Volume 10, Issue 5, May 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Uncoordinated Waste Collection; the Bane of the Waste Management Agency (RIWAMA) in Obio Akpor LGA []

Although waste is something that humans generate on a daily basis, it ought to be managed in a way that it does not pose any challenge to the wellbeing of the residents of particular areas. In Obio Akpor, waste has been poorly managed and this is evident in the way waste contractor carryout their activities. This study was focused on appraising the facilities available for waste management; assess the various methods utilized and the effectiveness of the agency responsible. The study was an exploratory mixed methods study that utilized both quantitative and qualitative tools such as closed ended and open-ended questionnaires, observation and interviews. In all, 150 responded were questioned and 10 others were interviewed which had direct relationship to waste management. Findings showed that poor planning and the engagement of ill-equipped contractors were the major causes of failure and that if proper measures are put in place, the agency will be successful in performing its task.


Processed products of traditional Indonesian fish that are exported one of them is shaving smoked wood fish. This article aims to review shaving smoked wood fish products in terms of manufacturing process and quality standards. Based on the results of the literature study, information was obtained that the manufacture of shaving smoked wood fish consists of weeding and cutting, boiling, first fumigation, patching, fumigation of the second stage, drying, sealing, and fermentation. The quality standard of shaving smoked wood fish produced in Indonesia refers to the quality standard of smoked fish, namely SNI 2691-2017.

Point Prevalence of Tetanus Toxoid Immunization among pregnant women attending Remera, Masaka and Kabuga health centers in Kigali city, Rwanda. []

Vaccination has resulted in significant reductions in the prevalence and deaths of several illnesses, particularly among infants, lowering the newborn mortality rate. The immunization of mothers with TT vaccine is considered as major strategy for preventing maternal and neonatal death during childbirth. The main purpose for the present study was to determine the point prevalence of tetanus immunization coverage among pregnant women attending Remera, Masaka and Kabuga health centers, in Kigali city, Rwanda. The cross-sectional study was conducted utilizing quantitative approach. With the convenience sampling technique, the sample size of 245 pregnant women aged 15 -49 years was taken. Structured questionnaire was used to get data from respondents. The analysis was done using SPSS version 2021. The current study findings revealed that 69% of pregnant women received two or more Tetanus toxoid vaccination shots. In conclusion, the point prevalence of tetanus toxoid immunization among mothers attending Remera, Masaka and Kabuga health centers was low. Hence, Remera, Masaka and Kabuga health centers should reinforce health education and organize immunization campaigns in order to increase awareness of mothers on importance of TT immunization.


The potential of sea cucumber fishery in Indonesia is very large. This article aims to get information on processing sea cucumbers into chips or dried sea cucumbers. Based on riview literature making dry eggpaper / sea cucumber chips there are basically three stages, namely weeding, boiling and drying sea cucumbers. Keywords : manufacture, boiling, drying, weeding.

Ethical Hacking techniques and penetration testing []

The modern world is changing and changing rapidly. The huge number of inventions is constantly expanding. Information is getting double in less than a year. The advancement of technology has played the important role in our life. In this era, the most thing to be concern is computer security for companies and organizations. Unfortunately, the data we share over the internet is not secure in any way. Cyber- attacks are getting complex and it is hard to detect them . The security of data is the most important thing that needs to talk about. Hacking means getting control on other person’s accounts. Hacking is an uncertified intrusion into a computer on the matrix. The person committed in hacking venture is commonly assigned to as a hacker. This paper covers the different types of hacking and ethical hacking techniques


Canning of knitted meat is intended to deal with the perishable/rotten nature of knitted meat. This article aims to get information about the stages of canning knitted meat. Based on the literature study obtained innformation that the stages of canning knitted meat are as follows: acceptance, sortation, final checking of raw materials, mixing, meat filling, weighing, can closure, coding, pasteurization, cooling, packaging or packing, cold storage and transportation of which the product is then marketed To supermarket and seafood restaurant.


This research entitles” investigate the factors influencing non-performing loan of Umurenge SACCO in Rwanda and was guided by the following specific objectives: To investigate effect of interest rate on Non-performing loans of GIRINTEGO SACCO KIVURUGA, To explore the effect of size of loan and savings on Non-performing loans of GIRINTEGO SACCO KIVURUGA, Examine the influence of loan monitoring practices on Non-performing loans of GIRINTEGO SACCO KIVURUGA. The study adopted a descriptive research design. The population under this study consisted employees, governance board, loan committee and clients of GIRINTEGO SACCO KIVURUGA, totaling 88 potential respondents which took randomly. The instrument of the study was self-made (questionnaire) and a set of questions was formulated. Data were collected using structured questions with 5-point Likert scales and an interview guide together with records. Quantitative data were analyzed using frequencies, percentages, standard deviation, means, and regression analysis. The finding from study concluded that there significant effect of interest rate on Non-performing loans of Girintego sacco Kivuruga, size, size of loan and savings on Non-performing loans of Girintego sacco Kivuruga, loan monitoring practices on Non-performing loans of Girintego sacco Kivuruga. The study recommend the following: It is also recommended that the board of management must increase the ownership level and financial literacy to have basic financial skills enabling them interpret financial statements, The study recommends that SACCOs should enhance their collection policy by adapting a more stringent policy to a lenient policy for effective debt recovery, The study also recommends that there is need for SACCOs to It is likewise suggested that the leading body of the board should build the proprietorship level and monetary education to have fundamental monetary abilities empowering them decipher budget reports, the review suggests that SACCOs should upgrade their assortment strategy by adjusting a more severe arrangement to a permissive approach for powerful obligation recuperation, the concentrate likewise suggests that there is need for SACCOs to upgrade their customer examination methods to work on their monetary exhibition.

Does Political Connection, Executive Characters, & Audit Quality effect on tax avoidance. (Relate to Pakistan) []

I look into Pakistani system how difficult, as well as Social and Economic consideration, play an important role in tax avoidance. The government disclosing the income tax paid by any taxpayer including political parties, audit quality assurance and executive character because of this government process everyone does not want to show their income. But now with awareness of government on tax benefits for everyone we discovered that audit accuracy, executive character, and top taxpayers' social recognition (political connections) all contributed to a significant rise in income taxes.

Research and Development of Co-Curricular Activities (CCAs) of Industrial Engineering Students for the Distance Learning []

Quality learning settings, materials, methods, and outcomes are all parts of quality education (UNICEF, 2000). To build sustainable livelihood and contribute to peaceful and democratic societies, all students require a good education (Barrett and Tikly, 2010). As a result, a great education encompasses solid academic learning and a diverse spectrum of cocurricular activities in which students engage to attain their full potential. Furthermore, good education encompasses formal academic learning and a wide range of co-curricular and extra-curricular activities that students engage in to achieve their full potential this study is to examine further into positive attitudes of industrial engineering students toward the concepts of co-curricular activities in remote education during the CoViD-19 pandemic. Additionally, the researcher uses a Descriptive Research design to determine the benefits and preferred CCAs of most industrial engineering students at Quezon City University. One of the goals of descriptive research is to describe a phenomenon and its characteristics. This research is more concerned with what rather than how or why something has happened. Therefore, observation and survey tools are often used to gather data (Gall, Gall, & Borg, 2007). Responses were analyzed using Likert scale and ranking and the results shows that the majority of the respondents of Industrial Engineering students do not engage in extracurricular activities (46.4%) when it comes to online setup. In terms to face-to-face interaction, 78.6% of Industrial Engineering students engage in extracurricular activities. This study shows that the study found out the top five preferred co-curricular activities of Industrial engineering students in Quezon City, first, the Quiz Competition/General Knowledge Competition (46.90 %), and second, organizing seminars, symposiums, and workshops. The third most popular co-curricular activity is acting competition (21.9 percent), followed by arranging job fairs (37.5 percent). The fifth most popular co-curricular activity, with a total percentage of 15.6 percent, is a free discussion on current issues. This concludes that the researcher should implement a research and development studies with regard to social involvement and development programs. This finding indicates that the convenience of online student services is not only a necessity for distance students but also a preference for campus-based students (Shea, 2005).

Boko Haram and Educational Development in Madagali Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria 2009-2015 []

This topic ‘Topic Boko Haram insurgency and educational development in Madagali Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria 2009 to 2015’ is the study that seek to identify and historicizes the activities, nature and impact of Boko Haram insurgency on educational development in Madagali Local Government Area of Adamawa state between 2009 and 2015. Accordingly, the study argues that Boko Haram insurgency destabilized educational development in the area through disruption of academic activities. This emerged due to their (Boko Haram) attacks on educational institutions and the subsequent damage done to the schools. The study again argues that the insecurity created in the area by activities of Boko Haram impacted negatively on economic and socio-political developments which in turn affected the education process. The study recommends the following suggestions: Government should make necessary arrangements to provide support to all survivors including teachers, students, and other staffs of the schools that have been affected by the violent activities in areas affected; government should also provide adequate security to prevent any subsequent targeted attacks on schools; all schools burnt or damaged as a result of attacks should be reconstructed and renovated and ensure that they are provided with adequate teaching staff and facilities in order for access to education be restored as quickly as possible, etc. Finally, the study sourced information from oral sources, written and internet materials. The interviews were conducted with those who were deemed capable of having relevant information on the subject matter, just as the written and internet sources consulted were those that are relevant with the subject under study. From these sources and analyses, the gaps which existed in the available literature on the subject matter were filled.


Green mussels are a turbidity that has been successfully cultivated in Indonesia. The increase in added value of this commodity is made shellfish crackers. This article aims to review the manufacture of shellfish crackers and their market opportunities in Indonesia. Based on the results of the literature study obtained information that the manufacture of shellfish crackers is generally the same as making other types of crackers such as fish or shrimp crackers. The stages of making scallop crackers consist of mixing raw materials, making dough, printing, steaming,ginandining, slicing, drying and frying. The market opportunity for shellfish crackers is very open because it is supported by the success of green shellfish cultivation in Indonesia.


Fish shreds are processed in the form of smooth and dry fish meat fiber. This review article aims to get information about the manufacture of cob fish shreds and fish shredded quality standards. Based on the results of the literature study obtained information that the manufacture of cob shreds basically consists of irrigation, mixing with seasoning, frying, pressing and packaging. The quality of fish shreds according to the Indonesian National Standard must have a maximum water content of 15% and a protein content of at least 30%. Keywords: quality, moisture content, protein content, purification, seasoning.


Introduction: One of the most frequent musculoskeletal problems is lumbar discomfort. It's a health issue that's gone unnoticed, yet it's causing considerable misery and incapacity among nurses. Nursing activities such as twisting, bending, sustained posture, and repeated movements all contribute to the development of lumbar pain. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of lumbar pain among nurses in Kigali public hospitals.


This paper will summarize the conclusions of a review of public investment management (MIP) practices in the Republic of Northern Macedonia, with the aim of improving practices over the medium term, exchanging experience on a regional basis, providing some specific initial recommendations and identifying of fields for a further more detailed analysis. The report is based on state statistical data provided in detail by the relevant institutions in the Republic of Northern Macedonia, which are given in various formats to facilitate comparison, but which can also be read as a separate section. The whole analysis is organized around some of the following headings and subheadings which reflect a structured study questionnaire designed to prepare this paper such as: • Identification, Preparation and Evaluation of Capital Investment Projects • Impact of Public Investments on Economic Growth • Impact of public expenditures negatively on economic development. • And empirical analysis on testing of investments and public expenditures. Econometric and small square estimation (OLS) Key word: Public investment, economic grouth, OLS estimation


This paper aims to analyze the impact of remittances on economic growth in the Republic of Macedonia. Our paper should be analyzed in accordance with other papers analyzed in developed countries and those in developing or transition. Analyzing the variables in the econometric model we must notice whether remittances affect economic growth. Our goal is to see if the results are consistent with our hypothesis. The obtained results show that remittances have a direct and indirect impact on economic growth, where remittances have a positive impact on economic growth while FDI has a negative impact on economic growth. And finally we give a conclusion like any other model and this model has its limitations that in addition to these variables used can be taken other variables for analysis and our recommendation is to analyze the impact of remittances on personal consumption, the standard of life etc. Keyword: remintance, economic grouth, fiscal policy


The purpose of this paper is to analyze the impact of Taxes, Taxes on the economic development of a country, state. data in analytical form should be presented. Analyzing the variables in the econometric model we must notice whether Taxes affect economic growth or state development or do the opposite. Our goal is to see if the results obtained are consistent with our hypotheses. The results obtained, obtained in some countries show that Taxes have a direct and indirect impact on economic growth, and as revenues positively affect economic growth while uncontrolled percentage rate, tax rate has a negative impact on economic growth and consumption. And finally we give conclusions between the Keynesian school and that of the neo-classics, like any other model this model has its limitations that in addition to these variables used can be taken other variables for analysis, and our recommendation is that in future to analyze the impact of taxpayers are: Value Added Tax (VAT), personal tax and tax on profit, as an impact on economic growth and improving the public standard. Key word: Public revenue, VAT, personal tax


Duodenal atresias are rare malformations whose incidence is 1 case in 6000, they produce the typical form of upper intestinal obstruction and 30% of them are associated with trisomy 21. The aim of this work is to clarify the contribution of imaging in the antenatal diagnosis and the future of duodenal atresia. This is a descriptive retrospective study of 5 cases collected between 2010 and 2019 in the neonatology department of Monastir and whose antenatal diagnosis was made by obstetric ultrasound in all cases and by fetal MRI in 2 cases. . The incidence of duodenal atresia in our work was 1 case for 6350 live births at the CMNM with a sex ratio of 4 boys for one girl. The evocative aspect was more or less duodenal gastric dilatation producing the classic “double bubble” image with associated polyhydramnios. Three types of associated malformations were associated: trisomy 21 (in 3 cases), annular pancreas (in 2 cases) and Apple peel syndrome (in one case). Surgical treatment was initiated in all cases on day 1 of life by a latero-lateral duodeno-duodenostomy. The evolution was favorable in all cases.


Pindang bandeng presto is a processed fish product that is widely produced in Indonesia. The purpose of this article review is to get information about the stages of the process of making presto milkfish and its quality standards marketed in Indonesia. Based on the results of the library study above obtained information on the stages of the presto bandeng making process as follows: receipt of raw materials, sorting, weeding, washing, soaking, packaging, steaming, cooling, packing, packaging, marking, and storage. The quality standards of presto bandeng pindang in Indonesia are based on sensory parameters, chemistry, microbial spruce, heavy metal spruce and physical spruce. Keywords: quality, spruce, manufacture, standard.


Abstract The labile fractions of heavy metals in soils are the most important for toxicity to plants and organisms, therefore, it becomes pertinent to decrease this fraction in soils to minimize the negative effect of heavy metals to human, animal health and food security. Several materials have shown promising potentials in remediating environmental pollution with a level of toxicity, environmental impairment or non-cost effective. This research therefore evaluates the potential of laterite as an alternative binder for the remediation of polluted soils and assess the environmental risks of these heavy metals for the soil metal fractions. Soil samples were collected from an exide battery site in Ibadan, Nigeria. Laterite samples were obtained from Abeokuta in Ogun state and Emuhu in Delta state and characterized. These were pretreated, phytochemical screening was carried out on the soil according to standard. Remediation studies was carried out using standard methods. The geochemical fractions of Pb, Mn, Cr, Ni, and Zn that are present in Lalupon polluted site using the seven steps of Zeinen and Brummer fractionation scheme after two- and three-months incubation periods with proportion of samples from the laterites were determined. Pseudo- total metal concentration in soils were equally determined using aqua-regia digestion. The sum of the fractions of Pb, Zn, Cr, Mn and Ni for both two- and three-months incubation do not differ widely from that observed for these metals in the pseudo total metal concentrations of the metals determined independently by using aqua-regia digestion. Lead occluded majorly in the exchangeable fraction which makes it more dangerous among the metals of interest. Zn, Cr, Ni, and Mn were all majorly occluded at the residual fractions. Lead accounts for 98% of the pollution on this polluted land, its remediation trend for the two months shows 99.97%, 99.95% and 99.96% for 5, 10 and 20 percent LA-AB. The LA-EM counterpart gives 99.95%, 99.95% and 99.97% for 5, 10 and 20 percent respectively. The three months LA-AB gives an efficiency of 99.95%, 99.97% and 99.96 for 5, 10, and 20% respectively. The three months LA-EM results into 99.95%, 99.96% and 99.95% for the 5, 10, and 20 percent respectively. The trend showed that both LA-EM and LA-AB have promising potential to remediate a heavy metal polluted site. Keywords: Heavy metals, Laterites, Binder, Labile fractions, Remediate.

Impact of Grouped Settlements on Disaster Risk Reduction in City of Kigali, Rwanda []

The City of Kigali records flood, rainstorms and windstorms which affect people’s livelihoods, particularly those located in disaster prone areas. This study assessed the role of grouped settlements on disaster risk reduction in City of Kigali (CoK) between 2015 and 2020. The authors mainly employed secondary datasets on disaster record, associated losses, types of building and location of grouped settlement. The data were collected from CoK and Ministry in charge of Emergency Management (MINEMA). The Microsoft Excel was the main tools of data collection and analysis. The results highlighted fire, rainstorms, windstorms, landslide, flood and lightning as key disasters recorded in CoK. Their occurrence caused 88 deaths and 76 injuries, damaged 4,571 houses and 742.1 hectares of cropland while 80 livestock were lost. High number of disaster loss was registered by Nyarugenge district with low number of grouped settlements in terms of re-allocated households. Nyarugenge district counts 579 while Kicukiro and Gasabo recorded 1,822 and 533 re-allocated households, respectively with low disaster losses than Nyarugenge. This expresses that large communities and properties in Nyarugenge district are exposed to disasters and that fewer intervention/insufficient efforts are under execution. The results of this research can facilitate policy makers in charge of settlements/housing management to better understand disaster prone and safe areas for future interventions towards saving lives and properties as well. Key words: City of Kigali, Disaster risk reduction, Grouped settlements, Rwanda


Objectif L’objectif de la présente étude était de déterminer les différents problèmes liés à la gestion de déchets dans les ménages du quartier Bonzola 1, Commune de Dibindi, ville de Mbujimayi en République Démocratique du Congo. Matériel et méthode Notre étude descriptive transversale, concernant un échantillon constitué de 80 ménages tiré aléatoirement dans la population cible de 1457 ménages du quartier Bonzola 1. Les données ont été collectées d’un questionnaire administré à un répondant de chaque ménage. Résultats Les résultats enregistrés ont révélé que 71% de nos enquêtés sont du sexe féminin. 40% des parcelles observées étés insalubres, 24% ont été totalement insalubres. 35% de ménages éliminent leurs déchets par rejet non contrôlé, 26% par incinération, 25% enfouies leurs déchets ou utilisent les puits à ordures, 14% utilisent les poubelles. 51% de ménages ne disposent pas des puits à ordures ; 86% n’utilisent pas des poubelles pour stocker leurs déchets ménagers. Quant à la connaissance sur quelques maladies dues à la présence de déchets dans les ménages, 64% citent le paludisme, 54% parlent de la fièvre typhoïde, 43% au choléra et 20% citent les autres maladies dont la COVID-19. Conclusion Après une étude minutieuse, nous avons constaté que la gestion de déchets dans les ménages enquêtés constituait un réel problème de santé publique et une vraie menace pour le développement ce quartier en particulier et de la ville de Mbujimayi en général. Mots clés : Gestion, déchets, Compostage, Ménage


L’objectif de la présente étude était de déterminé les différents problèmes liés à la gestion de l’eau de boisson dans les ménages de l’aire de santé de Kizito, Zone de Santé de Lukelenge, Ville de Mbujimayi en République Démocratique du Congo. Matériel et méthode Notre étude descriptive transversale, concernant un échantillon constitué de 384 ménages tiré aléatoirement dans la population cible de 2984 ménages de l’aire de santé Kizito. Les données ont été collectées d’un questionnaire administré à un répondant de chaque ménage. Résultats Les résultats enregistrés ont révélé que la principale source d’approvisionnement a été les puits non protégés, déclaré par 241 ménages (62,8%) et le reste (37,2%) recourait à la REGIDESO (20,3%) ou l’eau de rivière (16,9%). Le bassin en plastic était le récipient le plus utilisé pour puisage de l’eau (70%) et le bidon en plastic était plus utilisé pour le stockage (52,9%). Pour accéder aux sources d’approvisionnement 157 ménages (40,9%) effectués une distance qui leur prenaient plus de 30 minutes, 114 ménages (29,7%) effectué plus de 15 minutes. Pour ce qui est du traitement de l’eau de boisson, 294 ménages (76,6%) n’en traitaient pas. Conclusion En gras, l’étude minutieuse de cette enquête révèle que la gestion de l’eau dans les ménages enquêtés constituait un réel problème de la santé publique et une vraie menace pour le développement cette aire de la santé en particulier et de la ville de Mbujimayi en général. Mots Clés : Gestion, Eau, Boisson et Ménage


Selon la politique sanitaire de notre pays, un malade ne peut pas quitter la maison directement vers un Hôpital General de Référence (HGR). Mais il doit suivre la pyramide de soins tel qu’elle est établie dans le Plan National de Développement des ressources Humaines. Pour la santé (PNDRHS 2011-2015) c’est à dire il doit passer par une institution sanitaire de premier niveau qui est un centre de santé. Et si le cas dépasse la compétence de celui-ci, on doit établir un billet de référence, et quand le cas serait arrivé et prise en charge à l’HGR, ce dernier élaborera à son tour une contre référence pour activer l’action et assurer le renforcement des capacités. Par contre, il a été constaté que les patients court-circuitent cette organisation ; car ils arrivent à l’HGR sans billet de référence. Or selon la norme avant de consulter, ils doivent transiter par une institution médicale du niveau 1er. Aussi les rares cas qui y arrivent avec un billet de référence, la contre référence est inactive ou non assurée au niveau de l’HGR L’activité de référence ou contre référence nourrit à ce jour les débats en milieu sanitaire non seulement dans la ville de Mbuji-Mayi, mais dans toute la RDC et dans d’autres pays africains. Beaucoup d’études ont été publiées sur les différents facteurs de recule de cette activité dans les systèmes de santé, entre autres : - L’absence de référentiel ; - La tension existante entre les prestataires des deux niveaux (LAABID, Ahmed 1996). - La forte compétitivité des structures de niveau inférieur ; - Le court-circuitage par les malades pour accéder aux hôpitaux élevés ou leur refus d’obtempérer à la décision de transfert ; - Le coût élevé des prestations ; - La vétusté des équipements ou un plateau technique inadéquat. -Les barrières physiques ; - La barrière « culturelle » ; -Les barrières institutionnelles : la communication et l'empathie envers le patient ; -La qualité de la communication ; -Les hospitalisations au niveau Centre de santé ; -L'impact de la référence sur le prestige des infirmiers ; -Les obstacles à la référence : (Online2015). En France comme dans d’autres pays européens, le système de référence inter établissements passe sous la coupe d’une régulation fortement organisée mais réservée en exclusivité aux urgences pré-hospitalières. Il est créé au niveau départemental ou dans certains centres hospitaliers, un service d’assistance médicale d’urgence (SAMU) qui s’occupe de la gestion du flux des patients afin de le rendre fluide et cohérent. Dans la ville de Mbuji-Mayi il n’y a aucune organisation mise en place pour renforcer le système de référence et contre référence. Mais cette situation est limitée encore aux urgences pré-hospitalières et n’aborde pas en profondeur tous les aspects touchant à la culture de référence inter-hospitalière à savoir, le renforcement des dispositifs, le dialogue entre les prestataires, la communication avec les patients et la population, la participation communautaire, etc… De ce qui précède, le système de référence se trouverait à ce jour dépourvu de force pour persuader les prestataires à mutualiser leurs compétences dans un cadre plus dynamique et harmonieux afin de mettre les moyens à la disposition des patients où qu’ils se trouvent à l’intérieur du réseau hospitalier. L’offre de soins serait amputée à cause du dysfonctionnement de son système de référence et contre-référence. Cette situation nous amène à nous interroger ainsi : - « Peut-on améliorer la prise en charge d’une population sans que le mécanisme de référence et contre référence soit bien organisé et réellement mis en œuvre? ». - « Quelles sont les raisons de faible application du système de référence par les prestataires (IT) ». A ces questions nous pensons qu’il est pertinent d’y réfléchir si nous voulons rendre le système de soins dans la ville encore plus réactive.


Objectif Cette étude avait pour objectif d’analyser les facteurs limitant le recours aux soins de santé chez les personnes de 3ème âge dans la Ville de Mbujimayi en République Démocratique du Congo. Matériel et méthode Notre est quantitative, du type descriptif corrélationnel, à l’aide d’un devis explicatif afin d’analyser les facteurs limitant le recours aux soins de santé chez les personnes de troisième âge dans la ville de Mbujimayi, concernant un échantillon constitué de 98 ménages tiré aléatoirement dans notre population cible. Les données ont été collectées à travers un questionnaire administré à un répondant de chaque ménage. Résultats Les résultats enregistrés ont révélé que 54,1% de la population n’ont pas consultés les services de soins au cours de l’année. Pour ce qui est d’utilisation de service de santé, il sied de signaler que 59 personnes soit 60,2% n’utilisent pas la FOSA la plus proche de leur domicile et 39 personnes soit 39,8% utilisent la FOSA la plus proche. Concernant l’épisode maladie les données consignées révèlent que 62,2% de personnes tombent malades plusieurs fois pendant l’année contre 26,5% de celles qui sont tombés malades au moins deux fois et 10% de celles qui tombent malades une seule fois l’année. A cela, il faut ajouter que 74,5% de personnes ont déclaré que les soins coutent très cher, alors que 10,2% ne savent pas évaluer le cout de soins, 8,2% de ces personnes ont montré que les soins sont moins chers et 7,1% ont témoigné que les soins coutent cher. Au regard de la prise en charge par la famille, 55 personnes soit 56,1% sont prises en charge par leurs familles contre 43 soit 43,9% de celles qui ne sont pas prises en charge. Quant à l’appartenance à une mutuelle de santé 5 personnes seulement soit 5,1% sont dans des Organisations d’entraide mutuelle et 93 soit 94,9% vivent sans appartenance à une mutuelle de santé. Conclusion Après analyse de notre étude, nous notons que les perspectives démographiques sur les vieillissements, l’émergence des maladies chroniques et leur impact sur l’organisation du système de santé, les problèmes existants dans les recours aux soins de santé constituent en matière de la prise en charge un défi considérable d’ici 2050 pour les personnes âgées dans la ville de Mbujimayi. Mots Clés : Facteur, Recours, Soins, Santé


Objectif L’objectif de la présente étude était de Contribuer à l’amélioration de l’état de santé des malades souffrant du diabète type 2 dans la ville de Mbujimayi en République Démocratique du Congo. Matériel et méthode Cette étude est rétrospective du type descriptif. Elle concerne un échantillon constitué de 21 malades du diabète de type II tiré sur un total de 1002 malades de l’Hôpital Général de Référence Christ-Roi. Les données ont été collectées grâce à une fiche d’enquête selon nos paramètres d’études. Résultats Les résultats enregistrés ont révélé que 57,1% de nos enquêtés sont du sexe masculin. 42,9% provenait de la Commune de Bipemba. La fréquence des cas de diabète de type2 est de 2,1% par rapport à d’autres pathologies. Quant à la prise en charge de ces patients, l’insulinothérapie + hypoglycémiants oraux, + mesures hygiéno-diététique reste le traitement de choix de la prise en charge complète de cas de diabète de type 2, cela dans 33,3% des cas. Conclusion Après une étude minutieuse, nous avons constaté que la zone de santé de Bipemba et plus particulièrement l’Hôpital général de référence Christ-Roi, notre milieu d’étude est autant touchée par ce problème de santé à un certain niveau tant soit peu inquiétant car, elle comptait 186 diabétiques parmi lesquels elle a enregistré 19 morts en 2014 ; Cette situation est aussi constaté en 2016 ou l’on avait déjà enregistré 206 cas de diabète de type 2 avec 11 décès. Ce qui justifient les mobiles de notre étude au regard des résultats enregistrés. Mots clés : Fréquence, Diabète, Insulino dépendance, Prise en Charge

Linear Stability Analysis of Two Immiscible Superpose Homogeneous Fluids []

In this research, we considered two immiscible superposed fluids of variable densities. The upper fluid was set in motion with uniform velocity and slide pass the lower stationary fluid. The equations describing the above scenario are mathematically represented and linearized. Thereafter, a normal mode solution was sought and the results obtained were discussed in line with onset of instability. We analysed the case of equal densities and as well equal velocities. The case of variable densities was not discussed in this research due to the fact that the effects of gravity and surface tension were not considered in our model equations, however, readers may consult [12] for details


This study was conducted primarily to describe and validate the contributions of women of war Program to the members in Matanog, Maguindanao. Data were gathered through focus group discussions which was translated and analyzed using the qualitative method. The study revealed that the participants experienced financial constraint due to financial dependence on their husbands, loss of self-worth, and loneliness. Nevertheless, due to their membership in the organization the participants were educated on parenting skills, human rights and women’s rights, and were given assistance in their micro-finance and livelihood skills. They were also given Small Medium Enterprises (SME’s) Building. As a result, they felt happy, gained self-confidence and financial independence. The participants also shared insights on how to improve the program. They recommend to have additional fund, strengthen their skills in marketing and management and additional linkages in the community.

Review Article "Se'i fish products, Smoked Fish Typical of East Nusa Tenggara- Indonesia Region []

Se'i tuna is a development product of beef or pork se'i that is popular in the East Nusa Tenggara – Indonesia area. This article aims to review se'i fish products from mainly in terms of the manufacturing process. The stages of making Se'i tuna based on library studies are as follows: The first stage of preparing ingredients is the manufacture of teak leaf extract, seasoning smoothing, tunafilement. The second stage of soaking tuna fillets on a mixture solution of teak leaf extract and seasoning. The third stage of fumigation

Impact of the carbon tax on the reduction of CO2 emissions in the EU []

Considered as one of the methods of CO2 mitigation, the carbon tax can reduce energy consumption, improve energy efficiency and develop renewable energies. Of course, the carbon tax also has its flaws. For example, it will affect the economy, reduce social well- being, the competitiveness of industries and lead to carbon leakage. Motivated by the controversial question of the real effect of the carbon tax in the mitigation of carbon emissions, we try to estimate its effects in the European Union countries that have adopted this policy, using the propensity scoring method. Our paper focuses on the real mitigation effects during the carbon tax implementation period and tries to provide more information to decision makers by analyzing the results. The Closest propensity score matching Reconciliation (PSM) methodology used for matching showed a positive and significant impact of the carbon tax with a reduction over the entire period 1990-2019 in the EU.

Addiction of Facebook and it’s effect on physical and mental health of humans []

Abstract: Addiction is a condition of constant involvement is an activity like spending the most of the time in scrolling on SNSs like fb leads to Facebook addiction. It is a condition in which user spends most of the time in scrolling the content on the social platforms that provide easy and open access to the friends as well as other users that attach to you in any way. In the starting user just enjoy the posts and interesting comments on the respective posts after that when he starts virtual conversation with friends on any social site then he confidently posts his photos, memes and memories with others with the intention to Like and comment on his activities and stories as well. Facebook is using greatly for communication by the youth to continue their relationships it also allows to maintain multiple interactions with people in single time. When people spend most of their time in posting, commenting and viewing on Facebook then with the passage of time they become addicted to Facebook. Fb addiction causes the people to cut off each other because social interaction on Facebook allows less physical interaction with family and friends. Comments on different posts affect the Users personality traits like if anyone person of their interest show attention or exchange some words on your post it makes him/her pleasant as the result user try to spend more and more time on Facebook and become addicted to it. Facebook addiction makes a person physically and mentally ill because they loss interest in respective activities like studies, sports, reading, business and other healthy activities{Hong, 2020 #6}. There are many factors that drive a person towards the Facebook addiction but among them loneliness is a major factor. People that are less social or have no one to share their feelings suspected to excessive use of social websites like fb. (Blachnio, 2016# 12) Personality traits also affected by the unlimited application of fb. Traits like neuroticism, agreeableness and openness motivates to accept new friend requests and longer chats on the platform of social site like fb. Fb addiction and effects on mental and physical health Facebook addiction leads to the many physical and mental health disorders like those people that do not like to use the Facebook, targeted by the friends and collegues that have greater interest towards the fb and they spend most of their time in scrolling, replying and putting their stories produces the feeling of loneliness, increases depression and anxiety. as well as it is also provide a platform for the uploading of emotional posts as their status that causes the viewers especially males to express their feelings as the result they find the way to watch the sensitive content. Students spend many hours on the social sites for the purpose to being updated as it becomes compulsory to have a special Facebook group of every institute in order to share updates with their students when students join that platform of fb then they also start connected to other groups, in which all kind of stuff is shared it becomes a source to diminishes the hesitation of youngsters, for watching the sensitive content and as the result pornography spreads.


This paper analyses the effects to agricultural finance to small scale farmers in Tanzania. Specifically, it describes the sources of credit facilities available to the rural area and the factors determining access to agricultural finance in the study area. A multistage random sampling technique was used. A total of 180 farming households were selected from the small scale farmers using a simple random sampling technique. Data on demographic and farmer-household socio-economic characteristics that are likely to affect small-scale farmers' decisions to take out agricultural finance were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. In this study, descriptive statistics and the logit model were used. The study revealed that sources of agricultural finance were cooperative institutions, personal savings, individual money lenders), relatives/Friends, Microfinance Institutions, and Commercial Banks. Furthermore, the study found that factors such as gender, household size, and household income, membership in cooperative institutions, land size, and asset value positively influence agriculture credit in the study area. However, age and livestock ownership found to have a negative influence in accessing agricultural finance. The study recommends that farmers and cooperative stakeholders insist that farmers form the self-help groups like cooperative institutions as the compatible source of agricultural finance in the rural area.

Teacher Motivation and Academic Performance of Primary School Pupils In Lagos State, Nigeria. []

The study took consideration of the effect of teacher’s motivation on academic performance of primary school pulpils in Lagos State. The study looked at salary pay scale of teachers, teachers’ promotion as at when due, teachers’ engagement in such programs like seminars, conference and workshops and what extent the awards, recognition and management system for teachers can influence students’ academic performance in the class. Using the objectives of the study four hypotheses were raised and tested, from the hypotheses tested, two of the hypotheses showed a relationship and two did not show relationship. The study specifically targeted primary school pupils. One hundred and fifty teachers were selected as respondents for the study across schools in the five education districts of Lagos State. Key Words: Teachers Motivation, Academic Performance, Teacher