Volume 10, Issue 5, May 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The Immunological response in Novel Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection (Article Review) []

SARS-CoV-2, a novel coronavirus, is the agent responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic and is a major public health concern nowadays. The rapid and global spread of this coronavirus leads to an increase in hospitalizations and thousands of deaths in many countries. To date, great efforts have been made worldwide for the efficient management of this crisis, but there is still no effective and specific treatment for COVID-19. The pandemic of the new coronavirus infection (COVID-19) caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread all over the world. The large amount of information that appears every day requires comprehension and systematization. The immunological aspects of the virus-host interaction are the core issues in the effective treatment and prevention of COVID-19’ development. The review analyzes the known pathways of the viral invasion and evasion, the mechanisms of the cytokine storm, endothelial damage, and hypercoagulability associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical data from previous SARS and MERS epidemics is discussed here. We also address the therapeutic approaches based on the basic knowledge of immune response and the blood cells’ immune functions, as well as the ways to reduce their hyperactivation. The use of interferon therapy, anti-inflammatory therapy, anti-cytokine therapy, neutralizing antibodies, convalescent plasma, and mesenchymal stem cells, as well as prophylactic vaccines, is discussed.

Impacts of Depressed Economy on Rental Value of Residential Properties in Port Harcourt Metropolis. []

Nigeria has experienced a severe economic down turn between the second quarter of 2016 up to present. This period of economic depression has affected the nation’s economy as well as the real estate sector. The study aimed at examining the effect of economic depression on residential property rental values in Port Harcourt Metropolis. The study adopted the survey research design and questionnaire was the main source of data collection which was administered on Estate Surveying and Valuation firms in Port Harcourt Metropolis which were selected using purposive sampling technique. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the relative importance index. The findings from the study reveal that economic depression has affected residential rental values in Port Harcourt Metropolis by way of upward review of rent, delay in letting residential property, reduction in construction activities and inability of tenant to comply timely with repayment of rent. The study concluded by recommending that the government diversify the economy and that rental control policies be set up by the government in order to curb the effects of unnecessary rent inflation. KEYWORDS: Depressed Economy, Rental values, Residential properties.

Review article NORI SEAWEED Products from Kappaphycus alvarezii. []

The type of red seaweed that can be made for nori is Kappaphycus alvarezii. This article aims to review the manufacture of nori from kappaphycus alvarezii sea runput and nori quality. Based on the literature study obtained information that the manufacture of nori from Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed consists of 7 stages, namely seaweed cleaning, seaweed soaking, washing, smoothing, seaweed porridge cooking and mixing with other additives, printing and drying. The quality of nori is based on its physical properties, namely tensile strength, organoleptic properties such as color and texture, its chemical properties are water content

Improving the efficiency of solar energy by using solar trackers []

Solar cells are a relatively recent technology and are still in the process of research and development, so the efficiency of solar cells is relatively low. Any improvement made to solar cells is useful and important. Therefore, the two most important elements that affect the solar cell are sunlight and temperature, so the relationship between the direction of sunlight and electric power using the Simulink on MATLAB, and how to get the highest possible capacity of sunlight by using a tracker for sunlight. This tracker connects with a motor that changes the direction of the solar panel so that it is direct with the sun’s rays by collecting the location data of the sun during the day and providing this information to the controller so that we get a simple tracker that overcomes the changing weather conditions.


Traditional fish processed products that are used as culinary tours are satay bandeng, typical serang cuisine, Provinsi Banten – Indonesia. This article aims to review the milk bandeng satay products from the ingredients used, the stages of manufacture and their quality. Based on the literature study obtained information that the ingredients used in making milkfish satay are milkfish, salt, white sugar, brown sugar, coriander, onions, red pepper and coconut milk. The stage of making milkfish satay consists of the production of milkfish meat, the production of thorns from fish meat, making seasoning, donating namely mixing seasoning with milkfish meat, filling dough on the skin of milkfish and burning. The quality of milkfish satay is assessed from organoleptic and chemical parameters. The quality of the organoleptic satay of milkfish is brownish yellow, the texture is dense and comfrey on the outside and soft on the inside, the taste is rather sweet and savory with the aroma of coriander and the distinctive smell of grilled food. The chemical quality of milkfish satay is higher than fresh milkfish.


Abstract This paper examined the enhancement of acoustics and lighting in a media center. It provided better understanding of the strategies to be adopted in enhancing acoustics and lighting in the broadcasting house. Studying literature reveals that the broadcast studio is a crucial space within the media facility where acoustics is highly needed and the Television broadcast studio needs adequate lighting for images to be captured excellently to enhance viewers satisfaction. The study also looked at the various materials needed to enhance acoustics and their sound absorption capacity and noise reduction coefficient in other to ascertain the materials suitable for some spaces within the facility. It also looked at the type of lights and their characteristics as it may affect the use of spaces. The paper concluded that the spaces within the media center should be intentionally designed to deal with the challenges that might occur in so doing the activity, size and volume of every space inform the materials to be used and the pattern to be adopted. Keywords: Acoustics, lighting, media, materials, spaces, studio


Octopus is a species that is widely found in Indonesian waters and processed into traditional products, namely crackers. This article aims to review the manufacture of octopus crackers. Based on the study of the riview literature obtained information that the stages of processing octopus crackers consist of material preparation, dough making, printing, steaming, slicing, drying and drying.


Fish-based flavoring powder is an alternative to the use of synthetic flavorings that are widely used by the people of Indonesia. This article aims to review fish-flavoring powders. Based on the literature study obtained information that the manufacture of flavorings made from fish can use the meat and head. The fish head used can come from the industrial waste of fish fillets. The proximate composition and degree of fondness for flavoring are influenced by the type of fish meat used.

ANCHOVY Products SALTED ( Stolephorus sp. ) []

Anchovies are important economical fish in Indonesia and are processed into salted anchovy products. This article aims to review salted anchovy products from the processing process and product quality Based on the literature review obtained information on the stages of processing salted anchovies are as follows: Sorting, cleaning, salting and drying. The quality of salted anchovy products in Indonesia is regulated based on SNI number: 3461.1: 2013, namely a maximum salt content of 10%, a maximum water content of 60%, a maximum insoluble ash content in acid of 0.3%, Salmonella and vibrio cholerae must be negative, total bacteria a maximum of 105 colonies / gram and the number of Staphylococcus aureus a maximum of 103 colonies / gram. Keywords: quality, salting, drying, protein, shelf life.


Diophantine problems gave fewer equations than unknowns and involve finding integers that solve simultaneously all equations. The simplest linear Diophantine equation takes the form where are given integers. In this paper, we presented some theorems that described solution to such equation. It also generalized various axioms of Diophantine m – tuples equation.


This study examine the use of media contents among youth in faith based organization in Osogbo, Osun State Nigeria, using the microscope of the Uses and Gratification Theory. The study seeks to determine the kinds of media contents use by the youth and also to find out the gratifications that the youth seek using the contents. The study employs Focus Group Discussion method to probe the research questions drawn for the study. Two key recommendations\are offered flowing from the findings. First, it is recommended that future studies adopt a quantitative research design to find out the gratifications that youths seek for using media channels contents and what they obtain on a larger scale. Second, it is suggested that other research studies should probe uses and gratifications of specific media channels contents among south west Nigeria youths so that future researches in this particular area of research could contribute to the emerging scientific discourse of Uses and Gratifications globally.


ABSTRACT This paper takes a look at Democratization of Media Ownership in Nigeria, the need for more participation. It espouses the view that the issues of Democratization of media ownership can never be overemphasized due to the dwindling situations surrounding media practice in Nigeria and the world at large. The media is said to take the coloration of where the practice is being carried out i.e. the way the media operates in Nigeria cannot be the same as the way it will function in other countries such as Soviet Union, United States, Britain , Ghana, Canada etc. The paper is aimed at reviewing democratization of media ownership, various types of media ownership and how it is being controlled either privately or publicly and how the control affects the media operation. The work also elucidate the potential role of the media as a democratizing agent. The study recommends that both private and government media should be allowed to practice freely without any internal or external forces. The media should not allowed to the hands of the rich at the expense of the poor which has advert effect to practice of journalism in the world today.


The perception of the respondents on the area of service advocacy, customers trust, customer reputation, customer integrity,employee productivity, and organizational agility differ in their views between the employees and clients of the Katipunan Bank . Although there is a presence and evident that they tries to offer quality and unconditional services to their clientele, confusion appears. The observation generated for the respondents who are involve in the study seem subjective considering that the institution exist for quite a time serving customers need. There is an evident exhibited since expansion of the said business is on-going and the number of clients is increasing that can support to the conflicting views of the respondents. Addressing this misconception between the respondents who are the subject in this study is very vital as it will affect the long-term goal of the company. Over and above, the business nature is service, this requires to be felt by customer or clientele considering that satisfied customer can be a potential advertisement through the word of mouth. A satisfaction that the customer feel can be exhibited to in increasing customer loyalty and trust, and hence, the institution should look into and fathomed some other elements needed to address in a way met their innermost desire. Another area that the bank should consider is the environmental change and the unpredictable turn of events wherein, it is necessary for the company be aware of. The increasing number of related business nature can become a competitor that somehow creates a mandatory requirements for the business to exist and sustain operation.


Seaweed is a potential fishery commodity in Indonesia to increase the country's foreign exchange. This article aims to review the stages of extraction of agar-agar from seaweed (Gracilaria sp.) , its quality and application. Based on the literature review, the manufacture of agar-agar extraction from Gracilaria sp seaweed is the washing and cleaning of raw materials, soaking and cleansing, softening, cooking and pressing and printing. Gelatinous printing is generally in gelatin bars, sheets, and flour. The quality of agar-agar according to SNI is based on organoleptic, chemical, microbial contamination and metal contamination parameters. Application of agar-agar as a entrant, stabilizer, emulsifier, filler, purifier, gel maker, and others. Keywords: flour, stabilizer, extraction, molding, microbial contamination, quality.


Catfish is the leading commodity of freshwater aquaculture fish in Indonesia. Catfish can be processed into raw materials for making nuggets. This article aims to review catfish nugget products dumbo in terms of the manufacturing process and quality description Based on the literature review obtained information that making catfish nuggets consists of the stages of preparing catfish into catfish meat lubrication, mixing materials, donation, steaming, printing and printing. The quality of catfish nuggets is good like other fish nuggets, namely chewy texture, savory and crispy taste, the aroma shows the characteristic fish and browned after frying. Delicious and high-grade fish nuggets amount of flour used as much as 10% of the weight of fish meat.


ABSTRACT: Sillada’s select Kamayo poem, “Lawod ng Kamingaw”. This critical research assumption is supported by the word formation theory and the lexeme- morpheme base morphology theory. The researchers used qualitative descriptive- analytical approach with content analysis to quantify patterns of words in a select poem. The findings revealed that the select poem has linguistic pattern and level of discourse. Although there were complexities in the poem in terms of boundaries between words, forms, and lexical morphemes still it features meaning as poet speaks the Kamayo language in a natural way. KEYWORDS: Kamayo, Lexeme-morphem, Morphological, Segmentation, Word formation


One of the processed fish products in Indonesia is fish sausage. This article aims to get information on making milkfish sausages and their marketing in Indonesia. Based on the literature study obtained information that the stages of making milkfish sausage consists of preparing milkfish meat in the form of lumat and without thorns, mixing with other additional ingredients, donating, filling in cashing and finally pungkusan. The marketing of fish sausages in Indonesia partly took on the children's segment. The marketing of fish sausages is still somewhat less massive, because especially the majority of children prefer to consume chicken meat sausages. Keywords : donating, charging, marketing, taste, children.


This study aims to see the effect of (1) Organizational culture on happiness in the workplace of MTsN 10 Padang Pariaman employees. (2)Spirituality at work on happiness in the workplace for employees of MTsN 10 Padang Pariaman.(3)Self-efficacy towards happiness in the workplace of MTsN 10 Padang Pariaman employees. (4)OCB on happiness in the workplace of MTsN 10 Padang Pariaman employees (5) OCB, spirituality at work, self-efficacy and OCB have a joint effect on happiness in the workplace for employees of MTsN 10 Padang Pariaman. The entire population and sample in this studythere are 70 employees of MTsN 10 Padang Pariaman. The results of this study indicate that (1)Organizational culturehave a positive influence on happiness in the workplace of MTsN 10 Padang Pariaman employees. (2)Spirituality at workhave a positive influence on happiness in the workplace of MTsN 10 Padang Pariaman employees. (3)Self efficacyhave a positive influence on happiness in the workplace of MTsN 10 Padang Pariaman employees. (4)OCBhas a positive influence on happiness in the workplace of MTsN 10 Padang Pariaman employees (5)Organizational culture, spirituality at work, self-efficacy, and OCB together have a positive effect on happiness in the workplace of MTsN 10 Padang Pariaman employees. Keywords: Happiness at work, Organizational culture, Spirituality at work, Self-efficacy, OCB

The Evaluation of Virtual Training and Employee Effectiveness: A Case Study from Babco []

This study aims to identify the reality of virtual training at Bapco Company in the Kingdom of Bahrain. They measure the extent of the impact of virtual training on the existence and effectiveness of the training programs applied at Bapco Company in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The research attempts to answer the following fundamental question: “How feasible is virtual training on the reality and effectiveness of training programs at Bapco? Presenting a clear theoretical framework on virtual training as one of the recent trends in training offered in the current era. Also, showing a picture of Bapco's efforts in employing virtual training to ensure the effectiveness and realism of the training programs offered by the company. Clarify the nature of the means and methods used as much as possible. The methodology used in the training programs, the method for selecting the best of them, and the extent to which they are consistent with the training program's goal. The findings of this paper reveal some implications that emphasize the objectives of evaluating training programs and courses. In addition, the case study demonstrates the significance of planning the virtual training, which increases the outputs and employee effectiveness.

Dynamic Career Path Decision Support Systems: A Design Perspective []

Determining a quality career path in terms of effectiveness and efficiency requires considerable research and communication due its pivotal effect on the individual and society as a whole. It requires careful and full understanding of one’s own competencies, possible opportunities/ options, information/knowledge linkage and challenges/changes that may be encountered. This paper explores and discusses the notion of career planning in general and its relevance to establishing educational decision support systems in particular. It highlights and explores the main career path (CP) processes. It investigates its dynamic elements/ properties, benefits and challenges. The paper proposes a Dynamic Career Path Decision Making (DCP-DSS) Model and concludes with recommendations for future research towards establishing dynamic frameworks that inform the development of Dynamic Career Path Decision Support Systems DCP-DSS to help students make informative, effective and efficient career path decisions

Architectural Design Strategies to Enhance Acoustic Comfort in Modern Public Libraries: A Case Study of University of Birmingham Library []

This study discusses the inclusion of acoustic comfort and methods into University library design. One of the primary focuses of acoustic theory and experimentation for decades has been to tackle architectural acoustic difficulties. Recent contributions from the soundscape method have emphasized broader positive aims that acoustic designers might pursue, such as fostering ecological thinking about the auditory system and its overall knowledge. This study exhibits the application of architectural acoustics and soundscape approaches into the area of architecture using references from literature, emphasizing the relevance of unique design conditions and auditory teaching tactics in learning situations. The study discovered that the inclusion of Acoustic comfort may be performed by architectural design rather than active measures, according to the conclusions of this study, and the literature review examines techniques of obtaining Acoustic comfort. This study investigates potential noise sources as well as techniques that may be implemented into the design of a public library to increase acoustic comfort. Noise sources include HVAC, ambient noise from outside the lecture room, low sound insulation building materials, and so on. The noise rating and the level of disturbances differed. Daytime sound pressure levels in the library vary depending on location, and most measurements exceed the suggested upper limit of 45 decibels. In addition to acoustic upgrades and library area classifications, it is proposed that a noise policy be developed for the library. Keywords: acoustic comfort, soundscape, ambient noise, university library, auditory system

Service Quality of Pakistan International Airline now a days: A contextual study about PIA and their services After COVID []

Pakistan international airlines are falling down its Passenger instead of other country like Thailand Airline. The other countries airlines giving classical consideration to how Passenger feel and how they want the service qualities from airlines.


This study was conducted to examine the effect of Non Performing Loan (NPL), Loan to Deposit Ratio (LDR), Capital Adequacy Ratio (CAR) on Profitability (ROA). the type of data used is secondary data in the form of data on financial statements of commercial banks listed on The Indonesian Stock Exchange with a total of 64 samples. The technique of data collection is done by the method of documentation.the data analysis technique used multiple linear regression analysis. The results based on the conclusion of the study there is a significant effect between Non Performing Loan (X1) on Return on Asset (ROA), there is no a significant effect between Loan to Deposit Ratio (X2) on Return on Asset (ROA), and there is a significant effect between Capital Adequacy Ratio (X3) on Return on Asset (ROA)


Utilization of enzymes for reactions that occur outside the cell is widely applied in fisheries activities. This article aims to find out the impact of the addition of enzymes to feed on the performance of the organization of various types of fish (Catfish, Tilapia, Gurame Fish, Baung Fish, Tiger Grouper Fish, Goldfish and Tawes Fish). Based on the above exposure, it can be concluded that the addition of enzymes to feed has a positive impact on growth performance (specific growth rate, food conversionr ratio and protein efficiency ratio) of various types of fish (Catfish, Tilapia, Gurame Fish, Baung Fish, Tiger Grouper Fish, Goldfish and Tawes Fish) studied.


This thesis was conducted with objective of assessing effectiveness of decentralization in Oromia regional state, West Wollega Zone: Haru district in focus. For this study, mixed method research approach was used in a way that quantitative methods had augmented or supported by qualitative methods. Concomitantly, embedded research design was employed. Simple random sampling was used to select 378 households from 11 sub-districts in which sample size was determined by Yemane’s formulae and distributed questionnaire while purposive sampling was used to select 8 informants and FGD for interview. Hence, questionnaire, interview, FGD and observation were deployed to collect data from primary and secondary sources and verged together. These data were triangulated after analyzed descriptively and thematically. Finding of the study vindicated that devolved power, authority and resources had not been implemented effectively due to interwoven problems emanated from lack of capacity, rampancy of corruption lack of synergy of action, sporadically reshuffle of leaders, lack of commitment and false documents with local discretion in Haru district. In nutshell, effectiveness of decentralization was a kind of Pyrrhic victory in which the same administrative, political and fiscal question had been replicating itself since decentralization reform had ushered in the country at large and in the district in particular. Hence, in order to ensure efficacy of decentralization researcher recommended resuscitating strategies such as watch-dog during session of deliberation of the council of the district, effective asset register, extension of effective EACC at district level, repudiating intermingling of party affiliation and professionalism, using proportional representative electoral system than FPTP electoral system at local government and ensure transparency in budgeting and planning.