Volume 12, Issue 3, March 2024 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Influence of stakeholders’ involvement on the success of health projects in Rwanda: Case of Barame - Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health Project in Society for Family Health Rwanda []

ABSTRACT Introduction Stakeholder involvement influences the success of projects because it improves stakeholder understanding of the intervention and attracts their buy-in. This research examined the influence of stakeholder involvement on project success in Rwanda using the case of the Barame-Adolescent sexual and reproductive health project in Nyarugenge district. Methods The study used a correlation design with a quantitative approach. The sample size was 373 which included 12 project management staff and 361 beneficiaries. Stratified simple random and purposive sampling techniques were used to select this sample. The close-ended questionnaire was used for collecting data. The validity of research instruments was determined by the use of the content validity index. The results generated a content validity index of .95/95% which is considered very high. On the other hand, reliability was verified through the Cronbach Alpha coefficients (α=.843) for the 21 Likert scale items. Data was analyzed through descriptive analysis (means and standard deviations) and inferential statistics (correlation and regression analysis). Out of the 373 targeted respondents, there was a response rate of 66.2% or 247 respondents. Descriptive findings show that stakeholder analysis, engagement and collaboration practices in the Barame adolescent sexual and reproductive health project were effective. Results From an inferential perspective, regression findings show that stakeholder analysis had no significant influence on the success of the project (β=-.012, p>.05), stakeholder engagement had a significant influence on the success of the project (β=-.203, p<.05) while stakeholder collaboration has no significant influence on the success of the project (β=.629, p>.05). Conclusion and recommendations Further research is needed on all areas of the Barame project operation to improve the reliability of findings across the entire organization. Similarly, a study into other factors that contribute to project success beyond stakeholder analysis, engagement, and collaboration. It is hoped that the study will enable the management to adopt effective strategies for ensuring that stakeholders are actively involved in the key project decision-making processes to win their support show accountability and build trust within the local community where the project operates. Other academicians will find the study valuable in benchmarking their studies on the same subject.

Analyzing Climate and Agricultural Factors for Yield Prediction of Key Cereal Crops in Ethiopia: A Visual Analysis (1995-2021) []

Ethiopia's economy is based primarily on agriculture. According to the US Agency for International Development (USAID), agriculture continues to be a major driver of the economy, accounting for 40% of GDP, 80% of exports, and employing over 75% of the labor force. Predicting yields for staple cereal crops such as teff, wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, finger millet, and oats is not just a scientific endeavor but also a pragmatic necessity. By examining the complex interactions between climatic factors and agricultural practices, this paper serves as a foundational exploration into predicting the yields of important cereal crops in Ethiopia. We use a visual analytic approach to identify patterns in annual temperature, precipitation, area harvesting, production, and yield data from 1995 to 2021 by integrating climate factors and agricultural practices. By examining these agricultural variables, we hope to build links between shifting climatic conditions, agricultural decisions, and crop production, providing indispensable insights for stakeholders, farmers, and policymakers.

The Effectiveness of Social Cash Transfer on Poverty Reduction Among the Beneficiaries: A Case of Lumezi District in Eastern Province, Zambia []

Poverty remains one of the most pressing challenges facing societies worldwide, with millions of individuals and families trapped in cycles of deprivation and insecurity. In response to this persistent issue, policymakers and researchers have explored various strategies aimed at alleviating poverty and promoting sustainable development. Among these strategies, social cash transfers have emerged as a promising tool for addressing poverty and its associated consequences. It is for this reason that research was carried to do an investigation into the effectiveness of social cash transfer in reducing the poverty levels among the beneficiaries in Lumezi District in Eastern Province. The research was guided by the following objectives: (1) To investigate into the effectiveness of social cash transfer in reducing poverty among the beneficiaries of Lumezi District; and (2) To explore possible ways that can help household beneficiaries improve the utilization of social cash transfer in order to reduce poverty. to ascertain the relevance of the activities the household beneficiaries were involved in, in line with poverty reduction and to explore possible ways that can help household beneficiaries improve the utilization of social cash transfer in order to reduce poverty. The study used both qualitative and quantitative research methods in which primary data was collected using questionnaires, focus groups, interviews and secondary data through books and internet. After the findings were presented, the study revealed that the social cash transfer was not effective in as far as poverty reduction was concerned. The study therefore recommended some measures to make it more effective. These include the need to instill entrepreneurial knowledge and skills into beneficiaries, increase the amount and increase the number of beneficiaries.

A Novel CNN-based Architecture for Automated Detection and Classification of Deepfake Images from Video []

Deepfake technology has become increasingly sophisticated, posing a significant challenge to the integrity of digital media and exacerbating the spread of misinformation. In response to this growing threat, researchers have explored various approaches to detect and classify deepfake images from videos. However, existing methods often suffer from limitations such as low detection accuracy, high false positive rates, and inadequate scalability. To address these challenges, this paper presents a novel CNN-based architecture for automated detection and classification of deepfake images extracted from videos. Our approach builds upon the advancements in convolutional neural networks (CNNs) and incorporates multimodal fusion techniques to enhance the model's ability to analyse visual, auditory, and metadata information simultaneously. The proposed architecture utilizes a combination of early and late fusion methods to integrate features from different modalities, thereby improving detection accuracy and robustness against adversarial attacks. Through rigorous scenario-based evaluation methods, we meticulously assess the performance of the proposed architectural framework across various operational scenarios. Our findings demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach in accurately identifying and classifying deepfake images from videos, even under challenging conditions. Furthermore, we identify the risk and trade-offs as well as the impact of changes on the architecture’s performance.


The Rwandan government, in collaboration with the revenue body Rwanda Revenue Authority (RRA), started digital transformation in 2012 to enhance tax administration efficiency and contribute to the national development goals. Despite these steps, issues such as tax evasion, late filings and payments, unstable network infrastructure, and low computer application proficiency among taxpayers continue to exist. The combination of challenges faced by the RRA alongside mistakes in tax payments, tax evasion and tax avoidance threats limit the RRA from getting optimal revenue collections. This study was motivated by these challenges and it sought to investigate the contribution of e-tax system on tax collection in in Rwanda a case study Rwanda Revenue Authority. The study employed secondary data covering the periods prior (1998-2011) and after (2012-2022) the implementation of the e-tax system and primary data collected via questionnaires through stratified random sampling technique to ensure representation across different taxpayer categories and RRA staffs; thus, 150 taxpayers and 50 tax officers were selected for this study, mixed-methods approach that combines quantitative and qualitative research techniques were used. To analyses data collected statistical techniques were used to access the relationship between the electronic tax system and tax collection outcomes and qualitative analysis of interview and open-ended survey responses to explore perception and implementation challenges. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) was used in the regression analysis and in calculating the results. The findings were presented through tables and the discussion thereafter. The aim of results was to find out the degree to which the electronic tax system assists in the tax collection. The multiple linear regression analysis to assess the combined contribution of the electronic tax system on tax collection by considering three variables including two independent variables such as Technical Skills to use e-tax system, Perception on e-tax, and Tax collection as the dependent variable was used. The findings established that the implementation of e-tax system had very important positive effect on tax revenue collection. These results, however, provide the basis for emphasizing the need to educate taxpayers, both small and medium, as well as Large taxpayers on the role of perception and technical skills in the use of e-tax systems on the tax collection efficiency. Knowing specifics on these aspects, the government can be able to collect tax revenue more cost effective. To sum up, through the use of the obtained results, the decisions makers can put forward the specific policies that will improve tax administration systems and consequently improve the revenue proceeds collection.

Cancer Care in the Middle East: New Nursing Strategies for Improved Outcomes []

Cancer is becoming the fastest-rising lethal disease and a major public health problem in the Middle East. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), cancer is the second leading cause of death in the region, after cardiovascular disease. The incidence of cancer is rising in the Middle East, due to a number of factors like changes in diet, smoking, decreased physical activity, air pollution, water pollution, and exposure to chemicals. Therefore, there is an urgent need to train local health professionals such as oncologists, palliative care experts, oncology nurses, psychologists, social workers, physiotherapists, and spiritual counselors on early identification, curative therapy, and palliative measures. This review explores the innovative nursing strategies implemented in the region to improve patient outcomes and enhance the overall quality of cancer care.


ABSTRACT Sox9 is a transcription factor of high mobility group (HMG) box family DNA binding domain. It plays a crucial role in gonadogenesis during embryonic developmental period. 1454bp of sox9 mRNA transcript was cloned and sequenced. It consists of open reading frame (ORF) of 1436 bp, that encodes a 479 aa protein and it found identical to the HMG box of other fish species. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by comparing the mRNA sequence of 50 different fishes across various taxa available in NCBI database and taking out group as Xenopus laevis. The tree shows a high homology of H. tsurugae sox9 with Maelanotaenia boesemani sox9 forming a single clad. The expression of sox9 was studied that reveals in amhy+ male, the expression begins from baseline from 0 wah and it expresses in an increasing fashion whereas in amhy- female individual highly expressed at beginning stage (0 wah) and the expression reaches peak at 2 wah then decline which indicates the low expression needed for differentiation of female sex organ. The histological sections of gonads are studied in different stages of biweekly collected larva during sex determination/differentiation period and it showed that differentiation of gonads male/female decided at 6 wah. In this stage the primary oocytes are clearly recognized and it correlated with expression of sox 9 genes. These finding added an extra knowledge for better understanding of molecular mechanisms of sex determination and differentiation period in fish.

Application of Environmental Monitoring Tools for Climate Change Mitigation in Rwanda []

This study aims to assess the effectiveness of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) on climate change mitigation in Gasabo District of Rwanda. Structured questionnaire and interview were addressed to a sample of 155 respondents, including both individual residents and leaders from regulatory institutions related to or working on environment and climate change. Geographic Information System (GIS) and Microsoft Excel are used for data collection. The results revealed that 64% of respondents voted EIA application after project implementation, which implies that even long-term project consequences are not foreseen and mitigated as well. In addition, agriculture and cooking by burning biomass were found to be among the major causes of environmental degradation. These activities were perceived to cause soil, water, and air pollution (53%), followed by decreasing grassland and forestlands (34%) and rising respiratory diseases (13%). Climate scenario revealed decreasing annual maximum rainfall (from 120 to 58 mm) and raising temperature record (from 17 to 25oC) between 1990 and 2020. EIA in climate change mitigation is ranked as moderately effective which calls for efforts to strengthen EIA contribution to climate mitigation. Crosschecking the parameters assessed while conducting EIA and their connectivity with climate change mitigation is suggested. This study serves policy makers in formulating relevant climate change mitigation monitoring tools.

Teaching English as a Foreign Language to Autistic Students: Challenges and Current Perspectives of Parents, Teachers, and Policy Makers []

Abstract The purpose of this research was to look into the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language to Autistic Students: Challenges and Current Perspectives of Parents, Teachers, and Policy Makers. To meet the purpose of the study mixed method approach was employed. Study area and study subjects were selected using purposive sampling method so that all teachers, parents, and policy makers of SELAM BER primary and secondary were samples of the study. To collect the necessary data, questionnaires, classroom observation, document analysis, and focus group discussions were used. The English class room teaching check list was designed by Florida’s Centers for Autism and Related Disabilities (CARD) and was adapted by the researcher to relate it to the Ethiopian educational system A standardized questionnaire format was adapted from Kate McGinnity (2010) and was updated for the purpose of this study by the researcher. And it was dispatched to parents and EFL teachers.. The result showed that The researcher tried to find out if there are any curriculum based syllables for the teaching of EFL to Autistic students, and sadly there are not any. Though the ministry of education, MOE, tried to supply a kind of “guide line” for teaching English in an inclusive modem; teachers, principal, and SNE specialists do not know it or understand it. Based on this, the researchers have coordinated a focus group discussion among EFL teachers and principals from SELAM BER elementary and high school, parents of the Autistic students, and BGRS education bureau and FGD provided the following idea on the issues of Autistic students EFL learning. EFL teachers have no trainings on the methods of teaching English to Autistic students and do not understand what Autism is an how to deal with it, School principals do not try to upgrade their EFL teachers to solve the problems with special needs education because of the accountability issues if the trained teachers leave the school after training. Parents do not want their Autistic students to go to school for the believe that they have (parents of the Autistic students believe that their children are results of a long rooted curse or enchantment. Based on these findings though it might seem expensive and unpractical, Certified Speech-Language Pathologists (SLP) would give an ample and core change on the Autistic students EFL learning progress. SLT is designed to address the mechanics of speech and the meaning of social value of a language. For students whom have problems on a certain area of EFL, Careful planning and training are essential to provide the right modifications and accommodations. The different supports should include special type of training to EFL teachers, SNE sector provisions and follow-ups. The less restrictive a student’s setting, the greater the opportunity for the Autistic child to interact with the school population outside the special education environment - Students with Autism should move up with their chronological age group to maintain peer relationships and friendship groups, and to progress through the national curriculum. In exceptional cases, school staff, especially EFL teachers, along with an educational psychologist may propose that a child with Autism should repeat a year, especially in foundation/reception.. Consideration of potential impact and benefits should take place with the Autistic students’ family/careers. Children who are placed in a class below their chronological year group should then move up each year with that class throughout their school career, and must not skip a year at any stage. Effective transition planning is essential in ensuring sustained progress and successful inclusion, and key transitions include when the child starts in early years settings, on transfer to primary school, transfer to secondary and then into further education. Activities to support transition should include sharing information and planning between settings, and teaching to prepare the Autistic student, as well as introducing the new setting to the student. Transition activities should take place over several months before and after the Autistic student joins the new setting, and must involve key staff from both settings working with families/careers, and external support staff., EFL teachers must give a special concern and design their own syllabus which focuses on those areas of EFL teachings. Here, the main problem might be time, in order to solve this, principals and regional education offices for SNE should discus on some kind of allowance to the EFL teachers.

The Impact of Peer Observation on EFL Teacher's Professional Development []

This paper examined the attitudes and perceptions of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers in Morocco about peer observation. It also investigated the effects of peer observation on the professional growth of educators. Peer observation is an effective method that educators can utilize to enhance and refine their instructional practices and strategies. The study aims to enhance comprehension of the effects of peer observation as a primary method for facilitating teachers' professional development. The study's primary findings indicated that educators have positive attitudes toward the practice of peer observation. The findings demonstrated the importance of conducting classroom observations as a means of fostering professional development and promoting collaborative growth and support. The study contributes to the existing literature on peer observation and has the potential to serve as a foundation for future investigations about this subject matter. The study is relevant to educators, researchers, and policymakers interested in improving teaching practices and student performance.


This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of multimedia instruction in enriching the cultural awareness of Grade IV-B pupils at Can-don South Central School during the school year 2013-2014. The research utilized a pre-experimental one-group pretest-posttest design, with 33 Grade IV-B pupils as respondents. The study sought to assess the level of cultural awareness of the pupils during the pretest and posttest, the significant difference in results before and after implementing the strategy, and the overall gain score of the pupils. The sta-tistical tools used included mean, standard deviation, coefficient variation, t-test, and gain score. The findings revealed a significant im-provement in the level of cultural awareness of the Grade IV-B pupils after the implementation of multimedia instruction. The mean score of the pretest indicated poor cultural awareness, while the posttest mean score showed a significant improvement. The computed t-test value indicated a substantial difference between the pretest and posttest results, leading to the rejection of the null hypothesis. The overall gain score of 0.29 further supported the effectiveness of multimedia instruction in enriching the cultural awareness of the Grade IV-B pu-pils. Furthermore, the study demonstrated that multimedia instruction is an effective strategy for enhancing the cultural awareness of Grade IV-B pupils. It is recommended that school administrators encourage teachers to utilize multimedia instruction across disciplines, and that teachers integrate multimedia instruction to enrich cultural awareness in various subjects. Additionally, further research using multimedia instruction in different disciplines or with other groups of respondents is suggested.

Ecological Bank towards Greening Finance []

The relationship between sustainable banks and their effects on the environment is the main topic of this study. Banks can be more greening, efficient, and environmentally responsible. They could improve greening finance. We consider the 27 biggest banks worldwide from 2007 to 2022. A framework based the Malmquist productivity index. We also investigated index to evaluate eco-efficiency and productivity. The findings indicate that banks must use their resources sustainably by reducing their environmental damage. Sustainable banks must address the effective and efficient use of resources to advance sustainability. Our research's contribution fosters a tradition of ethical behavior in the field of bank sustainability. Our findings can help to pinpoint areas where changes can be made to produce a more sustainable and effective use of resources, over time improves ecological performance and green finance.


This study evaluated the economic dimension of sustainable oil palm production by oil palm co-operative societies in Imo State, Nigeria. A census of 321 registered members in the three zones of Imo State was carried out. Data were collected from secondary and primary sources; Primary data were collected using structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using percentages, frequency distribution tables, means, charts and Multiple Regression Analysis. Results showed that the model reached significance (F (6, 305) = 511.22, p < .001) and coefficient of determination R2 = .91 which means that the variables in the economic dimension account for 91% of the variations in the average quantity of palm oil produced. Calculation of sustainability index for economic dimension yielded a score of 50.75% which falls within the quite sustainable category. The study concludes that; economic variables significantly influenced oil palm production by members of the co-operative societies in the study area within the study period. Therefore, the co-operative society has contributed positively to increased oil palm production in the study area. The study recommends that; more small holder oil palm farmers should be encouraged to join the co-operative societies by the management so that they can benefit from economies of scale for increased output. Co-operative society should increase their share holding for increased financial base and lending power. A shift in mind set by the co-operative society to adopt the “self-funding and self-help” strategy to overcome funding challenges instead of waiting for government funding which may not be achievable due to the current economic realities. Key words: economic dimension, co-operative societies, sustainability index, self-funding, self-help.

Natural Site Location for Sustainable Bituminous Tailings Disposal Using Integrated GIS and Analytical Hierarchical Process []

Geographical Information System (GIS), Geological and Geotechnical Engineering play a determining role in selection of tailing ponds and disposal sites for the management of min-ing waste. This research aims at proffering solutions to tailings pollution challenges ex-pected to face bitumen exploitation sites in Ondo State, Nigeria by finding the most suitable locations for the tailing ponds within the study area. Environmental, Geological and Ge-otechnical conditions of the study area were assessed, after which pairwise comparison of each assessment criteria was performed by a group of experts using the Saaty Scale nine (9) levels of importance. Weights of importance were then assigned to each pond suitability criteria using the Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP) decision making technique and the result nested into a pond site suitability map using GIS. The result showed the north-west and the northeastern part of Okitipupa as the natural environmentally friendly loca-tion for the deposit of the tailing waste from bitumen exploration in Ondo State, Nigeria.

Environmental and Geotechnical Assessment of Suitable Eco-Friendly Disposal Site for Tailings from Bitumen Mining []

The major occupation of people living within the bitumen region in Ondo State Nigeria are farming and fishing, and their sources of water intake includes streams and borehole, which can be polluted due to tailings spillage. This research aims at proffering solutions to tailings pollution challenges expected to face bitumen exploitation sites by finding the most suitable locations for the tailing ponds within the study area. Environmental, Geological and Geotechnical conditions of the study area were assessed with each having seven (7) dif-ferent assessment criteria. Geography Information System (GIS) concept was then adopted to nest the result of these assessments into maps for analytical purposes and for selecting favourable zones for bitumen tailings deposit site. The result showed all zones of the study area favourable in four (4) of the seven (7) environmental conditions, with the southern sec-tion, being more favourable preffered, due to low erosion and high forest density. However, geological and geotechnical assessment results were more specific and diverse with differ-ent territories for each criteria, but predominantly at the southern and northern regions of the study area. Good collaboration between geologists, engineers, and local planners to en-sure that the most suitable natural sites are selected for waste disposal facilities would min-imize effectively the environmental degradation of bitumen mining activities on residents of the mining locations.

Credit Risk Evaluation in the Financial Sector Using Deep Learning []

Evaluating credit risk is a crucial responsibility in the financial sector to assess the probability of borrowers failing to repay loans. Traditional risk assessment methodologies need help to effectively predict creditworthiness due to the growing complexity of financial data and the emergence of non-traditional lending platforms. This paper explores deep learning methods for credit risk evaluation, specifically Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) networks. The experiment takes place in a Jupyter Notebook and consists of two primary phases: Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) and LSTM model training. Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) helps uncover dataset characteristics, such as data imbalances, which can be rectified using oversampling methods. The LSTM model is trained to identify temporal relationships in the data, attaining a high accuracy rate of 98.52% for low and increased credit risk categories. The model demonstrates high precision, recall, and F1-score, indicating its reliability in distinguishing across credit risk classifications. Displaying classification reports and confusion matrices enhance the model's resilience. The LSTM model offers a promising method for credit risk assessment, delivering trustworthy forecasts essential for informed decision-making by financial institutions.

Ontology-Based Smart Irrigation System: Enhancing Agricultural Water Management []

An Ontology-Based Smart Irrigation System is presented in this research with the goal of improving agricultural water management. The main issue discussed is the inefficiency of conventional irrigation techniques, which results in water waste and lower crop yields. The process used entails creating an ontology, which includes defining concepts, establishing relationships, identifying domains, and populating the ontology. In order to facilitate real-time monitoring and decision-making, the irrigation system also incorporates sensors, actuators, and data processing algorithms. The main conclusions show that the ontology-based approach boosts crop output, encourages sustainable farming practices, and enhances water consumption efficiency. The findings of this study imply that ontology-based smart irrigation systems present a viable way to deal with the problems associated with water scarcity, improve agricultural output, and reduce their negative effects on the environment. The research adds to the expanding corpus of information on intelligent irrigation systems and emphasizes the significance of implementing cutting-edge technologies for agriculture's sustainable water management.


In previous books and papers, I stated we have been practicing and teaching our students a bad mathematics, which coexists with strange results, weird conventions and other unclear matters. I also stated it is feasible to have an improved math model, free from all these inconsistencies. Current math model is a poor model because it relies on a poor foundation, particularly the concept of numbers, the main pile in the referred foundation, and does not comply with the unbreakable interdependence of geometry and some branches of mathematics, as number theory, algebra and trigonometry. In spite of that, the math community keeps adding concepts and theories to the present math model without any serious initiative to question the fundamentals of its poor foundation. If, as declared by some math experts, applied mathematics is a bad mathematics, pure mathematics is a bad mathematics too, because it relies on the same poor foundation. In its applied version, and in spite of its many limitations, mathematics allows us to handle real world matters. On the other hand, pure mathematics, as an abstract approach, not necessarily committed to solve any real world problem, has no practical use. With the purpose to demonstrate my innovative concepts, I discuss three classical math topics in this paper. Right triangles, rule of signs, and number zero.


Patient Profiling, an essential component of modern healthcare, enables personalized treatment interventions. As electronic health records (EHRs) and data analytics advance, patient profiling becomes a crucial tool for medical practitioners. This study examines the concept, advantages, and drawbacks of the patient medication profiling system through surveys and literature review. Thirty purposive samples were analyzed. The results suggest a positive view of PMPS adaptability and acceptability. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in respondents’ knowledge and perception levels before and after computerized patient medication profile intervention. However, there was significant difference (p>0.05) in factors influencing PMPS adaptation and satisfaction. Although not widely used in community pharmacies, PMPS has proven effective in evaluating patient profiles, medication types, and necessary interventions in Koronadal City, South Cotabato. This research underscores the importance of PMPS in contemporary healthcare, offering insights into its development, evaluation, and use for pharmacists and patients alike.

Intersectionality in Criminology: Enhancing Research and Practice through a Feminist Lens []

This essay explores the profound impact of integrating an intersectional feminist approach into criminological research and practice. Intersectionality, as a framework, offers a nuanced understanding of how overlapping identities such as race, gender, class, and sexuality affect individuals' experiences with crime and the criminal justice system. By applying this approach, criminology can move beyond traditional analyses that often overlook the complex realities faced by marginalized communities. The essay argues that incorporating intersectional feminist perspectives enriches criminological research by providing deeper insights into the social and structural factors influencing crime and justice. Furthermore, it discusses the potential for intersectional approaches to inform more equitable and just criminal justice policies and practices, thereby addressing disparities and promoting inclusivity. Through a review of literature and case studies, the essay highlights examples where intersectional feminist approaches have led to significant advancements in understanding and addressing issues within law enforcement interactions, judicial processes, and corrections and rehabilitation. It addresses the methodological challenges and institutional barriers to integrating intersectionality into criminology, emphasizing the need for innovative research methods and systemic changes within criminal justice institutions. The conclusion underscores the transformative potential of an intersectional feminist framework in criminology, advocating for its adoption to enhance the discipline's relevance and impact on creating a more equitable and just society. This essay contributes to the ongoing discourse on the importance of intersectionality in criminological research and practice, calling for continued efforts to incorporate these perspectives in the pursuit of comprehensive and inclusive approaches to understanding and addressing crime and justice.

implementation framework for condom use and sexually transmitted illness management for adolescents on antiretroviral therapy []

Abstract This study aims to explore the intricate factors that shape adolescents' attitudes and perceptions toward condom use and STI treatment in Harare, Zimbabwe. The primary aim is to meticulously develop a tailored implementation framework catering to adolescents that are marginalized especially those undergoing antiretroviral therapy (ART), but also includes adolescents that are disabled, child prostitution and LBGTQ at Beatrice Road Infectious Diseases Hospital. Utilizing a robust conceptual framework grounded in the Theory of Planned Behavior and the Health Belief Model, qualitative data were meticulously gathered from a diverse array of adolescent health stakeholders, including parents, guardians, nurses, and the adolescents themselves. Through detailed interviews and focused group discussions, nuanced insights into adolescent perspectives and behaviors concerning condom use and STI treatment were meticulously obtained. The findings reveal a complex landscape wherein adolescents, despite possessing awareness of condoms and sexual and reproductive health, tend to underutilize healthcare services. They heavily rely on information disseminated through peer networks, social media, the internet, and healthcare providers. The dynamic interactions with peers, guardians, and healthcare professionals significantly influence diverse perceptions among adolescents. Notably, the pivotal role of resource availability and the reduction of behavioural barriers emerge as critical factors profoundly shaping adolescent intentions toward engaging in STI management. Drawing from the extensive information gathered, this study proposes a meticulously crafted implementation framework, “The SHIAA Framework: Shaping Healthy Intimacy for Adolescents in ART”. Emphasizing a holistic approach, which includes psychological support, empowerment, and practical guidance, the framework aims to foster positive behaviours related to condom use and STI treatment among adolescents on ART. By comprehensively addressing perceived behavioural control, resource availability, and behavioural barriers, this framework endeavours to encourage the uptake of Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights (SRHR) measures among adolescents, thereby significantly improving their overall health outcomes.

Multidimensional Efficiency in Banking Sustainability []

Moving towards sustainability has become challenge for banks. Sustainable bank is responsible for the environment and society while only financial risks are evaluated. There is insufficient evidence for sustainability and efficiency. Admitting being sustainable for the environment and society while making performance, banks need to manage resources efficiency that will contribute to sustainable development. This study shows that improving multidimensional efficiency is a basic challenge for managing sustainability in banks. This implies that the resource optimization is a key factor to improving performance in the banking system. However, banks must also measure their progress from a sustainable performance including social and environmental resources in addition to the purely economic factors. This analysis aims to approach banking efficiency in an innovative way. It is about integrating the economic, social and environmental dimensions in the measurement of efficiency. More precisely, this study involves the concepts of socio / eco-efficiency in banks. Applying this approach allowed us to assess a bank's contribution to sustainability. We developed a framework through the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) for the 27 largest banks in the world for a period from 2007 to 2022. The results revealed that banking sustainability depends on multidimensional efficiency that includes economic, environmental, and social dimensions.


Phytochemical screening procedures along with structural analysis of many plant materials provided the basis for their therapeutic potencies and increased the relevance of many plants in pharmacological studies and drug developments. The present study was conducted to investigate some phytochemical and antioxidant properties of date palm pollen (DPP). The experiments were done using the conventional methods for extraction of plant materials (by methanolic maceration), preliminary phytochemical screening, Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis, and antioxidant 1,1-Diphenynl-2-Picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant extract revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, terpenes, cardiac glycosides and carbohydrates, while further analysis by GC-MS analysis confirmed the presence of 29 compounds covering a wide range of fatty acid, phenols, triterpenoid and steroidal compounds including estrone, β-amyrin and 3-ketofucosterol. Moreover, the findings of the antioxidant DPPH assay indicated that, the plant extract produced a concentration dependent antioxidant activity. It can be concluded that, the presence of some phytochemical compounds in the plant material may justify its pharmacological properties and may provide the rationale for its traditional and ethnomedicinal uses which can be further evaluated by well-designed controlled studies.

classical physics []

these notes i made i am only 16