Volume 12, Issue 3, March 2024 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Social Media Platforms It’s Relationship to Students’ Communication Skills []

ABSTRACT Social media platforms are important for the communication skills of the students. It allows them to access a wide range of information that will help them to become more efficient and effective in communication. Therefore, it is crucial to determine the relationships between the social media platforms to the communication skills of the students. This study determines the relationship between the usage of various social media platforms (YouTube, Facebook, and TikTok) and the communication skills (Verbal, Non-verbal, and Written skills) of the students. This study employed a descriptive quantitative method and used a survey method for gathering data to capture the important data that will help the researchers determine the purpose of the study. The researchers distributed survey questionnaires and participated by 60 first-year students with a Bachelor of Elementary Education and Bachelor of Secondary Major in English. The findings of the study showed that there was a positive significant relationship between the usage of various social media platforms and the communication skills of the students. Continued exposure to social media may provide a building block or support system for the students to improve their communication skills. The researchers recommended that School Administration conduct regular professional development sessions for teachers to enhance their understanding of the positive aspects of social media in education. Also, Teachers and parents will guide the students in finding educational content to contribute to their communication skills. Keywords: YouTube, Facebook, TikTok, Verbal Skills, Non-verbal Skills, Written Skills


The experiment was conducted at Office farm of Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture, Gopalgonj from November 2018 to January 2019 to study the effects of manures and plant spacing on the yield of mungbean. The treatments comprised of five levels of manures r: T1= no manures control, T 2 = 0.5, T 3 = 1.0, T 4 = 1.5 and T 5 = 2.0 kg ha-1 manures and three plant spacing: 10, 20 and 30 cm within rows at 30 cm apart. The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three replications. The results indicated that highest level of manures 2.0 kg ha-1) performed better than other lower levels in respect of plant height (53.41 cm), dry matter plant-1 at 40 days after sowing (DAS) (0.89 g) and 65 DAS (2.79 g), and number of nodules plant-1 at both 40 DAS (11.27) and 65 DAS (16.39). On the other hand, plant population m-2 (25.33), and dry matter plant-1 at both 40 DAS (0.886 g) and 65 DAS (2.87 g) were found highest for the plant spacing of 10 cm. However, plant height (54.06 cm), number of nodules plant-1 at 40 DAS (11.00) and 65 DAS (16.56) were found to be highest only in 30 cm plant spacing. Yield and yield contributing characters like number of branches plant-1, number of pods plant-1, pod length, seed weight plant-1, seed yield, stover yield, biological yield and harvest index were significantly influenced by 2.0 kg ha- manures A plant spacing of 20 cm performed better for seed yield (1419.3 kg ha- 1 ). The interaction effect of 2.0 kg ha-1 manures with a plant spacing of 20 cm showed better performance for yield and yield contributing characters.


A field experiment was conducted at the Soil Science Field Laboratory Khulna University (KU), Khulna during aman season of 2018 to evaluate the effects of manures and fertilizers for maximizing the yield of BBRI dhan48. The soil of the experimental field belongs to 'Sonatala' Soil Series having silt loam texture, pH 6.18, organic matter content 2.15%, total N 0.124%, available P 6.51 ppm, exchangeable K 0.074 me/100 g soil, available S 14.85 ppm and CEC 12.5 me/100 g soil. The experiment containing six treatments was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. The treatments were T0= Control, T = STB-CF (HYG), T2= CD + STB-CF (HYG), T3= PM + STB-CF (HYG), T4= COM + STB-CF (HYG) and T5= Farmers’ practice (FP). Organic manures including cowdung, poultry manure and compost were applied to the experimental plots @ 5, 3 and 5 t ha-1, respectively. The recommended dozes of N, P, K and S supplied from urea, TSP, MoP and gypsum were 90, 15, 60 and 15 kg ha-1, respectively. Yield contributing characters like plant height, effective tillers hill-1, panicle length, grains panicle-1 and filled grains panicle-1 and grain and straw yields of BRRI dhan49 were significantly influenced by the application of manures and fertilizers. The highest grain yield of 4.87 t ha-1 was observed in the treatment T3 [PM + STB-CF (HYG)] and the lowest value of 3.61 t ha-1 was found in T0 (control). The straw yield ranged from 4.10 to 5.51 t ha-1 in different treatments. The NPKS contents and uptake by BRRI dhan48 were markedly influenced by manures and fertilizers. The treatment T3 [PM + STB-CF (HYG)] was found to be the best combination of manures and fertilizers for obtaining the maximum yield of rice.


A pot experiment was conducted in the net- house of the Department of Agriculture of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Science and Technology University, Gopalgonj to evaluate the outcomes of cadmium pollution on the growth, yield and nutrient concentrations of six varieties of rice. Cadmium(Cd) was added at three rates viz. 0, 10 and 20 ppm (on soil basis) from cadmium chloride (CdCl2.H2O). The varieties tested were BINA dhan8, BINA dhan10, BINA dhan14, BRRI dhan50, BRRI dhan58 and Kheyali boro. The experiment was carried out in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD), with three replicaions. Nine kg soil was taken into each pot measuring 40 cm in diameter and 35 cm in height. Every pot received 100 ppm N, 25 ppm P, 40 ppm K and 25 ppm S from urea, triple superphosphate, muriate of potash and gypsum, respectively. Soils were treated with Cd as per treatments before transplanting. Cadmium contamination significantly decreased plant height, tillering, panicle length, grains pot-1, 100-seed weight, grain yield and straw yield. However, the effect was quite varied with the rice varieties. The Cd concentration in both grain and straw of all rice varieties increased with increasing rate of Cd addition. BINA dhan8 had the lowest grain Cd concentration and Kheyali boro showed the highest Cd concentration in rice grown with 20 ppm Cd. Application of Cd had reduced the concentrations of N, P, K and S in grain, showing negative interaction between them. The yield of BRRI dhan58 demonstrated the highest yield of grains pot-1 followed by BRRI dhan50 and BINA dhan8 under 20 ppm Cd applied to soil.

Characterization of workshops and estimation of the importance of fattening foods in the peri-urban area of Tahoua (Niger). []

In the Sahel, sheep fattening contributes to the growth and food security of rural households. However, the practice of fattening is subject to constraints including the optimal use of feed. The objective of this study was to know the preferences of foods used and fattening practices in the urban commune of Tahoua. A survey was conducted among 163 bottle fillers chosen using snowball sampling. The results show three groups of fatters. The Balami (63.46%) and Oudah (68.57%) breeds are fattened in groups 1 and 2 respectively. However, group 3 has a preference for crossbreeds (73%). The white two-tone dress is preferred in group 1 (61.54%). Group 2 has a preference for two-tone dark (34.29%) and two-tone black (45.71%) dresses. Aged fattening sheep are preferred in groups 1 (82.69%) and 2 (70.73%). Producer preferences show that cowpea tops (weight = 0.09) and peanut (weight = 0.09), gao pods (weight = 0.08) and local bran (weight = 0.07 ) are the most important in the diet of fattened sheep. The less preferred foods in fattening are Piliostigma reticulatum pods (weight = -0.06), cotton grains (weight = -0.05), millet stalks (weight = -0.05) and cowpea hulls (weight = -0.04). These results help guide interventions in the choice of animals and fattening foods in order to improve production while promoting agriculture-livestock integration.


Une théorie est une manière de concevoir et de percevoir les faits et d’organiser leur représentation. Elle sert à conceptualiser et à expliquer un ensemble d’observations systématiques relatives à des phénomènes et à des comportements complexes. Elle sert aussi à découvrir un fait caché. Il s’agit donc d’une construction de l’esprit élaborée suite à des observations systématiques de quelques aspects de la réalité. Cette étude de portée épistémologique se dote l’objectif d’évaluer la perspicacité dans la mobilisation de l’une des théories les plus citées en sciences sociales et plus particulièrement en criminologie, c’est-à-dire la théorie des opportunités et des activités routinières de Cohen, E.L. et Felson, M. (1979), afin de comprendre et d’expliquer la commission d’actes criminels dans les services financiers mobiles. En d’autres termes, le travail veut se rendre compte de l’efficacité de la théorie à élucider les situations problématiques qui se vivent dans les services financiers mobiles appelés Mobile Money. D’où la question de savoir si la théorie de Cohen L. et Mercus F. est-elle encore mieux placée pour expliquer la commission d’actes criminels liés à la criminalité technologique plus particulièrement dans le Mobile Money.

Deciphering Architectural Envelope Design for Winter Heat Recovery []

Abstract: Deciphering Architectural Envelope Design for Winter Heat Recovery In the intricate tapestry of sustainable architecture, the architectural envelope emerges as a silent protagonist, wielding its influence in the realm of energy conservation. This abstract embarks on a journey to unravel the secrets of architectural envelope design, particularly in the context of winter heat recovery, shedding light on its pivotal role in maintaining thermal comfort while minimizing energy consumption. Heating and cooling demands stand as formidable challenges in the quest for energy efficiency, and the architectural envelope stands as the first line of defense. Through careful attention to orientation, composition, and material selection, architects can orchestrate a symphony of design elements to optimize thermal performance and reduce heat loss. Drawing upon a rich tapestry of research findings, case studies, and historical precedents, this abstract offers insights into the principles and strategies of architectural envelope design for winter heat recovery. From passive solar heating systems to meticulous attention to envelope geometry, each element of design is explored through the lens of sustainability and resilience. Proposing hypotheses for exploration, this abstract invites architects and designers to embark on a journey of discovery, armed with analytical tools and a spirit of inquiry. Through a synthesis of past wisdom and contemporary innovation, we chart a course toward a greener, more sustainable future, where buildings stand as beacons of efficiency and harmony. In the words of Le Corbusier, "Architecture is the learned game, correct and magnificent, of forms assembled in the light." May our endeavors in architectural envelope design illuminate the path toward a brighter tomorrow, where every building stands as a testament to the power of thoughtful design and mindful stewardship.

On the construction of a fractional normal distribution and a related fractional Brownian motion []

Abstract A fractional normal distribution is constructed. With the help of this new distribution a fractional Brownian motion is defined. A generalization of the Ito stochastic integration is given and some stochastic properties are studied. Formula Ito and the product rule are generalized. Keywords: Fractional normal distribution- Riemann stochastic integrals- Fractional Brownian motion- Fractional product rule- Fractional formula Ito. Mathematics Subject Classifications: 35A05, 47D60, 47D62, 77D09, 60H05, 60H10, 60G18.


This research delves into the multifaceted impacts of Artificial Intelligence (AI) on strategic management within the digital era. Employing a quantitative research approach encompassing surveys, the study scrutinizes the evolution and implementation of AI, evaluating its con-tributions to the decision-making process. Insights derived from a diverse pool of 50 participants underscore positive responses to AI inte-gration, emphasizing its role in bolstering competitiveness and fostering innovation. The findings culminate in judicious recommendations advocating responsible AI utilization. This research advances our understanding of the nuanced dynamics shaping the intersection of AI and strategic management in contemporary digital landscapes.

Assessment of Spatial Levels of Organic and Inorganic Toxins Associated with Municipal Solid Waste (Including; Bacteria, Fungi and Coliforms) in Bayelsa State []

The soil toxicity of municipal solid wastes (MSWs) have become a threat to the ecosystem and public health. Both organic and inorganic toxicants of top soil (0 – 15 cm) and Sub soil (15 -30cm) associated with MSW were assessed in Bayelsa State using Standard methods. Inorganic toxicants (Heavy Metals) were assessed using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). Organic contaminants like bacterial and fungal count were assessed using standard aerobic pour plate technique, while coliforms were assessed using Most Probable Number (MPN) Technique. Results on the spatial and temporal average levels of heavy metals showed that besides Copper (Cu) and Lead (Pb), other heavy metals like; Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Mercury (Hg) were either very low or below detection limit (<0.001 mg/kg). Average levels of total bacterial counts were in the range of; 4.562 – 8.403 x 105 cfu/g for top soil, and 3.939 – 7.183 x 105 cfu/g for subsoil. Fungal counts ranged from 4.006 – 5.918 x 103 cfu/g for top soil, and 3.733 – 5.482 x 103 cfu/g for subsoil. I therefore recommend that government and stakeholders should adopt policies to treat, reduce, reuse and recycle waste, as well as ensure effective legislation to minimize the health risk associate with waste. KEYWORDS: Soil Toxicity, Organic Compound, Inorganic Compound.

Core Values and Principles in Attaining Sustainable Development []

Sustainable development is a multifaceted concept aimed at meeting present needs without compromising future generations' ability to meet theirs. This paper elucidates sustainable development's core values and principles, emphasizing the need for holistic approaches integrating social, economic, and environmental dimensions. Utilitarianism, as advocated by John Stuart Mill, is proposed as a framework to address the challenges of sustainable development by prioritizing collective happiness. Through a qualitative analysis of literature and policies, the study underscores the necessity of integrating core values such as social justice, human rights, and environmental sustainability into program development. Case studies from Portugal, Slovenia, Japan, the Philippines, and India illustrate successful initiatives aligning with sustainable development goals. The paper concludes that adherence to Utilitarianism, coupled with comprehensive program design, is crucial for achieving sustainable development objectives. Recommendations include further research on sustainable programs and advocating Utilitarianism-based policy-making to ensure equitable and balanced development.


That financial inclusion is a key factor and in fact undoubtedly a practical approach to sustaining business and other development goals is an understatement. It was however observed that though the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development recognizes its importance in achieving several sustainable development goals (SDGs), it does not however include financial inclusion as a stand-alone goal. This observation was based upon the empirically proven fact that about 50% of the world’s adult population is financially excluded. They lack access to most financial/banking services including formal or semi-formal savings, credit, insurance services and the likes. The vast majority of these adults live a hand-to-mouth existence in the developing world. This paper, with our methodology being argumentative discourse analysis, examines how basic formal financial services under the major umbrella of financial inclusion contributes to greater sustainable development by ensuring that access to finance, especially by the poor and the downtrodden of the world is guaranteed vis-a-vis the provision of basic financial services to unbanked adults in a sustainable way, based on sustainability principles in order to yield lasting impact for sustainable development. The paper thus concluded that though financial inclusion provides limited benefits to the environment, it increases the economic and business opportunities as well as social welfare of banked adults and as such, proffered an approach whereby there exists a sustainable link between financial inclusion and sustainable development which should be based on sustainability principles premised upon polices that will integrate financial inclusion into the sustainable development agenda. Keywords: sustainable development, financial inclusion, stand-alone, unbanked adults, downtrodden.

Fostering Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management Recital: A case of Human Resources Best Practices at CRDB Bank in Dodoma, Tanzania []

Within an age of fast technological progression and market dynamics, banking institutions encounter the necessity to foster continuous learning and effectively administer knowledge in order to attain competitive advantage. The implication of organizational learning (OL) and knowledge management (KM) on human resources practices within the banking establishments put forward insight into how banking institutions can put into practices to improve their overall recital and innovation capabilities. Exploratory mixed sequential design was used to assess the influence of OL and KM on human resource management practices among banking employees in Dodoma City, Tanzania. Purposive and convenience sampling techniques were used to collect data from interviews, questionnaires, observations, documentary reviews and focus group discussion (FGD). Qualitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and quantitative data adopted correlation, regressions and ANOVA methods. It was revealed that OL and KM recital have great influence on both human resources best practices. Training and development (MS= 4.13, σ = 1.01); Career planning (MS= 4.11, σ = 1.02); Compensation and rewards (MS= 4.09, σ = 1.04) and recruitment and selection (MS= 4.02, σ = 1.06) were the most significant. The Pearson correlation coefficient between recruitment and selection against performance was 0.032 at p = 0.866; training and development 0.409, at p = 0.025; compensation and reward was 0.562 AT p = 0.001; performance appraisal and management against performance was 0.350 at p = 0.058; employee participation was -0.080 at p = 0.676 and career planning and performance was 0.612 at and a p = 0.000.

Assessment of the Impact of ERP System Deployment on Employee Productivity, Reporting Quality, and Donor Satisfaction: A Case of Selected NGOs in Nigeria. []

The purpose of this research is to assess the impact of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system deployment on employees' productivity, reporting quality and donors’ satisfaction among selected non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Nigeria. Data were collected using questionnaires from 70 employees working in the selected NGOs. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and structural equation model [SEM] to test the study hypotheses using AMOS 16.0. The results of this study showed that there is a significant impact of ERP deployment on employees' productivity, reporting quality and donors’ satisfaction. To enhance productivity, reporting quality, and donors’ satisfaction, it is recommended that organizations especially in the non governmental sector shall appropriately deploy ERP as a key instrument for both employee productivity enhancement and donor satisfaction. And prior to deployment, there is a need for employees to undergo a training course that identifies and explains all the necessary changes that will meet the organisation’s reporting demand.


CO2 has a positive impact on human life. However, excessive CO2 levels can have negative impacts on humans and the environment (global warming). According to the WINCONSIN DEPARTMENT of HEALTH SERVICES, the appropriate CO2 limit for clean air is around 350 – 400 parts per million (ppm). If it is more than 400 ppm, the air is considered polluted. There are several things that cause CO2 levels to exceed the appropriate limits, such as factory smoke, vehicle smoke and combustion smoke. One way to reduce CO2 emissions in the environment is to use a tool to convert CO2 to O2. This research aims to show the tool's ability to detect CO2 levels in the air and convert CO2 into O2 using Hybrid technology, namely highvoltaic, plasma gasification, and IoT (Internet of Things). The method used in this research is to conduct a literature study to collect data. Based on research conducted, CO2 will go through a combustion process in a pipe that is powered by a high voltage induction coil. Then the positive and negative PCBs in the circuit will meet to produce plasma which will decompose CO2 into C and O2 (plasma gasification), the decomposed O2 will flow into the environment. This tool will later carry out an automatic filtering process based on IoT (Internet of Things) when CO2 gas in the environment exceeds safe limits. Based on research, this tool will require 12 Volts of electrical power, which will change to 10 kV when the highvotaic process takes place. The resource for this tool is electrical energy produced by environmentally friendly renewable energy.

Assessment of Factors Affecting the Utilization of Timber as A Sustainable Building Material in Enugu State Nigeria []

This paper assesses the factors influencing the utilization of timber as a sustainable building material in Enugu State. The research aims to identify and assess the key determinants impacting the adoption of timber in construction practices within the region. To achieve this objective, a descriptive survey methodology was employed, involving the solicitation of opinions from 982 respondents, including clients, consultants, and end users. The findings of the study reveal a notable lack of public awareness regarding the features, advantages, and possibilities associated with timber construction, along with a prevailing misconception about the high fire risk associated with timber. Additionally, issues related to the acceptability of timber construction, the absence of government and non-governmental initiatives promoting timber use, and concerns about the quality of timber construction emerged as significant barriers. In light of these findings, the paper underscores the importance of enhancing public awareness regarding timber construction methods and technologies. It highlights the need for dispelling the misconception regarding fire risk and emphasizes the significance of government and non-governmental programs aimed at promoting timber as a sustainable building material. Quality assurance measures are also identified as crucial in fostering confidence in timber construction practices. The study concludes by recommending the implementation of robust government and non-governmental programs dedicated to promoting the use of timber in construction within the study area. Such initiatives are envisioned to not only address existing misconceptions but also foster confidence among stakeholders, encouraging increased investment in the sustainable utilization of timber in construction projects.


This study aims to find out the Operation of the Senior High School Program in Maguindanao 1 Division for the school year 2018-2019. Specifically, it sought to find out the following: 1. To what extent is the attainment of objectives of the Senior High School Program? 2. To what extent is the adequacy of the resources in the implementation of the Senior High School Program in terms of: a physical resources/innovations b. human resources c. administrative 3 support to what extent is the management process in the implementation of the Senior High School Program in terms of a. community relations b. linkages and networking c. monitoring and evaluation? The study used a descriptive survey method of research, utilizing Daniel Stuffle Beam. The respondents of the study were the senior high school teachers of the Maguindanao I Division. A self- made questionnaire was given to the respondents to be able to identify the operation of the senior high school program in the Division of Maguindanao I After the study is undertaken, the following are the findings: 1.The extent of operation of the senior high school program was manifested by the total mean of 3.42 interpreted as attained meaning all the objectives and goals for senior high was in place. 2.On the result of the operation of the senior high school program in terms of the physical resources has the total mean of 2.75 interpreted as attained meaning most of the senior high school has adequate physical resources to be use by the student 3.The extent of operation on human resources the total mean of 2.50 interpreted as attained meaning all human resources in the school were utilized to really of service to the students 4.On the result of the administrative support with the total mean of 3.28 interpreted as attained reveals that the administration has the full support to the program 5.On the extent of its operation on community relations, the total mean of 3.22 interpreted as attained reveals that the community is supporting the program for senior high school. 6. On the result on linkages and networking as shown in the total mean of 3.04 interpreted as attained meaning there are linkages and networking that is happening in the implementation of the senior high school in all the schools within the division. 7. The extent of operation on monitoring and evaluation the total mean of 3.29 interpreted as attained reveals that in the management of the program monitoring and evaluation is strictly followed, everything is monitored from the objectives up to the operation of its program. From the major findings of this study, the conclusion stated that the operation of the senior high school program must really be objective based. Adequate resources in its operation such as physical resources, human resources, and administrative support is very transparent for the student’s welfare. The management process in the operation of the senior high school program such as community relations, linkages and networking, monitoring and evaluation is strictly followed to ensure that the operation of the program will be successful.

Post Abortion Contraceptive Utilization and Associated Factors among women who Received Abortion Service, at Selected Public hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, Nov. 2023. []

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Around 8% (4.7–13.2) of maternal deaths globally are attributed to abortion, according to the WHO. From 44% in 1995 G.C. and 47% in 2003 G.C. to 49% in 2008 G.C., the percentage of all abortions that are unsafe has increased. Developing nations account for the majority of unsafe abortions. It is estimated that slightly more than 40% of pregnancies globally are unintended, either due to method failure, ineffective contraception, or non-use of contraception. If family planning requirements were fully met, it is estimated that three out of every four unsafe abortions could be avoided. Thus, providing for the unmet need of family planning is a useful intervention to lower the rate of induced abortion and unplanned pregnancies. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study is to assess the utilization of post abortion contraception and associated factors among women who received abortion service at Selected Public hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS A facility-based, cross sectional study design employed at Selected Public Hospitals, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from March 15/2022 to June 30/2022. Data was collected from 355 patients through face-to-face interview using semi-structured pretested questionnaire. Consecutively selected patients interviewed at Gynecology wards, Michu clinic or outpatient departments. Data entered into Epi Data Info 7 and analyzed by SPSS 27. Binary logistic regression performed to identify factors associated with contraceptive use. Result: Overall post-abortion contraceptive utilization in this study was 74.2%. women from the urban area [AOR=12.58,95% CI (3.76, 42.1)], Higher educational level [AOR, 4.15 95% CI (1.06,16.1)], Women who had Knowledge on how soon fertility returns and could get pregnant again soon [AOR 6.96, 95% CI ((1.79, 26.95)], previous contraceptive used [AOR, 6.67 95% CI (2.48,17.97)], Support from husband /boyfriend or family [AOR 8.83, 95% CI ((3.42,22.81)] were significantly associated with the post-abortion contraceptive utilization. Conclusion: About one-fourth of women who received abortion care have failed to receive contraceptives before they leave the facility Being urban residence, had been completing a college education, had been receiving family planning previously, Knowledge on how soon fertility returns and could get pregnant again and support from husband /boyfriend or family found to be significant factors for post-abortion contraceptive utilization. Recommendation: Women who reside in rural areas and lack formal education should be encouraged to adopt a positive attitude towards contraception and raise their level of awareness as this could greatly boost their use of contraception after abortion.


The education sector in Rwanda is improving day by day as the government has embarked on making Rwanda a knowledge based economy. This research set out to investigate the ICT tools usage and their impact in English language teaching and learning improvement in secondary schools in Nyamasheke District. First, it sought to investigate the ICT resources availability for English teaching and learning in Rwanda secondary schools in Nyamasheke District, to find out the extent of ICT use in the teaching and learning of English language among teachers and students in secondary schools in Nyamasheke, and to assess the impact ICT tools in teaching and learning English in Secondary Schools of Nyamasheke. The findings revealed that teachers and students do not use ICT tools extensively in English teaching and learning. Talking about the availability of ICT resources teachers and students revealed that the ICT tools they have at their schools are not sufficient to help in English language teaching improvement. Teachers revealed that they have not been trained in using modern technology in teaching English with 61% of teachers who are not trained. In the same argument, some students revealed that they have never seen ICT tools in their classrooms. On the impact of ICT tools in improving English teaching and learning, teachers and learners were of the opinion that if they had enough materials they English skills would improve. They stated that ICT tools help them search for information, doing homework and assess their English skills. It was recommended that the government of Rwanda should provide sufficient ICT tools and train teachers in using them. Head teachers should allow access to computers from the Smart Classrooms. Teachers should learn to use ICT tools through community of practice or in-service teacher training facilitated by their fellow teachers.

Bridging the Financial Divide: Empowering Women for Climate Resilience and a Sustainable Future []

Climate change disproportionately impacts women in developing countries due to social, economic, and legal inequalities. This article argues that financial inclusion, a critical yet often overlooked solution, holds immense potential to empower women and build climate resilience. Acknowledging the intersectionality of financial exclusion and integrating mental health awareness of financial literacy programs are crucial aspect of a more inclusive approach. By analyzing the legal and financial challenges faced by women, this paper proposes a multi-stakeholder approach that bridges the financial gap and fosters a more sustainable future, grounded in principles of human rights and gender equality (World Bank, 2023 [1]; UN Women, 2023 [3]).


This research delves into the intricate dynamics of digital marketing and its impact on brand equity in Sri Lankan online companies. In a world undergoing rapid digitization, understanding the evolving dynamics of consumer behavior and market trends is crucial. Focusing on Sri Lanka, where online brands are gaining prominence, this research bridges a crucial knowledge gap in the academic and business realms. In this evolving landscape, the study aims to unravel how digital marketing strategies contribute to constructing and enhancing brand equity components awareness, loyalty, perceived quality, and brand associations. The socio-economic context of Sri Lanka, marked by a growing middle class and evolving consumer preferences, adds complexity to this relationship. The research underscores the necessity of understanding how digital marketing aligns with the cultural subtleties and social values of the local community. Sri Lanka's rich cultural fabric, deeply rooted in history and tradition, shapes consumer perceptions and preferences. Methodologically, the research adopts a qualitative approach, utilizing interviews and thematic analysis. The interpretivist framework guides the study, emphasizing a deep understanding of participants' perspectives. With purposive sampling, the research includes marketing professionals, consumers, and executives from Sri Lankan online companies engaged in digital marketing activities. The findings reveal the multifaceted nature of success in online business, emphasizing positive brand image maintenance, strategic social media use, and the cultivation of customer loyalty. The study recommends proactive social media strategies, continuous analysis of Key Performance Indicators (KPIs), and ongoing assessment of brand recognition. The conclusion identifies a gap in the existing literature regarding the specific impact of social media elements on brand recognition in the Sri Lankan context, laying the foundation for further research endeavors. This research not only contributes to academic scholarship but also provides practical insights for enterprises navigating the digital landscape in Sri Lanka.


The performance report from 2020 to 2022 of the Inspectorate General of the Ministry of Manpower of the Republic of Indonesia reveals several concerning trends. Many program performance indicators have declined and failed to meet their targets during this period. Specifically, in 2020, 24.11% of the audit result reports did not meet the standards, with 27.12% in 2021 and 32.52% in 2022, indicating a worsening trend over the years. This suggests that auditors have struggled to achieve the expected results, primarily due to a significant number of audit reports not meeting the required standards within the designated timeframe. Physical environment, psychological factors, work fatigue, and work stress are known to influence performance. This quantitative study aims to examine the influence of physical environment, psychological factors, and work fatigue mediated by work stress on auditor performance.


Shopee, as one of the youngest e-commerce platforms, experiences an increase in the loyalty of Shopee users as the number of visitors through the Shopee website or application. Shopee ranked 2nd in both the first (Q1) and second (Q2) quarters after Tokopedia, but in the third (Q3) and fourth (Q4) quarters, Shopee took the top spot. In 2023, the number of visitors via the web continuously experienced significant growth until the third quarter. Customer loyalty is influenced by satisfaction, emotional bonding, trust, ease of choice, habit, and interaction experience with the company. This quantitative study aims to examine the influence of experiential marketing, service quality, and trust on customer loyalty, with customer satisfaction as a mediator.

Mapping the Impact of Exotic Plant Species on Native Vegetation in Gishwati – Mukura National Park, Rwanda []

Exotic tree species present the characteristic of invasive species due to their easy establishment to new area, and they can show the matter of reduction in native plant species diversity. However, little is still known on the exotic plant species in Rwanda especially in national parks. This study aims to (a) find out the exotic trees-shrub species, their locations and produce the thematic maps of the park surface area covered by those plants (b) identify the native plant species distributed within the area invaded by exotic plant species; and (c) determine the effects of exotic trees-shrub species on native vegetation by comparing key dimensions, observable characteristics and maps across the areas hosting exotic plant species. The study covers Gishwati Mukura National Park (GMNP) in the North-Western Rwanda. Data collection process covered field practices and measurements, computer-based analysis and image interpretation for mapping, plot data measurements in the blocks occupied by alien invasive plant species and literature review. The results identify 18 exotic plant species that occupy an area of 263.8 hectares (242.2 in Gishwati forest and 21.6 in Mukura Forest) and scattered exotic trees. Exotic plants that occupy big blocks have negative effects on native tree species they share the same habitat and low negative impacts in an area dominated by native plant species. For example, there was negative relationship with – 0.34 between the species richness of exotic and native plant species (> 10m DBH) in the same shared plots. The native shrubs and small trees (<10m DBH) are affected by exotic plant species at low level in growing whereby the average height of native shrubs and saplings recorded in exotic plant blocks was 1.6m of height while it was 1.5m in native plan blocks. As exotic plant trees reveal decreasing trend, more attention needs to be attributed to these plants.

Assessment of nutritional status of under five years old children in Banadir Hospital Mogadishu Somalia []

Introduction. It’s a recent emerging problem documented in developing countries, malnutrition under five children contributes to major current health problems (morbidity and mortality) in several ways. Undernutrition remains a devastating problem in many developing countries affecting over 815 million people causing more than one–half of children's death. Study objective was to assess the nutritional status of under-five-year-old children in Banadir Hospital Mogadishu Somalia. Method and material. a Hospital bases cross-sectional study was conducted in triangulated quantitative approach was carried out from June 2017 to November 2017 among 150 participants in Banadir Hospital Mogadishu Somalia, sample Random sampling was employed to select the sampled participants, a sum-structured questionnaire was used to collect the socio-demographic characteristics, Usual Dietary intake and assess adequacy, Breastfeeding and Complementary feeding pattern of the mothers and anthropometric index of the children. Results. A descriptive analysis was carried out to identify the nutritional status of the children under 5 years old, age categorized into 0-1 years old were 52.7%, 32.0% were 1-2 years old, 8.7% were 3-4 years old and 6.7% were 4-5 years old. With mean and Std. of 17.44±13.096 age was most critical variable because it was one of the scales of the MAC measurements and target objective of the study. families uses 50 US dollar per month were 32.0%, 51-100 US dollar were 22.7%, 101-150 US dollar were 20.7%, 151-200 US dollar were 12.7%, 201-250 US dollar were 10.0%, and 251-300 US dollar were 2.0%. And Mean &Std. Deviation2.52± 1.413, Conclusion. The research also concludes that most of Mothers doesn‟t well understand the necessary need of child nutrition. So that in this study I recommended that this needs extra researchers should launch researches on Nutritional Status