Volume 10, Issue 5, May 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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An Evaluation of Street Character as a Factor for Liveliness. Case Study: Bagdat Caddesi. []

Historically, cities evolved around their streets that offer mobility, commerce, and social interaction, while being vital components of public spaces. This research aims to examine street characteristics as factors of liveliness to identify the street as a public space. The primary factors investigated in this research are physical features, visual identity, functions, and activities. Following the literature review on urban public spaces and street characteristics in means of public spaces, the research continues with a case study, examining Bagdat Avenue, a well-known avenue in Istanbul. The case study is developed in two steps: First, the entire avenue is examined to ascertain the liveliest sections using mapping and on-site observation methods. Secondly, the liveliest sections of Bagdat Avenue are extensively studied, emphasizing the street characteristics. The findings confirmed that these characteristics are mainly fundamental for street liveliness and indicated that when they are designed and implemented practically, they have the ability to define streets as public spaces. Comparing the liveliest sections revealed that these sections have a variety of businesses, unique independent stores, segments with a distinct personality and atmosphere, and buildings with an appropriate degree of permeability and articulated facades. According to the research, it can be said that the street’s characteristics help in creating an attractive place and a lively atmosphere for people to behave in a way that strengthens the publicity. This research may help develop a framework for rethinking design and planning for revitalizing urban life and explaining the human aspect of public space design.


1. ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to assess sociological and psychological determinants of Ethiopian athletes` success in the world long and middle distance running events. The study used mixed methods research designs and questionnaire based survey research method. The researchers have been implemented nonparametric test called Kruskal-Wallis test that alternative test of one way ANOVA. The final result indicated that Ethiopian athletes joined to formal running training with low socioeconomic status because of this, athletes have been faced economic problems during their running training. These effects to conclude that low SES affects athletes running performance positively, that low SES leads to have high performance and then they have been came successful, Finally Ethiopian athletes’ have been shown significant economic change on Ethiopian their life and their families` life through international long and middle distance running competition rewards. The main determinants of their success were motivation to overcome economic problems (athletics as a livelihood strategy to get out of poverty), the athletes motivation to alleviate their economic problems and other comparative advantages such as altitudes that living and training at high altitude helped Ethiopian athletes to be successful in the world long and middle distance running.

Smoke Catfish Product Review in Indonesia []

Smoked catfish is a traditional product of fish processing that develops in Indonesia. This article review aims to review smoke catfish products in terms of the stages of the process and the quality it produces. Based on the results of riview literature obtained information that the method of fumigation of catfish produced in Indonesia is a method of heat smoking. The stages of the process consist of preparing catfish, soaking in a saline solution, giving hot smoke in the temperature range between 60oC - 100oC and packaging of smoked catfish products. The quality of the smoke catfish products produced has met the quality of the Indonesian National Standard. Keywords: Indonesian National Standard, moisture content, fat content, histmin.

Identification of Water Reservoir Sites by Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System in Far-North Region of Cameroon []

The present work has for objective calling on remote sensing and Geographic Information System to identify favorable sites for the implantation of water retentions in the Far-North Region of Cameroon so as to answer to the problem of lack of water in this zone. To achieve this goal, satellite, geologic, hydric, topographic data, amongst others, have been used. The works took place in two phases; the first phase at the lab, where Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission images have been acquired and treated using the softwares QGIS, 3DEM and Global Mapper, to be able to study the drainage basins and the topography of the study zone and pre-selected potential sites. Secondly, field work has been carried out, taking in consideration the human, geologic, pedogenic, topographic parameters and the availability of geotechnical material amongst others, to select potential sites for the implantation of water retentions. This has enabled identify in the Far-North Region of Cameroon, forty-eight (48) sites, of which; six (6) are the most excellent, seven (7) good and thirty-five (35) fairly good. These sites are principally distributed in four divisions, which are; the Diamaré, Mayo-Tsanaga, Mayo-Sava and Mayo-Kani.

Analyzing over all chance of rainfall and rainfall anomaly in west Oromia, Ethiopia []

Abstract: Climatologically Ethiopia receives its highest rainfall (50-80%) when the low-pressure is established in northern equatorial region .Steady decline of precipitation was observed in many parts of the country. The spatial and temporal variation of rainfall over Ethiopia in general and in western Oromia in particular is complex and not well known yet. Understanding the probability of rainfall occurrence is essential in handling climate risks. Rainfall data (1987-2017) were collected from West Oromia meteorological service centre. INSTAT+ V3.37 software and Microsoft Excel Statistical Tool (2010) were used in analysing the data. At Jimma less probability of wet spell was existing and it was more at limugenet while it was almost the similar at the rest of the stations in the study area. The analysis of standardized anomaly indicated that 71% of the stations were normal while the rest 13% & 15% were below normal and above normal respectively. Key words: Rain fall, wet spell, Variation, probability, anomaly, and Ethiopia


As defined by the related literature nationalism is an ideology that promotes nationality, a strong sense of collective identity and solidarity among a vast population or to a nation based on common language, culture, heritage, religion or common citizenship. The study employed a descriptive-correlational design of research which to provide an overview on the present phenomenon in the context of nationalistic attitude of young Filipino generations and the factors which affect and influence their nationalistic attitude. Various data analyses were employed in the conduct of the study, mean to gauge the level of learners’ nationalistic attitude and the level of reinforcement in the achievement of learners’ nationalistic attitude and Pearson Moment Correlation to find out the significant relationship on the two main variables mentioned. As viewed in the result of the study, it shows that the young generations of today are still on tract since they often manifest nationalistic attitude. However, there are some criteria, aspects and/or dimensions under national pride, connection with countrymen, and national belongingness that seem to be detrimental to the posterity of our nation. It was also found out that teachers often reinforce students’ nationalistic attitude. The relationship between the variables under investigation shows that there is linear relationship, hence proceed to compute the test for relationship and the corresponding Pearson Moment Correlation value. The relationship between the learner’s nationalistic attitude is significantly related to the level of reinforcement, the strength, however, is very low. Results further explained that reinforcement of nationalistic attitude in terms of these elements: language, culture, and religion is not enough in bolstering the nationalistic attitude of today’s youth especially in this 21st century where other country’s culture is penetrating into the very core and gradually displacing our national identity.


This review article aims to analyze the potential for developing the processing of salted trichogaster into salted fish products. The method used is a literature study from primary sources (articles published in licensed journals) and secondary sources (reference books). Based on the literature study results, salted trichogaster is a local Indonesian fish that can be processed into salted fish products. The production of salted fish is very popular with Indonesian people and has the potential to be developed. The technique of making salted fish is easy to implement using simple equipment. Sustainability and business development of salted fish products need to be pursued using a SWOT strategy (Strength-Weakness-Opportunities-Treats).

Determinants of Alternative Energy Technologies Adoption and Energy Source Choice of Rural Households in Bambasi District, Benshangul Gumuz, Ethiopia []

Like many other developing countries, Ethiopia has faced with critical energy access and supply problems. The purpose of this study is to investigate factors that affect households’ adoption decision of alternative energy technologies and energy source choice. The research was applied both quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection to investigate the issues under question. Quantitative data was collected directly from respondents using semi-structured questionnaire. Qualitative information of the study was obtained through interview and focus group discussions. Discussion was conducted with technologies’ adopter and non-adopter households and also modern energy users. The study used descriptive statistics, frequency and percentages, and the study was used SPSS software version 20 to analysis data. Binary logistic and multinomial logit model was use to investigate the factors that determine household alternative energy technology adoption and choice between firewood, solar energy and biogas. The results indicate that education level, age, family size, annual income, distant of market services, access to credit service and awareness of household have significant effect on household’s adoption of alternative energy technology. The study also shows as education level, annual income, total livestock, primary occupation and access to credit service significantly affect household’s energy choice. Key words: Determinant, Household, Alternative, energy, technology, Adoption, Choice

Addressing Loneliness and Social Isolation through Jigsaw II: An Action Research []

Despite the development of technology, which has allowed everyone to be 'virtually' connected with almost everyone on the planet, many people still feel alone or 'isolated especially students.' More than a third of people have felt unhappy as a result of being alone. Despite the fact that they frequently overlap, loneliness and social isolation have distinct meanings and characteristics. While emotional loneliness refers to feeling alone while having a large social network, social isolation refers to the lack of interpersonal relationships, whether with family, friends, or coworkers. The Jigsaw II method is intended to alleviate social division, segregation, and prejudice. Although the strategy was designed to increase social connection in places where discrimination is common, it can also be used to improve social interaction in general, especially during this unprecedented time. The ability to consult with or confer their understanding with members of their Expert Group [EG] and Learning Group [LG] was valued by the participants. Unfortunately, the participants voiced dissatisfaction with the sporadic and poor internet connection due to financial constraints. Keywords: Action research, Cooperative learning, Jigsaw II


The purpose of this research study is to determine the impact of educational technology on student’s academic achievement in the Benadir region, Mogadishu-Somalia. and used three objectives, they are To determine the relationship between Computers and students, To find out the relationship between projectors on student achievement, and To examine the relationship between the internet and student’s academic achievement, and the study used descriptive research design, the target population of this study was 135 while the sample size of this study was 101 respondents including Lectures, Teachers and students in Benadir region, Mogadishu, Somalia In the study was used probability procedure Then systematic random sampling, the main instrument for collecting data was questionnaires. The questionnaire was consisting of structured with closed End questions and the Data was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. And used Statistical Package for social science SPSS version 20.0 and the Result revealed that the internet in use of students’ academic achievements has a significant positive impact on academic achievements of students, however, computers and projectors on students’ academic achievements don’t have any significant impact on academic performance of students. Educational Technology actively encourages Student Achievement in education sectors, Therefore the study recommends educational sectors should give attention to educational technology and capacity building in the Schools and universities to enhance student achievement and obtain increased and quality teaching.


The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of incentives, motivation and job satisfaction on the performance of BKPSDM employees in Sungai Penuh City. This research is motivated by low job satisfaction, incentives that do not meet needs, regulations that do not support work, low employee motivation, employees feel dissatisfied with applicable regulations both related to work implementation and incentives, and low performance results. BKPSDM agencies and employees of Sungai Penuh City. The research method with a quantitative approach with multiple linear regression method. Data collection techniques with questionnaires, observations and interviews. Respondents of this study were 48 employees of BKPSDM Sungai Penuh City. The sampling method used the total sampling method where the entire population in this study was used as the research sample. Hypothesis testing was calculated using the IBM Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 24.0 program. The results of this study found that incentives have a significant effect on employee performance, work motivation has a significant effect on performance, job satisfaction has a significant effect on employee performance, from the ANOVA test obtained Fcount > Ftable or 6.305 > 3.180 with a significance level of 0.001 or 0.05, then incentives, work motivation and job satisfaction together have a significant effect on the performance of BKPSDM employees in Sungai Penuh City. Keywords: incentives, motivation, work stress, employee performance


This study aims to see the effect of (1) Remuneration for employee performance at the BKPSDM of Sungai Penuh City (2) The work environment on employee performance at the BKPSDM of Sungai Penuh City(3)Competence on employee performance at BKPSDM Sungai Penuh City(4)Incentives, work environment and competence have a joint effect on employee performance at the BKPSDM of Sungai Penuh City. The population in this study is allThere are 84 employees at the Sungai Penuh City BKPSDM. And the technique of determining the number of samplestaken as respondents using total sampling. The results of this study indicate that (1)Incentivehas a positive significant effect on the performance of employees at the BKPSDM Sungai Penuh City (2)Work environmentgive a positive influence on the performance of employees at the BKPSDM SungaiPenuh City (3)Competenceprovide a positive influence on the performance of employees at the BKPSDM SungaiPenuh City (4)Incentives, work environment and competenciesjointly have a positive effect on the performance of employees at the BKPSDM SungaiPenuh City

The Application Of Geospatial Intelligence In The Fight Against Maritime Crimes And Other-related Incidents In Nigeria Maritime Domain []

The seas have a great economic potentials and prosperity for nations around the world, most especially the littoral nations. Over 90 percent of the world’s trade is conducted through the sea. The maritime sector of any economy has enormous potential to drive sustainable development with huge investment opportunities in shipbuilding and inland waterways transportation. Nigeria as a littoral nation is blessed with abundant hydrocarbon resources, fishes and intact ecosystem. One of the major security challenges facing Nigeria maritime domain is the problem of maritime crimes and other related incidents such as sea piracy, crude oil theft and illegal unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing. To effectively combat these problems there is the need for the adoption of modern strategies including the application of geospatial intelligence/technologies. Maritime crimes threaten peace and security, hinder safe navigation and deaths of victims among others. The study used both primary and secondary data as a total of 400 questionnaire were administered to respondents who were mainly drawn from the maritime industry in the study area. The collected data were analyzed and presented with the aid of charts and tables. A total number of 37 cases were identified from the study area for the period under review with Lagos state (37.83 %) recording the highest number of maritime crimes and other related incidents. This was closely followed by Rivers state (21.62 %). Akwa Ibom state (5.41 %) has the least record of the occurrence of maritime crimes in the study area. The paper recommends among others that the Federal Government of Nigeria should strengthen the operational capacity and the efficiency of the Nigerian Navy through the provision of more platforms for effective and sustained patrols.


Regenerating Teduray Folktales and Integrating it in teaching Regional Literature in Grade 7 is an effective strategy to teach English, especially to the Teduray (Indigenous Peoples) learners to captivate their interest, and value their own folklores and preserve it at their own pace. It was conducted among the Grade 7 students of Salumping National High School during the School Year 2021-2022. This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the Story Book where all Teduray original folktales, folksongs, poems, riddles and proverbs were regenerated through the help of knowledgeable elders and translated from Teduray dialect to English Language, and Module that contained different activities to develop the grammar skills, vocabulary, writing and reading comprehension, which was evaluated in terms of its content, relevance, acceptability and instructional aspect. Based on the results, the “Story Book and Module” were rated as excellent and passed the qualities expected by the target users, which were composed of all the Teduray original folktales, folksongs, poems, riddles, and proverbs regenerated through the help of knowledgeable elders. The experimental group who utilized the program had an increase in their academic achievements compared to the control group. The noticeable progress of students’ learning is attributed to the storybook and Module “I Fiyowe Tutul”, therefore, it should be adopted by the Indigenous Peoples (IPs) schools with Teduray members and be integrated into their classroom program and the storybook should be utilized by the teachers during their class especially the English teachers and Teduray teachers during English 7 class.


Background: Worldwide, epilepsy affects around 50 million of people. More than 85% of epileptic cases are found in low and middle income countries especially in Africa. In Rwanda, the prevalence of epilepsy was estimated to be 49 per 1000 people or 41 per 1000 for active epilepsy. This study was to assess psychosocial burden and associated factors among primary caregivers of epileptic patients in Kayonza district, Rwanda. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study and quantitative in nature. This study target population was all primary caregivers of epileptic patients in Kayonza District. A sample size of 246 caregivers was randomly selected. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data and all interviews were conducted face to face. The study questionnaire included the 22-questions adopted from Zarit Burden Interview that were used to collect data on the caregiver’s psychosocial burden. The collected data was directly recorded into REDCap forms before being exported to Stata v15.1 for analysis. Caregiver and patient’s characteristics were described using frequency and percentages for categorical data and median and interquartile range for continuous data. The overall score on the ZBI’s 22 items was categorized as high level of burden when greater than mean score (50.1) or as low burden otherwise. Chi-squared and Wilcoxon rank sum tests and logistic regression were used to identify factors associated with the level of psychosocial burden. Results: Of the caregivers, 83% were female. The caregivers aged between 19-34 years old were 19. 1% and 15% aged ≥65 years. Of the respondents, 61% were in Ubudehe category I or II, while the monthly income was ≤10,000 (Rwf) for 73% of caregivers. For the patients’ characteristics, the estimated duration of disease was less than a year for 13.4% patients, between 1-5 years for 31.7% patients and >10 years for 31.3% patients. About 25% of caregivers were providing care to patients with ≥11 seizures monthly and 21% reported that their patients were having poor medication adherence. In the bivariate analysis, factors associated with level of psychosocial burden were caregiver’s age (p<0.003), family size (p=0.006), ubudehe category (p=0.047), monthly income (p=0.014), duration of epilepsy (p=0.003), patient’s number of seizures per month (p=0.001) and adherence to medication (p<0.001). In the final multivariable logistic regression model, increased odds of high level of psychosocial burden were significantly associated with the increased caregiver’s age and the caregiver reporting that her patient was not adhering to treatment (OR: 4.47; 95% CI: 2.01-9.93). Conclusion: This study indicated that a big proportion of primary caregivers of epileptic patients in Kayonza district have high level of psychosocial burden. Thus, there should be system of screening psychosocial burden among caregivers of epileptic patients, introducing and strengthening patient’s home visit and accompaniment interventions in Kayonza and close patient’s follow up by their caregivers.


Background: The soil-transmitted helminthic (STH) are responsible for various infections including A. lumbricoides, T. trichiura and Hookworms. They are spread by larvae found in human faeces, which pollute soil in regions with inadequate sanitation. Kids who have been infected have nutritional and physical problems. In Rwanda, the prevalence of STH among children is high yet the information-related to STHs’ prevalence is limited. Objective: The study aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with STH infections among children aged under five years. Methodology: This research was a community-based cross-sectional study conducted at Gihundwe district hospital. The study sample size was 424 caregivers selected by using a systematic sampling technique. A structured questionnaire was used to collect the data and analyzed by using SPSS version 21. Results: The study found that 82.4% of caregivers surveyed were mothers, 79.8% were married, 55.4% were aged between 35-55 years, 51.4% of caregivers had completed primary level education, and 55.2% of caregivers stated being farmers. The STHs’ prevalence was found to be of 29.7% among children in Gihundwe district hospital catchment area. The most frequent STHs by type of STHs in the study areas were Ascaris lumbricoides (43%) in Gihundwe sector, Hookworms (19%) in Giheke sector and 9% of T. trichiura in Bweyeye sector among the total prevalence. The multivariate logistic regression showed that caregivers with primary educational level (AOR=1.9; 95%CI: [1.14–5.73]; p=0.031) were more likely having children with STH infections than caregivers with tertiary education. Also, children who did not wash their hands before meals were 3.4 times (AOR=3.4; 95%CI: [1.06-13.32]; p=0.030) more likely to have STHs compared to those washing their hands before meals. Households using surface water were more likely (AOR=2.7, 95%CI: [1.22-8.57]; p=0.027) to have children with STHs compared to those using piped water. Likewise, households not treating water before drinking were more likely (AOR=2.4; 95%CI: [1.20-9.28]; p=0.031) to have children with STH infections compared to those treating water before drinking. And to end with, households which did not own toilet facilities were the most likely to have children with STH infections (AOR=1.3; 95%CI: [1.14-4.61]; p=0.017) compared to those had their own toilet facilities. Conclusion: The prevalence of STHs and the associated factors disclose that important factors like hygiene practices of the children, drinking water sources and sanitation facilities in the study subject households and social and economic statuses of the caregivers affect the prevalence of STHs. Although, to interrupt transmission and to achieve local elimination of helminthiasis, integrated control approaches that include access to sanitation and other complementary interventions of a primary prevention nature are needed


In a world where cyber-security is a major concern and data is fast becoming a key asset, safeguarding this asset is a primary responsibility. This has brought about a massive demand and influx in security tools for the monitoring, detection and response of threats and vulnerabilities. Due to exponential increases in variations of security threats and even higher volumes of sensitive data, organizations in Cameroon have begun employing the use of multiple security tools to deal with specific problems. The attitudes and practices of people and organizations using this tools have implications on the confidentiality, availability and integrity of data. This paper provides a brief overview of the impact of Security Tools on Data Security in Cameroon. Through this paper, we want to provide our perspective on the positive and negative effects that may be brought about by the use of security tools during the implementation of data security. We then analyze our data, describe our findings, reflect on our results, discuss better security practices and provide our direction on future research. Keywords: cyber-security, data, threats, attacks and vulnerabilities, data security, monitoring, detection and response, security tools.


This review article aims to analyze the potential for developing the processing of salted trichogaster into salted fish products. The method used is a literature study from primary sources (articles published in licensed journals) and secondary sources (reference books). Based on the literature study results, salted trichogaster is a local Indonesian fish that can be processed into salted fish products. The production of salted fish is very popular with Indonesian people and has the potential to be developed. The technique of making salted fish is easy to implement using simple equipment. Sustainability and business development of salted fish products need to be pursued using a SWOT strategy (Strength-Weakness-Opportunities-Treats).


With about twenty (20) commercial banks operating in the financial system in Zambia, commercial banks are faced with firm competition amongst themselves. Therefore, keeping and developing relationships with current customers is a key business strategy for commercial banks. However, product and service problems as well as complaints are likely to occur over the lifetime of the bank. Designing an effective customer complaint system can go a long way towards turning dissatisfied customers who have had a negative experience with the bank into ones who are likely to remain loyal to the bank. The main aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between customer satisfaction and an effective complaint handling system in commercial banks. The data for this research was collected mainly through questionnaires which were administered to commercial banks in Solwezi as well as to their customers. The findings show that the effectiveness of the customer complaint system in commercial banks in terms of their responsiveness to customer problems is low. This is mainly because factors that make complaint handling a success are given little attention to.

Dynamics of pull down and reconstruction of religious cosmogony in cultural endogenous knowledge of environment protection in Bamileke traditional area (Western Cameroon) []

Socio environmental changes in the Bamilekes of western Cameroun open a new gap to natural conservation policies. It is on that way that this article try to illustrate the implications of traditional believe and knowledge in the modern process of environmental conservation, though that those ones faced various obstacles. In other words, we examine in the sociological and historical point of view ecological implications of indigenous knowledge in the nature conservation process in the Bamilekes area in western-Cameroun.