gisagara secondary schools, determine forest cover changes trends in the Gisagara District, and find out environmental effects derived from the use of biomass energy in Gisagara secondary schools. The study collected information by using both quantitative and qualitative methods and observations to gather data from secondary sources. For analyzing the collected data, Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software and qualitative methods were used to analyze the relationship between biomass fuel consumption and impacts on environment. Firewood consumption trend in Rwanda secondary is at high rate where the research findings showed that 6771m3 were consumed by three schools of Gisagara district namely, Groupe Scolaire Saint Bernadette Save, Ecole Technique Saint Kizito and Ecole Secondaire Save from 2015 to 2021. This has also contributed a lot to the reduction of forestland cover in the area from 24.26% in 2015 to 19.16% in 2020. In addition, over-dependency on biomass fuel in Rwanda secondary schools has had various adverse effects on the environment such as deforestation, loss of biodiversity, soil erosion, high concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and air pollution among others. In a bid to cope with the consequences of relying on biomass energy, the country has committed to increase and sustain the area covered by forest. This will be achieved through forest landscape restoration and reducing the number of households depending on firewood as the main source of energy for cooking from 79.9% of people in 2016/2017 to 42% by 2024. However, there is a gap between biomass production and consumption which would be resolved to make it a sustainable source of energy. Thus, various stakeholders in the energy sector including government institutions and non-governmental organizations are advised to work hand in hand to find out adaptation and mitigation measures to reduce over-dependency on biomass fuel in Rwanda's secondary schools. Keywords: Biomass, Firewood, Forest, Ecosystem, deforestation.

Impact of Meteorological Information Delivery on Mazie Production in Rwanda []

In most poor and developing countries including Rwanda, the agricultural production is still subsistence due to the fact that farmers depend entirely on the availability of rainfall. This study aimed to assess the impact of meteorological information sharing on maize production. The study considered the case Cooperative de Cultivateurs de Mais (COOPCUMA) located in Gatsibo district, Eastern Rwanda from 2015 to 2020. Secondary data on the types, sources, receiving devices and usage of meteorological information along with maize production before and after meteorological information sharing were employed. These data were collected from COOPCUMA management. The Microsoft Excel analyzed and presented the data into tables and Figures while the Pearson Correlation of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) analyzed how meteorological information contributed to maize production. The results indicate that the highest maize production was 2.5 tons per hectare before (2015-2017) meteorological information sharing. Between 2018 and 2020 when meteorological information was shared, the lowest production per hectare was 5tons/ha but higher than the last production registered before sharing information. The statistical relationship between meteorological information sharing and maize production generate a very high P value of 0.9 which confirms how much such information sharing to farmers contributes to production. The results of this study are of importance to farmers and policy makers since the initiated program generated good results and hence, can be adopted in other similar regions.

Detection of Potassium Bromate as an Improver in Breads Produced in Some Bakeries in Benghazi, Libya []

Abstract: Bread is considered the basic and indispensable food in all parts of Libya, and for all social and economic groups. Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is a colorless, odorless and tasteless white crystal/powder that is used as a food additive in the pastry industry to improve the functionality of dough as an oxidizing and bleaching agent. After many long-term studies, in 1999 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classified potassium bromate as a potentially carcinogenic compound (Group 2B), and officially in 2012, the Codex Alimentations Committee withdrew the specification of potassium bromate as an additive. The aim of this study to check whether the Libyan bread particular, the Benghazi bakeries is free of potassium bromate. Sixty different types of bread samples were randomly collected from 60 different bakeries in the city of Benghazi, three flour samples and four bread improvers were also collected from different supermarkets. The qualitative (black spot test) and colorimetric quantitative methods to detection on presence potassium bromate was done. All result of this study recorded negative potassium bromate level (0.00 ppm) in 60 bread samples, the results showed also all flour samples and improvers are free of potassium bromate. In conclusion, all samples were completely free of potassium bromate and this confirms that potassium bromate was not used in bakeries in Benghazi, Libya, which has been banned since 2005. Key words: potassium bromate, bread, improvers.


Seaweed is a potential fishery commodity in Indonesia to increase the country's foreign exchange. This article aims to review the stages of extraction of agar-agar from seaweed (Gracilaria sp.) , its quality and application. Based on the literature review, the manufacture of agar-agar extraction from Gracilaria sp seaweed is the washing and cleaning of raw materials, soaking and cleansing, softening, cooking and pressing and printing. Gelatinous printing is generally in gelatin bars, sheets, and flour. The quality of agar-agar according to SNI is based on organoleptic, chemical, microbial contamination and metal contamination parameters. Application of agar-agar as a entrant, stabilizer, emulsifier, filler, purifier, gel maker, and others. Keywords: flour, stabilizer, extraction, molding, microbial contamination, quality.

"Squid Salted Product" Review Article []

Salted squid is a processed fishery product that is widely practiced in Indonesia. This article aims to review salted squid products in terms of manufacture and product quality. Based on the literature review that has been carried out, information was obtained that the stages of salted squid seeding are as follows: cleaning fresh squid, soaking in salt solution, boiling in salt solution, and drying. The quality of salted squid products in Indonesia is regulated based on SNI 2719.1: 2011.

Factors that Contribute to the failure to Meet the Expected Cost Recovery in the Water Sector – Case of Mulonga Water Supply and Sanitation Co,. Limited []

As part of its policy for increasing water coverage, as well as proper use and sustainability of the service, a cost recovery system must be implemented. The policy of NWASCO includes a full cost recovery program to improve water supply in the both urban and rural parts of Zambia. As a result, the goal of this study was to assess policy implementation of cost recovery practices in water supply in MWSC service areas. The study empirically assessed the level of cost recovery practices, examined the impact of cost recovery practices on water infrastructure, and identified the barriers to cost recovery implementation in water supply. A descriptive survey research method, as well as qualitative and quantitative research approaches, were used in the study's methodology. To collect primary and secondary data, the researcher used questionnaires, interviews, and documentation searches. The researcher used probability sampling techniques in the study's sampling design. The sample size for the study was 12 employees, 2 NWASCO inspectors, and 200 MWSC customers, but only 81 responded. According to the study's findings, the deployment of full cost recovery for water supply was quite poor. Poor cost recovery was caused by an insufficient tariff structure, as water tariffs are currently set at less than full-cost recovery levels. High NRW due to water leakage and unmetered connections; poor revenue collection; and insufficient residential connections in per-urban areas due to exorbitant connection fees for the poor. Furthermore, MWSC had the possibility of covering O&M in its tariff. These are the repercussions of insufficient water service coverage and uneven distribution of water infrastructure in peri-urban areas. Tariff revision on a regular basis was critical and reconciling cost recovery and affordability, aiming for long-term sustainable cost recovery, improving commercial and technical efficiencies of water and sanitation services, and awareness program on the issue of cost recovery in water supply and services.

Impact Analysis of Settlement on Land Management in Kicukiro District, City of Kigali Rwanda []

This study analyzed the impact of settlement on land management with case of Kicukiro district of the City of Kigali, Rwanda from 2000 to 2020. The secondary data on population and households, Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth were collected from reports of Kicukiro district and National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR). The data on land cover were collected form the United States Geological Survey (USGS). All data were analyzed by Geographic Information System (GIS) and Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results indicated that from 2000 to 2020, households in Kicukiro district doubled from 240,893 persons by 2000 to 383,608 people by 2020. The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) increased from 273.7US$ per person per years in 2006 and reached 923 US$ by 2020. The build-up or residence, government, and infrastructure land increased while cropland, wetlands water bodies, and forestland recorded decreasing numbers, respectively. The study showed that around 100% of urbanization was recorded and 70% of this increase results from unplanned urban settlement. This is not good, and policy makers should ensure that the communities are building with reference to the Kigali City urban master plan without any deviation as planned. Finally, regular consultation for limiting people who disobey the terms and conditions would be another alternative for sustainable land management in the City of Kigali.