Volume 10, Issue 5, May 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

[1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]  [6]  [7]  [8]

Effect of follow-up program on HIV prevention among serodiscordant couples in Kicukiro District, Rwanda []

To date, no studies within the Rwandan context have assessed the impact of a follow-up program on HIV prevention among sero-discordant couples. To explore this question, this study aimed at assessing the effect of a follow-up program for HIV discordant couples in Kicukiro District, Rwanda. This was a case-control study comparing subjects who are in the follow-up program (cases) with subjects who are not in the program but are otherwise similar (controls). The sample size was 137 cases and 137 controls, as determined by the formula of Casagrande et al. (1978). Raw data from a quantitative questionnaire was entered and analyzed in SPSS version 20. Pearson’s chi-square test (P-value <0.05) and odds ratio with corresponding 95% confidence interval were computed to establish the association between the dependent variable (Follow up program) and independent variables (sociodemographic characteristics and the prevalence of sero-status and sero-discordance). Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to adjust for confounding factors in the relationship between dependent and independent variables. Qualitative data collected from focus group discussions were analyzed manually and results presented in the form of quotes. The study finds two new HIV infection among controls (non-enrolled) group and zero HIV infection among cases (enrolled) group. Out of 137 cases, 104(59.1%) have condoms compared to 72(40.9%) of controls; out of 137 cases, 10(29.4%) have pregnancy intention compared to 24(70.6%) of controls; out of 113(53.8%) used condoms compared to 97(46.2%) of controls. After multivariable logistic regression having condom at home was about 3 times more likely among study participants enrolled (cases) in the follow up program than controls and having intention for children was 2.42 times more likely among controls who were not enrolled in the follow up program compared to cases. Although this study shows that there is an increased effect of being in follow up program for HIV prevention among sero-discordant in bivariate analysis but there were not sustained at multivariate analysis. The study however highlights the need for the Ministry of Health and other concerned stakeholders to promote discordant couples to be enrolled in the follow up program by having condoms, not having pregnancy intention and use condoms while having sex with their partner. Key words: Follow-up, Prevention, serodiscordant couple


ABSTRACT The study’s overall objective is to investigate project management practices and performance of women’s in agri-cultural projects in Bungwe sector, Burera District, Rwanda. The major objective of this study is to find out how poor project planning can contribute to the negative failure on performance of women’s in agricultural projects in Bungwe sector, Burera District, Rwanda; to establish the extent of how low project implementation can contribute to poor strategy on the performance of women’s in agricultural projects in Bungwe sector, Burera District, Rwan-da. The study also adopted a case study research design to enhance an in depth investigation of the targeted popu-lation of the women’s in agricultural projects in Bungwe sector, Burera District, Rwanda. A Sample size of 100 respondents was arrived at using proportionate stratified sampling technique. The study gathered primary data through open and closed end questionnaires. The researcher used structured questionnaires and face to face inter-views especially where the respondents may not have time to complete the structured questionnaires. Many more, to study living conditions and events general physical competitors of the people of the Burera District. To also study on how women’s in agricultural projects in Bungwe sector, Burera District, Rwanda have been recognized as driving force for economic growth in Rwanda. The study was set out to analyze the extent to which project management is being used to measure the perfor-mance of women in agricultural projects in Bungwe sector, Burera District, Rwanda Questionnaires administered to 100 respondents out of which 60 questionnaires were valid and analyzed using Likert scale. To study benefits of project planning on the performance of women’s agricultural projects in Bungwe sector, Burera District, Rwanda. The study recommended women’s agricultural projects in Bungwe sector, Burera District, Rwanda to keep proper project planning and where necessary seek the services of professionals to do so at minimal cost be-cause the cost involved in Agricultural failure as a result of lack of proper project planning far outweigh the cost of good project planning for Agriculturalist concern.

Proactive Public Relations and Politics of Deception: Analysis of Osinbajo’s 2023 Presidential Declarative Statement. []

Abstract This work filled the gap of political selection and election of leaders in Nigeria and how such abnormality could be corrected with proactive public relations. The work was anchored on game and gate-keeping theories of political science and mass communication using content analysis methodology. The findings show that old politicians and present crops of political leaders in Nigeria are liars and incompetent to deliver electioneering campaign promises. Therefore; the research recommend that Nigerian media houses as a matter of urgency should start a proactive public relations campaign using all the media outfits - print, broadcast, digital or social media to educate the political parties and the electorates on how to make choice of political leaders in Nigeria. The media should use news analysis and broadcast commentaries to boost reputation of trusted political candidates. Journalists should intensify investigative and interpretative reporting to discourage deceptive political promises. Public relations officers should exploit press conferences to educate political parties and electorates to create deliberate political awareness among Nigerians. Other media messages to be used are the editorials and advertorials in newspapers, radio, television, social media and magazines to project the best candidates. Cartoons and short drama could be employed to encourage proper selection of reputable and tested Nigerians. Dramas, films and home videos aimed at condemning bloody elections and political parties should pick young people of between 40 to 50 years from South-East of Nigeria for the presidential seat for 2023. Word count: 210 Key Words: Proactive Public Relations, politics of deception, Political communication.

Frustration Aggression Theory and Local Refineries in Niger Delta: Implication to Host Communities’ Economy. []

This research is focused on the reasons why youths in Niger Delta are floating local refineries in Nigeria and how to find solutions to it. The study was anchored on frustration aggression theory and driven by in depth interview methodology. Respondents were selected from youths of four communities in Delta and Rivers states (Otor-Edo and Effurun-Otor in Delta state and Isiokpo and Bonny in Rivers state). The findings show that deprivation and hunger are some of the reasons why youths float local refineries in Niger Delta. The economic implications are loss of revenue to the three tiers of government and lack of sustainable peace and development in oil host communities. Hence, this paper recommended that Niger Delta Development Commission should build at least two refineries every year to create jobs for the youth and stop importation of petroleum products in Nigeria.


Abstract The topic of this study aimed at investigating the diffusion, use and alleged impacts of the mobile phone among small to medium scale farmers in the Goromonzi District of Zimbabwe. One key objective was to examine the impact of mobile phone on sustainable livelihoods activities in the Goromonzi District and also to evaluate associated challenges that are met by mobile phone users among farmers. Key research questions were to look at what factors influences adoption of mobile device and its usage in the agricultural business. The research adopted qualitative research design. Data was collected through interviews and questionnaires from the respondents. Results were mostly likely to show that women were less likely to access market information through mobile phone as compared to their male counterparts. The study established that the mobile devices were used to take photographs of agricultural demonstrations as well as linking farmers in to other farmers in various groups. The study concludes by starting that the mobile technology plays a crucial role in the development of farmers. Finally, this study recommends that the ministry of agriculture must place a crucial role and promotes farming activities through the usage of the mobile device as most farmers are connected to any of the three networks available in Zimbabwe. Key words: diffusion, mobile phone, sustainable livelihoods, agricultural business

An evaluation of the use of non-monetary incentives as a means of motivation…a case of Zimbabwe Revenue Authority (ZIMRA) Harare (2009-2013) []

Abstract The paper’s title is an evaluation of the use of non-monetary incentives as a means of motivation…a case of Zimbabwe Revenue Authority. The aim of this study is to investigate the factors and practical tools of non-momentary incentives that can help ZIMRA managers to motivate their employees. A descriptive and quantitative research design in nature was used to identify and classify the elements or characteristics of the subject on whether nonmonetary rewards have an impact on motivation to work. A method of collecting information was by use of questionnaire and structured interviews. convenience- Quota Sampling, 150 non-managerial staff were picked from different departments which are housed at Kurima House and ZB Centre to participate in the study. This research shows conclusive results that non-monetary incentives have motivational potential. The research identified top ten non-monetary incentives in relation to their motivational effect. The results show a strong relationship between non-monetary incentives and motivation. The study concludes that in the current economic climate, there is a major case for providing more value on non-monetary rewards to motivate employees, given the cost pressures faced by organisations. The paper recommends the use of the non-monetary incentives with a high motivational effect which are related to the future, work-life balance and control of work. It can be said that people want to enjoy work not at the expense of their lives. Key words: economic challenges, incentives, revenue generation, non-monetary tools,

An investigation into factors that affect corporate taxpayers’ compliance with business taxation laws: The case of Harare, Zimbabwe (2011-2021) []

Abstract The main objective of this study was to investigate the factors that determine corporate taxpayers’ compliance behaviours with business taxation laws in Harare hence the main research question what are the factors that determine corporate taxpayers’ compliance behaviours towards business tax laws in Harare? It was envisaged that the results of this study would provide useful information to Zimbabwe Revenue Authority (ZIMRA) and the Ministry of Finance (MOF) as the sole tax administrator and regulator respectively in Zimbabwe. This study adopted a mixed method research design so as to take advantage of the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative research designs thereby enhancing the overall strength of the study. The study also found a number of motivational factors which influenced corporate taxpayers’ tax compliance behaviours and these include final use of collected tax revenue, the efficiency in which ZIMRA refunds overpaid taxes, the complexity of the entire tax system as well as the level of tax rates among other factors. The study then concluded that the purpose to which collected taxes are utilized was the overriding factor that determines corporate taxpayer tax compliance behaviour in Harare. The researchers also recommended ZIMRA to increase measures to curb tax corruption that is engineered by ZIMRA officials, to consistently follow up all tax defaulters, reward tax compliant taxpayers and punish tax evaders as well as periodically offer tax amnesty periods to taxpayers. Key words: Tax, Compliance, Corporate taxpayer, Tax evasion.

Potential demographic influence on unintended pregnancies among reproductive aged women in Ghana []

Given that modern contraceptive use has been staggering over last decades, one in three women still report unmet need in Ghana. Our study sought to examine the potential demographic influence on unintended pregnancies among women of reproductive age (15-49) in Ghana using secondary data from the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Based on both binomial and multinomial logistic regressions, our results showed that reproductive aged women between the ages (25-49) were more likely to report total unmet needs for contraception’s and if they reported unmet need, then they were more likely to report unmet for limiting compared to younger aged women 15-19years as these coefficients were found to be statistically significant and positively associated with unmet need for limiting and total unmet needs. Additionally, we found women age at first birth, number of marital unions, wealth quintiles, women educational attainment, women occupation, exposure to radio, cost of contraception’s and women opposition to contraception use to be positive and significantly associated with unmet need for spacing. However, women residing in rural areas, religion, exposure to newspaper and television, distance to health facility, partner’s opposition to contraceptive use, fertility preference were significant and correlated negatively with unmet for spacing. We recorded some variations in the effects these variables across the models for total unmet needs, unmet needs for spacing and unmet needs for limiting. We therefore recommended massive intensification of health promotion programmes particularly on contraception use at the micro level in order to address the various age specific needs and women within the different socio-demographic sectors so as to reduce unmet need and to improve maternal and child health outcomes in Ghana. Family Planning programmes incorporating religious activities and discouraging unintended pregnancies and unsafe abortions could play a vital role in improving child and maternal health in Ghana.

SMEs’ access to credit: The case for Zimbabwe (2009-2017) []

Abstract This study examined these challenges faced by Zimbabwean Small to Medium Entreprises (SMEs) in accessing credit in the form of loans from providers of funding namely banks and Microfinance institutions and the effectiveness of government programs in addressing such challenges. The major objective was to quantify the impact of each and every challenge on access to credit such that appropriate recommendations can be drawn. A conceptual framework was established from the available empirical literature which formed the basis of the model that was established. An explanatory research design was adopted to explain the casual relationships between the variables. The study employed quantitative methods on secondary data sourced from ZAMFI and RBZ. Results from the regression analysis estimated by pooled ordinary least square in a log-linear model showed that collateral, Repayment Period and Required Amount are the major determinants of access to credit by SMEs in Zimbabwe and were therefore identified as the major challenges when accessing credit by SMEs in Zimbabwe. The study recommends that policy makers and management of SMEs should combat the various challenges highlighted herein. KEY WORDS: Small to Medium Enterprises, credit, financial institutions


Rice is one of the major staple food items in Pakistan. Zinc is vital micronutrient for plants and its insufficiency extensively spread in paddy soils in the Pakistan. Zinc deficiency showed its negative impact on rice crop. The experiment was conducted at Adaptive Research Station, Sialkot during kharif 2014-2016 with randomized complete block design. In each location, pre soil analysis was conducted according to protocol. Zinc sulphate (33%) was broadcasted in different doses i.e T-2 (ZnSO4 @ 12.50kgha-1), T-3 (ZnSO4 @ 18.75kgha-1), T-4 (ZnSO4 @ 25.00kgha-1), T-5 (ZnSO4 @ 15.00 kgha-1) compared to control. The productive tillers showed significant (P<0.05) result in T-3 (227.0 and 223.67) followed by T-4 (221.67) at Mitral and T-2 (222.33). Maximum productive tillers recorded in T-2 (287.67) followed by T-4 (287.33) compared to control at both places during kharif-2015. Maximum productive tillersm-2 recorded non-significant observation in T-4 (296.55) & T-5 (294.01) at Bagowala. Thousand grain weight (g) found maximum in T-3 (22.53g) followed by T-5 (22.25g) recorded non-significant result compared to control (20.11g) at Mitral. Non-significant grain weight was recorded in all treatment at Bagowala compared to control (T-1) showed significant investigations during 2015. Maximum yield (P<0.05) were recorded in T-2, T-4 and T-5 at Mitral and Bajwat compared to control. Significant yield (tha-1) was recorded T-4 and T-5 compared to control (T-1). At the end it is concluded that zinc sulphate broadcasted @ 15kgha-1 found maximum yield and yield attributes in different areas at Sialkot.

Deep Learning based approach for identification of knee defects using Magnetic Resonance Imaging []

Knee arthroscopy is a form of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) in which an arthroscope and a surgical tool is inserted into the knee through small incisions. Every year, about four million of these surgeries are done across the world, at a total cost to the global healthcare system of $15 billion USD. This study evaluates existing and innovative knee injury detection methods using Stanford's MRNet Dataset. All of the strategies are deep learning-based, and the outcomes of transfer learning and a deep residual network created from the ground up are contrasted. This paper also takes use of certain MRI data characteristics, such as employing a fixed number of slices or 2D images from each of the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes, as well as merging the three planes into a single multiplane network. More adaptable designs are also shown, which may benefit in the development and training of MRI processing models. The developed model achieved the average accuracies of 95%, 96%, and 89% for abnormal, ACL tear, and Meniscal tear respectively on the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes.

« Sur l’épargne domestique et investissement privé dans un contexte de relance économique, cas de la République Démocratique du Congo » []

La problématique du financement de la croissance par la mobilisation de l’épargne domestique demeure une préoccupation majeure pour les décideurs des politiques économiques de pays en développement. Le niveau de la production et de revenu des ménages étant très faible, il est difficile que les économies en développement dégagent une épargne suffisante pour financer l’investissement productif. L’objectif global de notre recherche vise à montrer comment l’épargne domestique peut avoir une influence sur l’investissement privé en République Démocratique du Congo.


ABSRACTS This study investigates the effects of demographic changes on assets prices and macroeconomy. The study employed the use of data for financial assets: equity and treasury bill prices and demographic variables from 1988 to 2020. The study conducted PhillipsPerron for unit root test of the variables. The study performed Johansen cointegration test to determine the long run relationship among the variables. The study employed Ordinary Least Square method for estimation of the variables. The results of the findings are as follow: In model 1, there exists a negative relationship between price of equity and population percentage of age (15-64); there exists a negative and significant relationship between price of equity and population percentage of age (65 and above); there exists negative relationship between price of equity and dependency ratio; and there exists a negative and significant relationship between price of equity and gross saving rate. While in model 2, there exists a negative relationship between treasury bill rate and population percentage of age (15-64) which represents the working class of the population; there exists a positive and significant relationship between treasury bill rate and population percentage of age (65 and above); there exists negative relationship between treasury bill rate and dependency ratio; and there exists a negative relationship between treasury bill rate and gross saving rate. Based on the foregoing findings the study therefore recommends:that government needs to improve on working population conditions of service to encourage them to invest in both equity and treasury bills; that ageing population who are the risk averters should be encouraged by government through frequent issuing of treasury bills to raise funds for developmental objectives; and that government should relief the working population of their dependency burden so that it will enhance them to invest more on equity and treasury bills.

Leadership Styles and Employee Productivity: A Study on Walmart []

This study aims to improve employee productivity in Walmart based on varying leadership styles. It also explains the interrelation of employee productivity and various leadership styles employed by organizational leaders, and it elaborates on the vital role leadership plays in an organization's survival. This study benefit organization in selecting appropriate leadership style, help leaders in determining how to motivate their followers, and contributes to existing leadership literature by stimulating scholars to consider the leadership-employee productivity aspects that are yet to be explored.

Pragmatic Functions of Silence in Ola Rotimi’ Kurunmi and Wole Soyinka’s A Dance of the Forests []

The paper investigates the function of silence in conversation through two selected play texts entitled Kurunmi by Ola Rotimi and A Dance of the Forests by Wole Soyinka. The researchers believe that the functions of silence identified in the texts are what obtains in real life interaction since play texts are close to naturally occurring conversation. In analysing the data, the authors make use of insight from the concept of context which means that it is the contexts in which the silence occurs that are used in interpreting its functions in the selected texts. The authors identified nine functions of silence in the play texts among which five have not been documented in the literature. Among the novel functions of silence discovered in the two play texts are: silence is used to indicate the brief period of shock when one’s interlocutor is trying to consider the full implication of a piece of news; silence to indicate that somebody’s contribution to an ongoing discourse is totally strange or unexpected; silence to indicate that one does not want to commit oneself to a specific response in a communicative encounter where polar questions are asked; silence to indicate that the response to the current speaker’s question is not likely to be a favourable one among others.


The goal of this study is to determine how students' study habits affect their academic achievement. The descriptive design is used in this investigation. The findings reveal that during the two grading periods, students at X National High School has different study habits depending on or in relation to their academic accomplishment in the three core disciplines of English, Science, and Mathematics. Students who have a good study habit perform better academically than students who have poor study habits. Their scholastic performance decreased as a result of their weak and uninspiring study habits. Students perform poorly in the fundamental subjects of English, mathematics, and science because the majority of them have poor study habits. Keywords: Academic performance, Reading, Study habits, Philippines

Students’ Holistic Formation in X Community College: Extent of Technology Usage []

Abstract This study attempts to determine the extent of technology usage for student’s holistic formation of second year college students from five college courses of X College, Academic Year 2021-2022. This paper utilizes a quantitative method employing an online descriptive-correlation design. The extent of technology usage showed most of the time in Messenger, Google, and smartphone while sometimes only in Facebook, YouTube, Instagram, and laptop computer but never in tablet computer. In terms of the holistic formation in technology the overall results show that technology has a huge contribution on the holistic formation of the respondents as indicated by the overall mean. The indicator “morally upright” got then the highest overall mean rating described as most of the time while the indicator physically robust got the lowest overall mean rating described as sometimes. The respondent’s level of holistic formation in technology in terms of the respondents’ profile showed significant in family monthly income and attitude towards technology access. It is noted that technology offers a huge contribution to the holistic formation of the respondents with a morally upright indicator as highest and least was being physically robust. Keywords: Correlational Study, Students’ Holistic Formation, Technology Device, Technology Usage


Performance-based budgeting makes regional financial management more useful, because the funds issued are more clearly used through the outputs and outcomes produced. Therefore, it must be supported by good quality human resources, therefore it is important for the government to pay attention to the quality of human resources in improving the application of performance-based accounting. This study uses a survey approach with an explanatory research design. The sample of this research is the staff who are responsible for the management of state planning and budget at the central and regional level work units in Tebing Tinggi. . Data analysis used simple linear regression test. The results of the analysis show that the quality of Human Resources has an effect on the effectiveness of the implementation of performance-based accounting in the City of Tebing Tinggi with a P value of 0.020. The government must provide training both for beginners and for those who are advanced as a form of development, this is very necessary to improve the competence and development of employees' abilities in implementing the accounting system.

Determinants of stunting amongst under-five children: Evidence from 2018-2019 Zambia Demographic and Health Survey []

Abstract Background: Stunting continues to be a Public Health problem worldwide. A child is ‘stunted’ if his or her height is less than negative two standard deviations below the World Health Organization (WHO) standard. The study aimed to explore determinants of stunting in Zambia among under-five children using the Zambia Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) 2018-2019 data. Methods: A total of 7045 Zambian children with complete anthropometric measurements and aged 0–59 months were included in the study. Nutritional status was evaluated using anthropometric; height-for-age, as a proxy measure of stunting. Weighted univariate and multivariate binary logistic regression were used to examine the association between stunting and selected environmental, maternal-socio-demographic and child level factors. Statistical significance was set at P<0.005. Results: Of the 7045 under-five children, 2479 (34.9%) were found to be stunted. Stunting was higher among male children as compared to female children (38.5% vs 31.3% respectively). The factors associated with stunting were childs: sex; age; birth size; breastfeeding; residence; maternal education; wealth index; twin births and the birth interval among siblings. Children born to mothers whose previous birth interval is less than 24 months (aOR= 1.34 95%CI: 1.13-1.58; P<0.001), children from poor households (aOR= 1.65 95%CI: 1.32-2.08; P<0.001), twin births (aOR=2.65 95%CI: 1.61-4.36; P<0.001), children whose mothers had primary education (aOR=1.16 95%CI 1.00-1.35; P=0.046), children coming from households whose source of drinking water was non-improved (aOR= 1.30 95%CI: 1.09-1.5; P=0.003), child not breastfed (aOR= 1.20 95%CI: 1.04-1.38; P=0.015) were more likely to be stunted. Conclusion: The study established that the maternal and child factors of stunting. Therefore, to reduce the burden of stunting interventions that can address these factors are required such as community-based education and targeted nutritional interventions and strengthening the health system for improving child health through prioritising maternal and child by addressing poverty and increase food access is mostly needed. Keywords: Children, Stunting, Zambia Demographic and Health Survey

Fathers in Jail: Preserving Fatherhood Identity []

Incarceration constrains the father’s ability to fulfill his familial responsibilities. Incarcerated fathers should be recognized as having a responsibility to their children, wanting to be involved in their children’s lives, and help make parenting decisions. Hence, the main objective of this qualitative study is to address issues on how incarcerated fathers could navigate fatherhood from behind bars. This study utilized the Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). A purposive sample of 20 incarcerated fathers at Benguet Provincial Jail and La Trinidad District Jail participated in this study. Findings revealed that in order to preserve fatherhood identity, the incarcerated fathers took advantage of telephone or cellphone, Facebook Messenger, and Skype as a means of staying connected to their children. The incarcerated fathers still uphold a sense of caring for their children, which is supported by their faith in God and through prayers. Further, the fathers are looking for means to support their children financially by actively participating in livelihood programs. As voiced by the incarcerated fathers, more access to communication between them and their families will enable them to manage separation and maintain connections. Allowing them to interact and play with their children during visits will help maintain a sense of family connection and may reduce the trauma of separation. Lastly, the participants of this study suggested that there should be more livelihood activities that should be conducted inside the jail for them to earn money, and financially support their children. Keywords: fatherhood identity; coping mechanisms; paternal incarceration; suspended fatherhood identity

Conscientious parenting []

Taking the Concept beyond the Lies Self -love is a state of mind’s growth through appreciation for oneself. It must completely comprise actions that support our physical, psychological, and spiritual growth. Anything short of this is not self-love in its wholeness. Yes, none of these vital areas of personal growth must be lacking.


Kamaboko is a food that has a gel shape and chewy made from fish meat. This product is very popular with most Indonesians. This review article aims to get information about the types of kamaboko, the quality of kamaboko and the development of kamaboko products from research results. Based on literature studies obtained information that the types of kamaboko consist of Itatsuki kamaboko, Fried kamaboko, Chikuwa and Hanpen. The quality of kamaboko can be seen from organoleptic and chemical parameters. The higher the protein content and the lower the fat, the higher the quality of kamaboko. Kamaboko product development can be done with the addition of caragenan and ISP to get more chewy kamaboko products.

A Trigonometrically Fitted Predictor-Corrector Method for solving Oscillatory Second Order Ordinary Differential Equations []

A predictor-corrector class of Continuous Trigonometrically-Fitted Method for Solving Oscillatory (CTMSO) Second Order Ordinary Differential Equations in this research paper is developed . The method coefficients is proportional to the approximate solution requency and step size. The CTMSO generates a discrete trigonometrically-fitted second order ordinary differential equation as a by-product. The main predictors needed for the evaluation of the implicit methods are obtained to be of the same order with the method at whatever point of collocation. The method stability qualities are described, and the method usefulness and efficiency are demonstrated by solving linear and nonlinear initial value oscillatory problems.

Use of Green Building Design Concept in Mixed-Use Building: Review of Selected Case Study in Pandu Street and Pemuda Street, Medan City []

The research examines the effects of green building design in urban mixed-use buildings. To mitigate the effects of climate change, a mixed-use building design using green building principles is the best option. Excess heat radiation both inside and outside the building can be reduced using green building design. Climate change and the depletion of natural resources are current issues that represent a "must-be-addressed-right-now" goal in the built environment's development. More than any other industrial process, growing building development has a negative impact on the environment. Green building design principles are crucial to implement in structures. Green building design in mixed-use buildings must take into account a number of factors, one of which is the level of comfort. The density of commercial buildings in Medan City reduces green open space, and many structures fail to meet the minimum green open space criteria, which can help the city's development to minimize environmental temperatures. The data gathering methodology is case studies, and the method employed is qualitative. The analysis was descriptive in nature in order to produce a mixed-use building model with a green design idea. The findings reveal that efficient land use, energy saving, material conservation, and water conservation may all be used to make buildings more pleasant. Keywords: Green building, Comfort, Sustainability, Built environment

Assessing challenges of Baturiya Wetlands and Game Reserves Biodiversity as Ecotourism Resource in Hadejia, Jigawa State, Nigeria: A viewpoint []

Wetlands are primarily targets for exploitation by man via, uncontrolled hunting, population, pollutions, sedimentation resulting from deforestation, desertification, eutrophication resulting from agriculture, runoff, channelization for irrigational farming, progressive industrialization, compaction of soil by pastoralists and their animals which further degrade the wetlands habitats as well as climate change and drought. The drying out of the wetlands and other loss of ecosystem services are common phenomenon of the Baturiya wetlands vis-à-vis the degradation of ecotourism resource potentials, poor administration, coordination and participation amongst communities are big threats to the wetlands. These situations present a great danger to the ecosystem biodiversity and the community livelihood options. Leisure and ecotourism resources are seen as veritable tools to economic development, if dependent communities are properly engaged to harness the endowments. Apart from generating wealth, Baturiya wetland tourist site enhance community cohesion; promote peace and security within the host communities. Tourism needs a high level of planning and this has to involve the local communities in order for them to have a sense of attachment to the nature endowment of water, local/migratory birds, gum Arabic trees, lunched grasses, economic palms are left uncontrolled and devastated by poachers, farmers and deforestation for fuel woods/timbers. This paper looked at the wetlands and birds’ sanctuary as tourism and recreation bolster of Hadejia to boost jobs creation, health, economic and conservation of nature for its people and beyond. It presents the synopsis of how to engage the stakeholders and community members to efficiently use and managed the wetlands and other resources sustainably. The wetlands is considered by the communities as places to fish, graze, hunt and reservoir for firewood not for ecotourism as they have less business with leisure, recreation and tourism. The study used knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP), oral interviews and on the spot observation methodologies (qualitative data), communities and staff of Ministry of Environment (Conservation unit), Dutse as source of data generation. The discussions and results showed that the communities do not see the need to utilize the wetlands as tourism hub, nor appreciate its values. This paper recommended; that communities participation, awareness of wetlands as sources of socio-economic-value chain to people, conservation and management of the wetlands for posterity is key, funding for preservation of birds/wildlife and ecosystems is also pertinent, construction of holiday chalets for domestic/ international tourists and halting of fishing and devastation of the ninety nine (99) identified ponds is suggested and students researches be tailored towards conservation of the Baturiya wetlands by Federal University, Dutse (Zoology, Botany, Forestry/wildlife, Environmental Sciences Departments), NTDC, Abuja, UNEP, UNDP, WWF towards passive wildlife and birds watching destination realizable. The communities and neighborhood of wetlands should be well sensitized and kept abreast of the fortunes of wetlands now and for future.


ABSTRACT Healthy behavior is defined as the stage of management and maintenance of health, regardless of the currents state of health. Healthy behavior after the onset of the disease is very important because it can reduce the risk of recurrence, reduce the severity of the disease, improve function and prolong life. The aim of this study was to assess the pattern of healthy behavior and related factor among patient with chronic disease (DM, HT) in al-Najaf city and to find the relationships between socio demographic characteristics and healthy behaviors of patient with chronic disease(DM, HT). A descriptive design, cross-sectional study was adopted to achieve the research objective. the study started from 1st March 2021to 20 June 2021. A non-probability sampling technique (purposive sample )of (54)people with chronic disease selsected from PHC centers from northern (Al-Jawad, Al-Askari2, and Al-Karama) and from southern care sector (Al-Ansar, Al-Adala, and 15 shaaban ) in Al-Najaf city which represent (25%) of total centers in Al-Najaf city. in al-najaf city. Relevant scale was used for measurement of "healthy behavior of people with chronic disease" the scale composed of 2 main parts Sociodemographic Characteristics of people with chronic disease (DM, HT),and Healthy Behaviors part. and used the (frequency and percentage), Statistical mean and standard deviation as descriptive analysis and P.V to find the significances of relationships between socio-demographic characteristics and health behavior of patient with chronic disease. The results of the study revealed that there is a moderate level of healthy behavior in each of the diseases of the system diabetes and hypertension disease, the study recommend to Organizing awareness sessions for chronic patients about the importance of maintaining and adhering to improved health behaviors, Financial support for patients with chronic disease, The health authorities adopt interest in developing a health culture among members of the community, not only for patients, Rehabilitation of psychologists in order to deal well with this people and provide them with sufficient information and In order to educate the patient about the need to maintain his physical health and its impact on his mental health, and Building indicative programs to modify health behavior in chronic patients.