Volume 10, Issue 6, June 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Causes of narcotics addiction and their ways of prevention in Nangarhar province, Afghanistan []

Today, narcotics addiction, like some other social and global threats such as poverty, climate change, wars, and deadly diseases, is a huge and serious challenge to humanity. Scholars believe that the numbers of casualties which are caused by narcotics addiction are higher than any other cause in Nangarhar province, Afghanistan. Furthermore, the number of addicted people here in Nangarhar province has been rising gradually, and currently, their number has reached a half million. Narcotics have different types of effects on addicted people, such as fake happiness, lack of physical activity, body aches, redness of facial skin, vomiting, psychological and mental defects, and losing interest in making relations with friends and other social affairs. The first part of this research paper will discuss the definition of narcotics. Then, the second part will mainly discuss the causes of narcotic addiction in Nangarhar province. Third, the paper will discuss those methods which are very important in preventing narcotics addiction in Nangarhar province. The last part will contain recommendations.

“Retrofitting of MEPs and a strategy for making sustainable Hyderabad city in Telangana state”. []

As the year’s ephemeral, the footprints of heritage transforming to the next generations with monuments in several cities or countries on this planet “Earth”. Hyderabad, whose governance with mixed communities and culture was urbanized by the Nizams period. They constructed many like buildings, dams, bridges, lakes, etc. are under stress with natural disasters like flash floods, high temperatures, pollutions, Gales etc. This density is increasing with seismic stress manifested by “Climate Change”, which is mounting revenue loss, taxes, wastages, etc. Several departments’ Infrastructure is damaging with impediments and demanding retrofitting technologies to shield public and private properties. Also, urban governance was spending millions of rupees for tailing the elucidations to safeguard the heritages. But, they forgot adopting and educating the ecofriendly green building technology for retrofitting the history, culture and sustainability of citizens. This paper elevates the available technologies, profits and uses of adopting retrofitting technologies (jacketing) in the governing limits for controlling pollution loadings in water bodies.

Baboon-Human Conflict (BHC), an emerging urban crisis faced by residents in Redcliff Municipality, Zimbabwe. []

Redcliff is situated in ecological region 3 Midlands Province, Zimbabwe. The dstrict has 9 administrative wards, 9 458 households and a population of of 35 924 people that are faced with a new urban crisis of Baboon-Human Conflict where the safety of women and children is endangered. The Baboon-Human Conflcit aslo results in their crops, fields, infrastructure and livestock being destroyed. The district is home to Baboons (Papio cynocephalus) which pose a threat to human livelihoods and endangers the safety and lives of young children and women. The data were obtained from the Human-Wildlife Conflict reports submitted to Redcliff municipality and the Zimbabwe National Parks Plumtree office that deals with Problem Animal Control (PAC). These reports on Human-Wildlife Conflict incidences in every ward were collected and collated on an ad libitum basis. The implications of Baboon-Human Conflict on food security and livelihoods of the Redcliff residents were highlighted and Human-Wildlife Conflict mitigation Strategy was proposed and must be incorporated in the promulgation of mitigation strategies. The Problem Animal Species (PAS) control strategies applied by the residents were highlighted and discussed. It can be concluded that the Human-Wildlife Conflicct in Redcliff presents a dire situation requires urgent attention and requisite policies promulgated and mitigation strategies employed to curb a potentially catastrophic situation. It is quite clear that a holistic approach in addressing this scenario is critical as both the animal and ecosystems need the appropriate management that will then ultimately bring a balance which will ensure that the lives and livelihoods of the humans are secured in conserving wildlife to bring a peaceful co-existence to Redcliff residents and wildlife.

Leadership styles and organizational change in horumuud in Mogadishu, Somalia []

The study which underwent investigation is: Leadership styles and change in both Horumuud and Somtel Telecommunication Organizations in Mogadishu in Somalia. The findings were achieved through stated objectives which included: To investigate how leadership styles involve employees in decision-making in respect to organizational change. To investigate how leadership styles communicates with their employees in respect to organizational change. To find out how management empowers their subordinates through delegation to embrace change in organization. To establish whether there is a relationship between leadership styles and organizational change. In the literature review, different works and reports from various authors/scholars and researchers about the leadership styles and organizational change were discussed to bring about clear understanding of some of the core study concepts and variables. The methodology employed descriptive survey design with a study population of 185 and the respondents included; managers, employees, and administrators. The sample size in the study was 135 after manipulation by Slovene’s formula. However, various ethical and logistical considerations were seriously undertaken during research procedures and this assisted in establishing the research findings. The study found out that employee awareness, communication and planning, resistance to change process and training of employees to imparts skills cause effective communication at the organization. But autocratic leadership was found to be the common leadership style used at both organizations while delegation is carried out at these organizations, with no authority to exercise one’s duty properly. Finally, the study found out that there is a positive correlation between leadership styles and organizational change (at r. Value of 0.985; Beta value 0.985 and a significant value of 0.000). In summary the findings, it was discovered that were similar to those of Walumbwa et al. (2008), (2010) and 2015; believe that autocratic style seem to be more appropriate in chang Keywords: Direct Selling, Multilevel Marketing System, Distributor


Reduction in fossil-fuel based resources is in the vast due to the growing concern to meet the rising global demand for energy and the need to reduce global warming caused by carbon dioxide emissions, mitigate environmental pollution and overcome the unpredictable movement in crude oil demand and fluctuation of prices. Biofuel’s production is increasingly gaining global popularity as cleaner production technology and alternative energy sources to crude oil. However, research has not established the synthesis of Biodiesel from Caesalpinia (C.) Pulcherrima (Pride of Barbados) seed oil. The study is based the manufacturing of biodiesel using oil extracted from C. Pulcherrima seed. The production of biodiesel from C.Pulcherrima seed oil was due to factors such as inconsumable fruit, cannot bring about shortage of food production etc. The following important tests were carried out to ensure the good yield and quality of the biodiesel produced at the completion of chemical reaction. The tests are moisture content, Iodine value and free fatty acid. After these tests trans-esterification process then proceeds. Under standard conditions and using standard materials, the manufacturing of biodiesel from C. pulcherrima seed oil was done without hitch. The process was carried out when the extracted oil was heated at temperature of 50oC with sodium methoxide at a temperature of 60oC being added as solution. A magnetic stirrer was used for stirring until a homogeneous mixture was obtained. Settling was achieved for 24 hours after settling for 24 hours, a by-product known as glycerin was then decanted out. The main product, biodiesel was completely cleaned to remove both soap and methanol. The result shows that the produced biodiesel met the ASTM6751 limit for biodiesel. Caesalpina Pulcherrima seed oil has proven to be a valuable raw material for the production of biodiesel with its characteristics as follows; specific gravity (Kg/L) = 0.817, Pour point, (0C) =14, Cloud point, (0C) = 11, Sulphur content, (mg/L) =11.25, Carbon residue, (% wt) = 0.45, Kinematic viscosity, (mm2s-1) = 5.98, Cetane number = 66.7, Flash point, (0F) = 152, Free glycerin, (% mass) = 0.03, Total glycerin (%mass) = 0.18

PhD physical engineering/ 1.Effect of solar ventilation on thermal improvement and energy efficiency of buildings using phase change materials []

The article presents the design approach of a house using the simulation software of the thermal behavior in dynamic regime TRNSYS, this project aims at the design of a single-family house whose energy balance over one year of operation. In this first phase of the project the main focus was on the design of the envelope with MCP type 204 systems and mechanic solar ventilation (MSV) are integrated in the overall model. The energy consumption related to the specific uses of electricity is taken into account in the annual energy balance. The whole project is modeled under TRNSYS V16 for the climate of CASABLANCA NOUASSEUR . The results show that the mechanic solar ventilation (PCM+MSV) reduces the operating temperature of the house significantly. Indeed, the mechanic solar ventilation has decreased its average operating temperature by about 2.6°C-3.88°C.


Despite the evolution in various engineering practices towards a more mechanized means, this has set this work insight into the predominantly practice of mixing sand by hand (manual) during mould preparation in the foundry works. Due to sand mixing by hand, at times it is noted not to be properly done and this in turn may result in poor production of moulding and casting. This work intends to design, develop and evaluate a local sand mixer for moulding or casting. The major component of the mixer includes; motor control switch, pulley, belt, and shaft.Keyword: sand, foundry, mixer, machine, casting, mould

Insecurity: A Conundrum of National Interest and The Right to Know []

The rise of terrorism all over the world and especially in Nigeria has led to calls for the media to join the fight against this rising negative trend. Arguments exist in different quarters on the exact role the media have to play in stemming this tide. Using the libertarian and also, the social responsibility theory, this paper attempts an exploratory study on the right of the citizens to know within the two press systems theorized. It also discusses the available framework for the press and citizens in Nigeria such as the Freedom of Information Act, the NBC code and the definitions and entitlements of public interest. The paper examines the Nigerian government’s directive to the press to reduce reportage of terror-related news and concludes by reiterating the right of the citizenry to know, the role of the press in upholding this right and the duty of citizens to hold the press responsible as information sources.


This paper seeks to conduct an analysis the Rohingya conflict of Myanmar using Christopher Mitchell’s SPITCEROW model of conflict analysis. The model is a framework that asks basic questions about the conflict in order to understand the conflict dynamics such as who the parties, what the main issues are, forms of behavior, what changes, outcomes, and how and in what manner the conflict has broaden. In conducting this analysis, an attempt shall be made to reflect on some or all of the core theories on conflict such as Basic human Needs, Realistic theory, Social identity and generally, theories of ethnic conflict as they relate to the Rohingya conflict. An attempt shall during this reflection, seek to ascertain whether the root causes of this particular conflict are due to structural violence, human needs, or other theoretical explanations.

The Economic Impact of MNCs in Developing Countries: A Case study of Zambia. []

Multinational corporations (MNCs) are enterprises that have business operations in two or more countries. They deliver services or manage production establishments in more than one country. MNCs conduct a significant proportion of their operation in developing countries and thus, they can have an impact on the economies of these countries. The debate of whether MNCs help or harm the economies of developing host countries is as old as the existence of multinational corporations and will be discussed in this paper. To acquire a better understanding of the subject matter, a definition of MNCs has been given. The paper will discuss the historical evolution and characteristics of MNCs, their theoretical framework, and their structure. It will also evaluate the positive and negative impacts of MNCs on the economies of developing countries. Additionally, the case study of Zambia is discussed to observe the pattern of economic impact brought about by MNCs.


This study aims to analyze household consumption patterns and analyze the effect of income, education level, age, and total of family members on food and non-food consumption patterns of fish cultivator households in Paseh Subdistrict, Sumedang Regency. This research began in November 2021 until June 2022. The research data consist of two types, namely primary data and secondary data. The primary data was obtained through written questions using a questionnaire to 30 respondents. Determination of the sample in this study using a proportionate random sampling technique. The data analysis technique used is multiple linear regression. This study uses 4 (four) independent variables, namely income (X1), education level (X2), age (X3), total of family members (X4), and 1 (one) dependent variable, namely food and non-food consumption patterns (Y). The results showed that the household consumption pattern of fish cultivators in Paseh Subdistrict was still dominated by food consumption. The results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that the variables of income (X1) and total of family members (X4) had a significant effect, while the variables of education level (X2) and age (X3) did not significantly affect the food and non-food consumption patterns of fish cultivating households in Paseh Subdistrict, Sumedang Regency. R square value of 0.835, this means that the independent variables simultaneously influence the dependent variable of 83.5% while the remaining 16.5% is explained by other factors outside the research variables.

Changing phase of validity: The past and now []

Validity is the bedding rock of all assessment theories and principles, in that, it underpins all assessment theories. It is the focus or the object of concern of every assessment process The concept validity is and is still receiving diverging interpretation and explanation. This paper attempts to shed more light on the concept of validity as used in assessment. The changes that have emerged in the concept of validity are explained in detail. It also presents the current phase of validity; evidence of validity. All the evidences and how they are evaluated are discussed.

The Role of Information Technology (IT) in improving damage control in the warehouse: A case study of Voltamp energy SAOG. []

TThis dissertation has been compiled on the research topic “The Role of Information Technology (IT) in improving damage control in the warehouse: A case study of Voltamp energy SAOG”. Warehousing is very important in now-a-days business life for logistics firms. In this research paper the technologies introduced by IT has been discussed to effectively control damages at workplace or outer boundary. This is a quantitative research based on correlational research design to check the association between role of IT on organizational performance of Voltamp energy company, Oman. The questionnaire has been developed to gather the information from respondents. There has been 100 questionnaires distributed among employees of Voltamp Energy Company. Random sampling technique has been used to collect the information from everyone in the selected sample. The findings of research states that qualitative and quantitative analysis of the data collected demonstrated that WMS has been the best warehousing operations management system due to which the damages at workplace or outer boundary of the organization has been controlled easily as it has different innovative feature to predict the emergencies, inventory control. It is observed and proved that WMS could work better by installing other IT technologies for different operations at workplaces, because other technologies has also advanced features due to which the WMS would operate tremendously to control the damages. One more thing has been analyzed that reduce the influence of human and manual touches of the stock by the staff employees could reduce the damages at workplace. It is newly observed that WMS system is an all-rounder warehousing management system which maintain the communication with other departments also to ensure the safety and security of the stick to avoid any accidents or emergency through RFID technology.

Laboratory Investigation of Esters from Beef Oil for Synthetic Mud Formulation []

87% oil yield was obtained from beef fat after rendering and the oil was characterised. Transesterification was carried out after esterification between alcohols (methanol and ethanol) and from beef oil. The ester yields were 60% and 65% for the ratios of 1:6 and 1:9 respectively using methanol and were 63% and 70% for the ratios of 1:6 and 1:9 respectively using ethanol. These esters were characterised and used to formulated synthetic-based muds, SBM. These SBMs were compared with oil-based mud formulated with the conventional diesel. The pH of each mud was 8.0, 9.5 and 9.0 for M-Bio-M, M-Bio-E and M-Diesel respectively. The rheological properties reveal that M-Bio-M performed best followed by M-Bio-E and lastly by M-Diesel. The filtration test shows that all of them fell within range as none showed the tendency of causing undesirable filter cake on the wall of the well.

Article Review Cakalang Fufu (Smoked Skipjack Tuna) from Sulawesi Utara, Indonesia []

The famous processed smoked fish product in North Sulawesi, Indonesia is skipjack fufu. This article aims to review skipjack fufu products in terms of the manufacturing process and the quality of the products produced. Based on the literature review, information was obtained that the procedure for making Cakalang Fufu (smoked skipjack tuna) includes, the preparation stage, the washing stage, the skipjack tuna meat is weeded and then washed thoroughly, the meat distribution stage, the smoking and cooling stage. The quality of fufu products is strongly influenced by the source of smoke used in the fumigation process. Mangrove wood is preferred compared to coconut husk and coconut shell as a source of smoke to produce skipjack fufuJ

Performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens fed graded levels of bakery bread waste based diets. []

A total of one hundred and twenty (120) 28-day old Anak broiler chickens were used in 28days feeding trial to evaluate the effect of inclusion levels of bakery bread waste (BBW) diets on the performance and carcass characteristics of finishing broiler chickens. Birds were weighed in groups of 10 and assigned to 12 pens. Three pens were randomly assigned to each of the four experimental diets. The birds were fed finisher broiler diet for 29 - 56 days, respectively. Feed and water were provided ad libitum. The results showed that birds fed the 100% bakery bread waste diet had significantly (p<0.05) higher weight gains, lower feed intake values when compared with control. Feed conversion ratios were also better in 100% bakery bread wastes than in 25,50% and the control group. Cost of feed consumed and feed cost /kg body gain were significantly lower in birds fed the 100% bakery bread waste diets than the control. Carcass yields and internal organs (liver and heart) were not negatively affected by the treatments. Birds fed the 100% bakery bread wastes diet had significantly (p<0.05) decreased relative gizzard weights compared to the 0, 25% and 50% diet groups. This study showed that inclusion of bakery bread wastes up to 100% in the diets of broiler supported their performance, and carcass characteristics relative to maize and could replace 100% maize in finisher broiler chickens’ diets without any negative effect on performance, carcass yield and internal organ characteristics and hence BBW will reduce cost for stakeholders in poultry production if adopted.

Assessment of Guidance and Counselling Services for Effective Service Delivery among Senior Secondary Schools of Yobe State, Nigeria Implication for Stakeholders in Education []

This study is on assessment of guidance and counselling services for effective service delivery among senior secondary schools of Yobe State, Nigeria: implication for stakeholders in education. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. The population of the study comprise of all forty-nine (49) senior secondary schools with a total population of twenty-six thousand seven hundred and thirty-four (26,734) students. A sample of one thousand eight hundred (1800) respondents were selected through multi-stage sampling technique. The instrument use for data collection was self-developed questionnaire title “Assessment of Guidance and Counselling Services Questionnaire (AGCSQ)” with a reliability alpha of 0.72. The data collected was analyzed using mean and standard deviation for the research question raised. The findings of the study shows that information service was rank 1st with mean score of 3.2058 and standard deviation of .99423. Referral service was rank 2nd with the mean score of 3.0103 and standard deviation of 1.65158. Counselling service was rank 3rd with the mean score of 2.9506 and standard deviation of 1.37039. Orientation service was rank 4th with the mean score of 2.5704 and standard deviation of 1.40788. Planning, Placement and follow-up service was rank 5th with the mean score of 2.2840 and standard deviation of .93810. Appraisal/individual analysis was rank 6th with the mean score of 2.2058 and standard deviation of .94423 respectively. From the findings obtained, it is recommended that efforts should be made by government to train more qualified counsellors at degree and NCE levels in all our conventional universities in Nigeria. Guidance service should be integrated into the secondary school curriculum and be taught as a class subject. This kind of teaching will enrich students value system and open their minds to the basic facts of live. It will also be very important that administration of each school provides critical leadership and conducive work environment to accommodate the kind of flexible work schedule and organizing regular workshops, seminars and conferences for stakeholders in guidance and counselling.

A case study “Generalised periodontitis leading to detection of type II diabetes mellitus in a adult” []

Inflammation of periodontal structures is called periodontitis.Periodontium comprises of alveolar bone, periodontal ligament, cementum and gingiva. Diabetes mellitus impairs the immune system of body thus periodontium can easily get infected and generalised periodontitis demands the investigation for type II diabetes mellitus. Key words: Periodontium, Periodontitis, Diabetes mellitus


Enzymes have been widely utilized in various food product industries including fish processing. This article aims to review the use of the Transglutaminase enzyme in processed fish products in improving the quality of the products it produces. Based on the results of the literature review, information was obtained that the addition of transglutaminase enzymes to the manufacture of surimi, kamaboko and fish balls can increase the strength of the dough gel so that the texture of the product becomes more preferred.


The effect of recruitment and selection is noticeable in most companies. It is either a company with high efficiency and effective practices or a low market value. This study aims to analyze the impact of recruitment and selection practices of telecom companies. A questionnaire was distributed to 32 employees to answer the project's questions. The results show that Omantel practices recruitment and selection with advanced plans and mechanisms, such as online recruitment, and attracts candidates with attractive advertisements through its websites and social media programs. It has also faced challenges during the Corona pandemic and easily obtained qualified employees. However, Omantel needs to change some of its recruitment and selection practices and develop its recruitment plans to maintain the positive impact of recruitment and selection.


Measuring the survival and sustainability of the retail industry amidst the pandemic is very essential to ensure their profitability for business sustenance. Elements such as initial capital, monthly income on average, educational attainment, years in business operations, and location are some of the many considerations. The study showed that despite the pandemic crisis, it was found that business is going on provided that you are in good positioning since these create an atmosphere of attractiveness. These are the common observations of the retail industry players and they agree to sustain this especially since the environment is being destabilized by the unpredictable occurrence of events resulting in economic turmoil. This is in agreement with the study of (Mehra, Sajeesj, and Voleti, 2020), the using a competitive model addresses the gap and how firm product positioning and pricing strategies are done. This predicament feels by the retail industry suggests that they should build a partnership with the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) together with some of the biggest companies-“Rebuilding the retail industry through Access to Resources and Trade Program of Micro- retail Sectors. Help to continue and stimulate the economic recovery of the micro-retail sector during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Retail industry owners allow access to legitimate sources of capital and do not have to resort to loan sharks to replenish their stocks, especially while recovering from the pandemic. Loan financial assistance for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to re-build the business. Since during the pandemic, some of the customers might be hesitant to go outside of their houses, so the retailers must have to be creative and innovative to meet their needs. Retailers start setting up their own Facebook pages where their customers can reach out to them and share their orders. To remain strategic, retailers can offer free delivery within their neighborhood or something within their reach. They can also prepare their order ahead so they can just pick up the products to their store to lessen the contact with people when they decide to go outside.


Ventilation is a key consideration in all architectural designs, be it natural, mechanical or hybrid but it's a very important thing to take note of in every design especially when it comes a learning environment such as a classroom. If not well put in place will lead to discomfort and lack of concentration by the learners. However, due to lack of space and poorly designed classrooms and space conversation in the country, one barely finds properly designed classrooms. Data collections were made through studies of publications and cases study. The first way to way to tackle ventilation challenge in classrooms, it starts in the design process, where spaces are designed considering the use and even if it were to be an already existing space been converted to classrooms, careful decisions should be made on the ventilation for the space. Careful and strategic openings should be done to manage inflow and out flow of air and as well how the mechanical ventilation would be positioned to serve the space.