Volume 12, Issue 3, March 2024 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Suitability Analysis of Slope Protection Measures in Road Construction against Landslide Occurrence in Western Province, Rwanda []

Human infrastructure development like road, markets and buildings are among drivers to natural landscape modification. The North-western Rwanda is the largely affected by landslide occurrence either due to human activities and/or natural causes. This study analyzed the suitability of slope protection measures against landside occurrence during road construction in Rutsiro District, Western Rwanda. Shapefiles and other secondary data on road network (types, location and slope protection are collected from the Rwanda Transport Development Agency (RTDA) and National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR). Geographic Positioning System (GPS) localized the slope protection measures. It is observed that the major slope protection measures in place are Gabions, Retaining walls and Bench terraces. Elevation, slope, soil texture, lithology, land use and land cover, rainfall are employed as major landslide conditioning factors. The extraction by masking technique in Spatial Analyst Tools of Geographic Information System (GIS) produced maps of landslide conditioning factors and its hazard. Murunda, Nyabirasi, Manihira, Musebeya and Mukura sectors record high landslide hazard. For the effectiveness of slope protection measures applied against landslide, bench terraces and Gabions and Retaining walls at some extent, reveal stable condition compared to their counterparts applied. However, within roads under very high landslide hazard zones, there are no slope protection measures identified. This recommends building similar measures mainly those which are cost effective to minimize the damages. Further national similar study is greatly recommended and the current findings can facilitate policy makers to understand the types of slope protection measures used in road construction and their effectiveness in landslide hazard mitigation. Keywords: Landslide Hazard, Road Construction, Slope Protection Measures, Rutsiro District, Western Rwanda


This study was conducted with the aim of investigating the effect of borrower�s capacity to pay on loan repayment during COVID -19 pandemic at Lyamujungu SACCO in Uganda. A cross-sectional survey design was used using Lyamujungu SACCO as a case study. This was approached with qualitative and quantitative approaches. Using questionnaire and interviews, data was collected from 108 clients of Lyamujungu SACCO. In addition, interviews were conducted with the general manager, branch managers and loans officers. The collected data was cross checked for errors omission and completeness, coded and analyzed using SPSS computer package. Data was presented in form of tables as frequencies, percentages, standard deviation, mean and significance levels were determined for hypothesis. Results for the study objective revealed that SACCOS started giving less loans in comparison to what they applied for (M=4.05, SD=1.256) and closed very early during covid-19 pandemic (M=3.73, SD=1.378) all of which affected the borrowers capacity to repay loans, consequences that drive SACCO members into loan repayment failure (M=4.70, SD=.459) and loss of savings leading to absolute poverty(M=4.56, SD=.600) were the major factors that determined the borrower�s credit on loan repayment during covid-19 pandemic. Results from null hypothesis testing on the item was rejected indicating borrowers capacity(.040), thus the study concluded that there is evidence to suggest that the distribution of the mean score of each of the variable is not the same across the ability of the borrower to repay the borrowed loan. The study recommends SACCOs to seriously consider having in place effective credit standards, credit policy, credit terms and collection policies or procedures as mechanisms to guide their business, since the effectiveness of credit management is important to the successful management of banking institutions


This study was carried out to ascertain the impact of institutional innovations by commercial banks on financial inclusion in the Kabale district. The specific goal was to ascertain the relationship between institutional innovations and financial inclusion, among rural households. The study used both descriptive and cross-sectional research designs combined qualitative and quantitative methods for data collecting and analysis. Using questionnaires and interviews, data was gathered from a sample of 396 respondents as well as additional important informants. Microsoft EXCEL and SPSS Version 21.0 were used to analyze the data and produce both descriptive and inferential statistics. The study also found a correlation between institutional innovations and financial inclusion, including interbank funds transfer systems (rs = 0.683, p= 0.002), partnerships with different financial intermediaries (rs = 0.288, p= 0.004), legal frameworks (rs = 0.878, p= 0.001), and liquidity availability (rs = 0.956, p= 0.000). The study's findings support the statistically significant link between commercial banks' institutional innovations and rural families' access to credit. As more clients choose mobile banking, the report advises banking institutions to develop measures to improve security in the platform. The report also advises making these platforms straightforward and simple to use in order to attract more users to the business. Additionally, because mobile banking has an impact on financial inclusion, banks should make sure to support mobile banking services by incorporating mobile phone usage as one of their innovations.

Comparing the efficacy of oral mannitol and sodium phosphate for bowel preparation before colonoscopy: A randomized controlled trial. []

Background For a colonoscopy to be accurate, the colon must be clear. This is accomplished with dietary adjustments and the use of bowel-clearing drugs. Although sodium phosphate and mannitol taken orally are alternatives, more research is required to identify which is a better colon cleansing agent to achieve the best possible colonoscopy outcomes. Objective To compare the cleansing properties of oral mannitol to sodium phosphate as bowel preparatory agents for colonoscopy. Patients and Methods A study was conducted at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital to compare oral mannitol and sodium phosphate for colonoscopy preparation. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the two groups and their bowel cleanliness was assessed using the Aronchick scale. Result In this study, sixty-six patients with comparable reasons for a colonoscopy were divided into groups and given either oral mannitol or sodium phosphate. Using the Aronchick grading method, sodium phosphate showed reduced stomach fullness, a greater completion rate (97.0 percent vs. 21.2 percent), and a better capacity for stool cleansing. The only notable difference between the two groups' side effects was that mannitol caused higher abdominal fullness. Conclusion Sodium phosphate provided superior bowel cleanliness compared to oral mannitol in this study, despite being less palatable and less affordable. However, due to limitations in study size and validation tools, further research with a larger sample and diverse centres is needed to definitively determine the optimal colonoscopy preparation agent. Keywords: Mannitol, Sodium phosphate, Bowel preparation, Colonoscopy.

Reforming the EU's Credit Rating Regulations; Critical Evaluation of the Effectiveness of CRA3 []

The 2008 financial crisis exposed the detrimental impact of inaccurate credit ratings issued by Credit Rating Agencies (CRAs) (Brunnermeier & Oehmke, 2013). These ratings, often criticized for lacking transparency and overreliance on historical data, are alleged to have contributed to the mispricing of risk assets, ultimately culminating in the collapse of major financial institutions (Acharya et al., 2011). In response, the European Union (EU) enacted Council Regulation (EC) No 462/2013 (CRA3), aiming to bolster the integrity and reliability of credit ratings and mitigate overreliance on them within the European financial system (Council of the European Union, 2013). This article conducts a critical evaluation of CRA3. Employing a multifaceted approach that integrates legal reasoning, scholarly analysis, practical considerations, and real-world examples, the Article delves into the regulation's strengths, weaknesses, and potential areas for improvement. The analysis draws upon relevant legal concepts (e.g., civil liability, regulatory oversight), academic literature (e.g., case studies, empirical research), and practical considerations (e.g., challenges faced by market participants and regulators) to offer a holistic understanding of CRA3's effectiveness. The Article argues that while CRA3 introduces significant measures, including enhanced transparency, a civil liability regime, and conflict of interest mitigation, considerable legal, practical, and conceptual hurdles remain. These hurdles pertain to but are not limited to, the challenges in establishing causal links between inaccurate ratings and investor losses, the potential chilling effect of civil liability on responsible risk assessment, and the ongoing debate on the effectiveness of regulatory interventions in fostering market discipline within the complex and evolving realm of credit ratings. Therefore, the Article concludes by advocating for further dialogue and potential reform aimed at strengthening the EU's credit rating framework. This includes exploring alternative regulatory approaches, fostering market-based solutions, and enhancing international cooperation to create a more robust, reliable, and resilient credit rating system in Europe.

From Sensationalism to Reform: A Critical Analysis of Celebrity Cases and their Influence on the Legal System []

Celebrity cases, often thrust into the public spotlight, ignite a complex interplay between legal intricacies, heightened public interest, and societal discourse. This Article delves into the multifaceted impact of such cases, employing a legal analysis framework. It examines both the potential benefits, such as raising awareness of critical legal issues and deterring criminal activity, and the drawbacks, including media sensationalism, concerns about unequal treatment, and privacy violations. By exploring real-world case studies, such as the O.J. Simpson trial and the Bill Cosby sexual assault cases, this Article analyzes the legal implications and broader societal impact of these high-profile events. Additionally, it highlights the emerging challenges posed by the digital age, including the influence of social media and the need for harmonized international legal approaches. This Article concludes by emphasizing the crucial role of upholding a fair and impartial legal system, ensuring responsible media coverage, fostering critical thinking, and engaging in continuous dialogue. It underscores the necessity for evolving legal frameworks to address the unique challenges presented by celebrity cases in the digital age. Ultimately, this Article emphasizes the potential for celebrity cases to serve as catalysts for positive societal change and a more equitable legal system through continued collaboration, responsible media practices, and a commitment to justice.

From 2008 Global Financial Crisis Lessons to New Possibilities. Evolving the IMF's Legal Framework []

The 2008 financial crisis exposed vulnerabilities in the international financial system and its governance structures. While the International Monetary Fund (IMF) played a crucial role in stabilizing economies, its pre-crisis limitations and current focus on crisis response necessitate a transformative vision. This Article proposes an IMF evolution: from first responder to "maestro" of a just and sustainable global financial system, promoting shared prosperity through legal, economic, developmental, and ethical reforms. Addressing legal inadequacies, such as inconsistent regulations and uneven voting rights, it envisions tailored programs, responsible technology use, and strengthened accountability frameworks. This "new score" for a new era prioritizes equity, sustainability, and well-being for all, conducting a harmonious symphony of a more equitable and sustainable world.

Too Big to Fail, Too Risky to Ignore. Can Legal Reforms Tame TBTF Institutions and Mitigate its Moral Hazard? []

The "too big to fail" (TBTF) doctrine, where implicit or explicit government bailouts prop up systemically important financial institutions (SIFIs), has long been a subject of intense debate due to its profound legal, economic, and ethical implications. This Article examines the TBTF phenomenon, tracing its historical roots and dissecting its multifaceted impact on competition, systemic risk, and responsible risk-taking within the financial system. By meticulously analyzing domestic and international legal frameworks, regulatory challenges, and diverse stakeholder viewpoints, the Article provides a nuanced understanding of TBTF's complexities. Acknowledging the inherent dangers posed by TBTF, the Article proposes a multi-pronged mitigation strategy aimed at fostering a more resilient and sustainable financial system for all stakeholders. This strategy encompasses, amongst other things, refined resolution mechanisms, dynamic capital requirements, empowered regulators, responsible risk-taking incentives, and others. Furthermore, this Article emphasizes the need to address the root causes of TBTF. This includes empowering citizens through financial literacy initiatives to make informed investment decisions and redefining the purpose of finance to prioritize societal well-being over narrow profit motives. This multifaceted approach aims to build a more resilient, equitable, and sustainable financial system that serves the interests of all stakeholders, not just a select few. The Article concludes with a call to action, urging readers to engage in constructive dialogue and contribute their voices towards shaping a brighter financial future.

PSD2 in the UK. Reshaping the Landscape and Navigating Challenges []

The Payment Services Directive 2 (PSD2) has profoundly impacted the UK's financial landscape, fostering competition, driving innovation, and prioritizing consumer protection. However, its long-term application post-Brexit remains under discussion. This Article delves into PSD2's intricate details, dissects its impact on stakeholders, and critically evaluates its effectiveness through data-driven analyses, exploring the challenges and opportunities presented by PSD2, paving the way for a more secure, open, and competitive payment landscape in the UK, even as the regulatory environment evolves post-Brexit. PSD2, enshrined in Directive 2015/2366/EU, swept across the European Union, leaving an undeniable mark on the UK's payments landscape. While Brexit complicates its future, there's no denying its significant impact. This Article acknowledges its achievements while recognizing diverse perspectives on its ongoing challenges. it analyzes the Brexit impact on key stakeholders, dissects the national implementation discord, and delves into the heated debate surrounding TPP hurdles and data privacy concerns. Ultimately, this Article seeks to answer: can the UK harness the full potential of PSD2 while navigating the challenges of a post-Brexit regulatory landscape?

Unveiling Credit Rating Agencies. A Critical Legal Analysis for Reform []

Credit Rating Agencies (CRAs) remain pivotal gatekeepers in the financial system, yet their methodologies, conflicts of interest, and data security vulnerabilities have repeatedly sparked legal and regulatory challenges. This article, encompassing ten case studies including the global financial crisis, delves into these complexities. Beyond dissecting these legal battles, it examines the impact of evolving technologies like AI, blockchain, and Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) on the CRA landscape. Exploring the European Union's General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and Central Bank Digital Currencies (CBDCs), the analysis navigates the intricate dance between innovation, legal compliance, and ethical considerations. It proposes a multi-pronged approach: fostering responsible practices, promoting competition, embracing risk-based regulation, and prioritizing data transparency and standardization. This multifaceted strategy aims to build a robust and resilient CRA ecosystem that upholds legal frameworks, safeguards consumer privacy, and fosters an inclusive financial future.

Beyond Salomon. Time to Rethink the Limited Liability Shield? []

The Salomon v Salomon & Co Ltd [1897] decision established the principle of separate legal personality, granting duly incorporated companies distinct identities from their owners. This landmark judgement hailed as a cornerstone of modern business, empowered companies to attract investment and expand through limited liability protections for shareholders. This "corporate veil" fostered economic growth and entrepreneurial spirit. However, concerns emerged about potential abuse and limitations on accountability. Unlimited liability shielded individuals from responsibility for their actions, potentially enabling injustice and even fraud. Recognizing these concerns, courts have developed exceptions to pierce the veil in specific situations, such as injustice, unfairness, agency, group enterprise, tax evasion, and concealment 'fa�ade or sham'. Legislations, such as the Companies Act and Insolvency Act offer additional frameworks regarding fraudulent trading and wrongful trading. This Article critically analyzes the principle, exploring its benefits and drawbacks. It proposes reforms to address emerging issues, such as human rights abuses, environmental damage, and algorithmic bias while striving for a balance between promoting responsible corporate conduct and fostering a dynamic economy. Ultimately, this Article advocates for ongoing dialogue and nuanced solutions to ensure the principle serves the interests of businesses, investors, and society at large.

Examining the Adequacy of the English Enterprise Act 2002 in Cultivating a Rescue Culture []

The Enterprise Act 2002 revolutionized English insolvency law, prioritizing business rescue over liquidation. This article comprehensively analyzes the act's impact, particularly on secured creditor rights, and its effectiveness in achieving this objective. While acknowledging the positive strides made, it argues for further development to create a truly flourishing rescue culture. Drawing on international best practices and targeted reforms, the article explores potential solutions to enhance transparency, information sharing, and fairness in restructuring processes. Success stories like JJB Sports and Virgin Atlantic are examined alongside challenges presented by data privacy and algorithmic bias. Ultimately, the article advocates for continuous evaluation and a commitment to fostering a robust rescue culture that benefits all stakeholders. The news buzzed with anxiety as yet another beloved retail chain teetered on the brink of collapse. Images of shuttered stores and lost jobs flashed across screens, a stark reminder of the ever-present threat of business failure. For decades, English insolvency proceedings mirrored this grim reality, often prioritizing swift liquidation over potentially life-saving company rescues. Recognizing the devastating consequences of this approach, the EA 2002 emerged as a beacon of hope, its mission: to cultivate a "rescue culture" � a philosophy prioritizing the preservation of viable businesses and the jobs they provide. But did this legislative landmark truly deliver on its promise? This article delves deep into the heart of the EA 2002, dissecting the effectiveness of its reforms and, more importantly, advocating for further evolution in key areas to ensure a truly resilient and compassionate business landscape.

The World Bank�s Goal of Universal Financial Access & Financial Inclusion is Achievable by 2020 and can Provide a Catalyst for Growth, Stability, Equality and a Reduction of Poverty in the Developing Countries; a Critical Evaluation []

The dissertation aims to critically evaluate whether the goal of "Universal Financial Access and Financial Inclusion" is achievable by 2020, and can provide a catalyst for growth, stability, equality and reduction of poverty in the developing countries. It begins with an overview, offers various definitions, focuses on services' scope, and analyses for barriers that make people being excluded from the financial services and products, and their negative consequences. It, then, proves the possibility of achieving its purpose. Donors and Investors can play a key role in funding goal's projects. It emphasises the importance of protecting consumers and using technology and innovation to overcome barriers, chances of experiencing with high-interest rates or over-indebtedness. Furthermore, it explains the relationship between the goal and financial integrity, and illustrates that it can strengthen the confidence of financial institutions and systems. It argues that offering legal and financial environments is the most effective role of governments. It also evaluates Brazil and Bangladesh case studies.

Beyond Borders, Beyond Certainty. A Critical Analysis of Legal Frameworks for Sovereign Wealth Fund Investments []

Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs), currently wielding over $10 trillion in assets, navigate a complex legal landscape during cross-border investments (International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2023). This intricate tapestry, lacking explicit treaty protections and riddled with diverse domestic frameworks, exposes them to unique challenges (Deutser & Kotsch, 2022). This Article delves into this labyrinth, offering a critical analysis interwoven with practical solutions, sophisticated legal considerations, and an exploration of emerging technologies' impact. Recognizing the multifaceted nature of SWFs and the legal tapestry surrounding them, the analysis dissects existing frameworks' limitations (Fidler, 2019), proposes potential legal reforms and harmonized investment treaties (Drezner, 2022), and examines dispute resolution mechanisms for fostering trust (Schmitthoff, 2018). Exploring the applicability of customary international law (Cassese, 2010), emerging legal doctrines (Miles & Rajwani, 2023), and investor-state arbitration (Shearer & Grimmer, 2020), the Article navigates the evolving legal landscape. Further, it examines the impact of blockchain and artificial intelligence on SWF investments and legal frameworks (Chen & Lu, 2023). Ultimately, this Article aims to weave a more resilient tapestry of international investment protection for SWFs, promoting responsible investment, and economic growth, and safeguarding the interests of both SWFs and host countries.

Navigating the Complexities of the IMF�s Role. A Critical Legal and Ethical Analysis []

This article delves into the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) evolving role in the global financial system, analyzing its impact through a legal Len. It highlights key areas of concern, including the balance between financial stability and national sovereignty, the effectiveness and fairness of loan conditionality, and the need for greater transparency and accountability. The article proposes concrete reforms to ensure the IMF operates ethically and responsibly, adhering to its legal obligations and upholding ethical principles. These reforms include strengthening legal frameworks, enhancing independent review mechanisms, promoting participatory decision-making, and focusing on systemic solutions that prioritize human rights, sustainable development, and social justice. By embracing inclusivity, transparency, and ethical considerations, the IMF can become a force for good in addressing the complex challenges of our time. The article concludes with a call to action, urging stakeholders from governments and civil society to academics and the private sector to work collectively to hold the IMF accountable and advocate for a more just and equitable global financial system.

Fork in the Road. Should the UK Embrace a Codified Commercial Law System? []

The persistent discourse surrounding the codification of UK commercial law presents a compelling yet intricate proposition. This Article embarks on a rigorous legal analysis, navigating the labyrinth of arguments and potential consequences associated with such a transformative undertaking. It dissects the alluring promise of clarity and consistency inherent in codification, while meticulously counterbalancing it against potential pitfalls of inflexibility, unforeseen ramifications, and disruption to the established legal framework. The Article adopts a multifaceted approach, delving into diverse perspectives from stakeholders including legal practitioners, academics, and policymakers. Comparative case studies from the UK and Arab countries, such as Jordan, Saudi Arabia, UAE, and Qatar, are meticulously examined to glean valuable insights into the practical implications of codification. Additionally, the Article draws upon experiences from established international codified systems, fostering a comprehensive understanding of the potential impact on specific legal domains, such as Contract Law and Intellectual Property. This critical exploration underscores the paramount importance of comprehensive stakeholder engagement throughout the process. Furthermore, it emphasizes the necessity for a profound appreciation of the UK's unique legal heritage and its dynamic commercial landscape. Ultimately, the Article contends that the future of UK commercial law should not be solely guided by theoretical ideals, but rather by a nuanced understanding of the potential ramifications and a steadfast commitment to fostering a vibrant, equitable, and adaptable legal ecosystem. By prioritizing a thorough and inclusive exploration of the possibilities and potential challenges, the UK can ensure that any decisions pertaining to codification are grounded in sound legal reasoning and ultimately serve the best interests of the nation's commercial landscape.


The exploration of innovative methods for synthesizing environmentally friendly nanoparticles isbeing emphasized globally. Synthe-sizing nanoparticles using plant extracts is gaining more recognition compared to traditional methods because they are cost-effective, nontoxic, eco-friendly andbiocompatible. In this study, green synthesis and UV-Visible Characterisation of nanoparticles using the leaves extract of Moringa oleifera, iron nanoparticles were synthesized using green approach by mixing 6ml of Moringa oleifera leaves extract with 4ml of Fe2SO4. The synthesized zero valent iron nanopartricles (ZVIN) were characterized by the use of UV-Visible spectroscopy. UV-Visible spectroscopy results confirm the presence of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVIN) at around 400nm. UV-vis absorption spectral data confirm that the polypheols present in the Moringa oleifera leaves extract are responsible for the formation of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVIN).

Employing Surfactin: A Bio-Surfactant Play Amazing Role in Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) []

As microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is the recent promising oil extraction technique, it is known for optimizing the oil extraction process from depleted reservoirs that have been already utilized by primary and secondary oil recovery techniques. In this method a comprehensive species of microbes or their metabolites are involved that biosurfactants are the most promising ones than others. Biosurfacts include a large group of surface active metabolites that produced by microorganisms and have some unique properties which give them the ability to fulfill some surface activities, like; surface tension (ST) reduction or interfacial tension (IFT) reduction between two phases. Surfactin is such a biosurfactant that partake in MEOR process by reducing IFT and ST leading to alteration oil mobility, changing in reservoirs wettability, emulsification process and result to enhance oil recovery. Surfactin is lipopeptide biosurfactant that firstly discovered by Arima et al. in 1968, and it is produced by Bacillus spp. and own unique chemical structure that named it cyclic lactone ring. Surfactin reduces the IFT and ST of water considerably from 72 to 27 mN/m with aconcentration of 1 x10-4 g/L, that shows its greater effectiveness than several other biosurfactants. Surfactin owns numerous noble properties that change it to a precious candidate in MEOR process. Findings show, this biosurfactant demonstrated lower toxicity, higher surface activity, more sustainability, and a great stability in tough conditions.


Abstract The study investigated the strength of flipped classroom instructional strategy in enhancing senior secondary school chemistry students� academic achievement in Niger State, Nigeria. The study was guided by two research objectives. The study adopted quasi-experimental of protest post-test non-equivalent control group design. The population of the study comprised all Chemistry students in the entire secondary school in Minna metropolis, Niger State, Nigeria. The target population for this study consisted of all senior secondary school two (SSII) Chemistry students with a total number of one thousand eight hundred and twenty one (1821) Chemistry students, comprising of 766 males and 1055 females. Simple random sampling technique was use to select two schools from the population. The two schools were selected using balloting. One hundred and ten (110) senior secondary school two (SSII) Chemistry students were sampled comprising forty eight (48) males and fifty two (62) females and took part in the study. Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) was used for data collection in this study. Chemistry Achievement Test (CAT) was validated by three senior lecturers from Science Education Departments and Chemistry Department, Federal University of Technology. The reliability of CAT was established using split-half reliability method and the coefficient was calculated using Spearman Brown�s Formula and it was found to be 0.832. Mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research question while the hypotheses were tested at 0.05 significance level using z-test for independent sample statistical tool. The findings from the study indicated that there was no significant difference in the mean achievement score between chemistry students taught using flipped classroom and those taught using Lecture method. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that Chemistry students� academic performance improves when taught using flipped classroom. It was recommended among others that Chemistry teachers should employ the use of flipped classroom in teaching the subject to foster students� academic achievement. Equally, ministry of education should organized workshop and seminar to train science teachers on how to use flipped classroom to teach science subjects.

Evaluation of growth traits of dual purpose and Small East African goats and their crosses in Northern Tanzania []

The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in growth traits of Malya blended (BLD), Pare White (PW) and BLD�PW crossbred goats. Records of 381 goats born from 2020 to 2022 under the on-station management conditions were used. A model involving the fixed effects of breed, sex, birth type, age of the dam and year of kidding was used to determine pre weaning and post weaning growth. The results revealed that BLD goats were heavier than BLD-PW crosses at birth, 6, 16 and 24 weeks of age and had a higher pre weaning average daily gain (p<0.05); however, both BLD and crosses were superior to PW for all traits (p<0.05). On average BLD, PW and crossbreds weighed 2.77 � 0.04 kg, 2.09 � 0.04 kg and 2.58 � 0.06 kg at birth; 7.27 � 0.20 kg, 5.53 � 0.22 kg and 6.42 � 0.30 kg at 6 weeks; 9.84 � 0.26 kg, 7.09 � 0.30 kg and 9.74 � 0.39 kg at 12 weeks; 13.26 � 0.39 kg, 8.85 � 0.30 kg and 10.64 � 0.26 kg at 16 weeks; 15.00 � 0.37 kg, 9.82 � 0.32 kg and 12.27 � 0.26 at 24 weeks; 17.62 � 0.41 kg, 14.25 � 0.38 kg and 16.82 � 0.32 kg at 48 weeks; and 20.68 � 0.40 kg, 17.47 � 0.38 kg and 20.14 � 0.31 kg at 72 weeks of age, respectively; whereas, their pre weaning and post weaning average daily gain was 95.19 � 3.33 g/day, 60.35 � 2.57 g/day and 70.23 � 2.26 g/day; and 23.77 � 0.80 g/day, 18.59 � 1.02 g/day and 21.71 � 0.97 g/day, respectively. The interaction of breed*sex had a noticeable influence on the growth rate (p<0.05). Single was heavier than multiple births across most traits (p<0.05), but they did not differ in weight at weaning and in pre weaning average daily gain (p>0.05). Age of the dam and year of kidding had pronounced effects on growth traits at different phases (p<0.05). The performance of BLD-PW goats was close to that of BLD. Thus, BLD can remain used to raise the growth potential of the local strains in semi-intensive and extensive farming systems.


The study examined the Influence of Combat Exposure and Sexual Satisfaction Among Personnel and their Spouses in Abacha Barracks Abuja. A cross-sectional survey design was used in which participants voluntarily answered an online survey through Google form. The participants included personnel of the Nigerian Armed Forces and their spouses. A total sample of 86 personnel and their spouses, comprising 60 (49.8%) males and 26 (30.2%) females participated. Index of Sexual Satisfaction (ISS) and Combat Experiences Subscale of the Deployment Risk & Resilience Inventory-2 (DRRI-2) instrument were used to collect data. Two hypotheses were formulated and tested. The first hypothesis stated that combat exposure will predict sexual satisfaction among personnel and their spouses in Abacha Barracks, Abuja. This hypothesis was tested using Linear Regression Analysis and the results revealed no significant influence of combat exposure on sexual satisfaction (R= .109; F= 1.004, P > .05NS). Hypothesis two stated that there will be a significant gender difference in sexual satisfaction among personnel and their spouses in Abacha Barracks, Abuja. This hypothesis was tested using Independent Sample t-test and the results revealed no statistical significant difference between male and female on sexual satisfaction (t(84)= -0.238, P > .05NS). It was concluded that combat exposure does not predict sexual satisfaction; however, the type of commission has a significant influence on sexual satisfaction. The researcher recommends that more support systems and psychological interventions during deployments in combat zones, with exploration of additional factors influencing sexual satisfaction, and open dialogues on sexual health to enable personnel and their spouses understand the interplay between combat exposure and sexual satisfaction.

Science teaching in primary school in Morocco: the challenge and the prospects. (Scientific activity as a model). []

The preservation of a specific universal heritage is a major cultural issue in the teaching of science and mathematics. This means that the necessary scientific foundations must be established from the start of learning. The �reality on the ground� is different, according to the analysis of the data collection carried out as part of this work. Note that the programs are only partially followed and professional skills are often ignored. Few children are exposed to the overall coherence of science teaching. This deficit is currently not compensated either by adequate initial training, or by continuing training that meets the challenges, nor the allocation of special rooms for science teaching�... This report aims to identify the current causes and propose solutions to remedy this worrying situation, to provide a vision and suggestions to encourage actors in the education system to think more about the reforms underway in Morocco and to achieve the objective of "moving from a society which consumes knowledge to a society which produces and disseminates it", as the CSEFRS points out [2]. Keywords: scientific activity. Reforms. Science and Technology.


This study has empirically investigated the impact of macroeconomic variables on stock returns in Nigeria. The method of analysis used in this study is Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) model. The study spanned from 1987 up to 2022. The objective of the study is to assess the impact of macroeconomic variables on stock returns in Nigeria. Using econometrics techniques, a good number of pre-diagnosis tests and post-diagnosis tests were conducted. The study revealed that macroeconomic variables have significant impact on stock returns in Nigeria. Therefore, it is recommended that the government should prioritise the price stability with the view of availing the investors to plan ahead and optimally harness the market opportunities. The government should also direct and manage interest rate level with the sole aim of encouraging the investors to keep patronising the securities market and not dispel them. Exchange rate determination must be managed to strengthen the value of the naira in relation to foreign currencies. Also, the quantity of money supply to the circulation should be monitored and must be seen adequate so as not to create unnecessary scarcity of naira to the detriment of the stock market.

Descriptive and cross-sectional methods []

This paper discusses the online enrollment process at the University of Baguio Science High School and its importance to the different stakeholders. The study utilized descriptive and cross-sectional methods. It provided data regarding the efficiency of the enrollment system offered by the university to its new clients. Data were collected from 79 participants who are Grade 7 and Grade 11 parents, and a survey was collected via Google Forms. The study found that the online enrollment process at UB Science High School is accepted and highly recommended by parents in grades 7 and 11. The school, parents, and students greatly benefited from the enrollment process. Parents staying in the province or overseas used it, and no in-person transaction was required. Facilitating the payment process was smooth because the school offered parents access to an online payment system. The school was able to keep track of learners who were not yet formally registered by using the online enrollment process. The effectiveness of the online enrollment method makes it highly recommended for its continual usage. Web-based services provide users with easy access to and control over information relevant to such services. Online registration guarantees more consistency and reusability of information while also addressing the manageability issue of an expanding student population in an institution. These benefits ultimately resulted in increased production and, consequently, improved the quality of the registration system. In addition, the online system was utilized for information updates, payment processing, and access to school records in addition to registration.

The Applicability and Value of Heidegger�s Philosophy of Technology in �The Question Concerning Technology� on Modern Digital Information Technology []

This essay discusses the applicability of Heidegger's philosophy of technology based on industrial technology to modern digital information technology. The author demonstrates that Heidegger's philosophy of technology is a feasible and valuable entry for considering the impact of modern digital information technology on humans. By explaining this conclusion, the author captures two critical similarities between modern information technology and industrial technology: human beings� excessive pursuit of efficiency and the distortion of material existence. These two characteristics are why industrial technology prevents humans from revealing the world, which is the central point of Heidegger�s philosophy of technology. Since modern digital information technology also has these two characteristics, it can be applied to Heidegger�s philosophy of technology.

� L�apport de la langue maternelle dans l�encadrement des adultes en sport de natation � []

L'interaction entre communication et apprentissage dans le domaine de la natation nous rapproche des contraintes rencontr�es particuli�rement, lors de l�encadrement des adultes. Ce focus explore l'influence des facteurs linguistiques dans un contexte culturel sp�cifique. Notamment, le r�le de la natation dans la soci�t� marocaine, non seulement en tant qu'activit� physique mais aussi comme environnement positif de d�veloppement personnel, d�inclusion et d'int�gration sociale. En effet, en explorant les interactions en langue maternelle entre entraineures et apprenantes femmes, nous approchons les influences mutuelles de co-construction du savoir en natation et les subtilit�s du message verbal et non-verbal utilisant une m�thodologie mixte qui combine des approches qualitatives et quantitatives. Nous �tayons ce travail sur des bases th�oriques de la communication, explorant les diff�rents actes de langage et la sp�cificit� du langage sportif, ainsi que l'importance de la terminologie pour l'acclimatation aquatique. Il inclut �galement notre engagement de mani�re significative � la compr�hension de l'interaction entre la communication, le langage et la p�dagogie et vise � fournir des perspectives pratiques pour les professionnels du domaine. Mots cl�s: encadrement, adultes, natation, langue maternelle, interaction, verbal, non-verbal, facteurs, linguistiques, m�thodologiques

The Cooperation and Sharing of Intelligence: A Study of Interagency Collaboration in Nigeria. []

The Cooperation and Sharing of Intelligence: A Study of Interagency Collaboration in Nigeria" investigates the complexities of cooperation among domestic intelligence organizations in Nigeria and their relationships with foreign counterparts. The paper explores the difficulties, advantages, and consequences of interagency collaboration in Nigeria's intelligence sector using empirical research and case studies. This highlights the need for efficient cooperation in dealing with intricate security challenges, such as terrorism, organized crime, and cyber threats. The research emphasizes the crucial importance of information dissemination, coordination, and reciprocal confidence across agencies in bolstering national security and fostering regional stability. The paper provides significant insights for policymakers, practitioners, and researchers who want to enhance intelligence cooperation in Nigeria and other regions. It does this by examining real-life instances of effective collaboration and identifying the crucial characteristics that either promote or hinder cooperation. In summary, the research enhances our comprehension of the intricacies of interagency cooperation and offers practical suggestions for improving the sharing of information and coordinating efforts within Nigeria's security sector. By integrating these different viewpoints, the article provides a thorough examination of interagency cooperation in Nigeria. This analysis explores the historical difficulties caused by isolated operations and a lack of confidence between organizations such as the State Security Service (SSS) and the National Intelligence Agency (NIA). Case study examples exemplify both the achievements, such as the cooperation with the United States in combating Boko Haram, and the persistent need to surmount internal barriers. Keywords: Cooperation, Intelligence, interagency Collaboration, sharing of intelligence, and domestic intelligence

The Process of Decision-Making in the Context of National Security: A Shift Paradigm for Policy-Makers. []

The decision-making process in national security policymaking has evolved significantly, prompting a paradigm shift among policymakers. This article explores the transformation of decision-making frameworks within the context of national security, highlighting the complexities and challenges faced by policymakers. Traditionally, national security decisions were often centralized, hierarchical, and driven by military and intelligence considerations. However, contemporary security threats, such as terrorism, cyber warfare, and pandemics, have necessitated a more multidimensional approach to decision-making. The article delves into the factors driving this shift, including the emergence of non-state actors, the interconnectedness of global systems, and the rapid advancements in technology. It examines how policymakers must now consider a broader range of economic, social, and environmental factors in their decision-making processes. Moreover, the increasing democratization of information and the rise of social media have empowered citizens to demand greater transparency and accountability in national security policymaking. The article also discusses the implications of this paradigm shift for policymakers, highlighting the need for enhanced collaboration, flexibility, and adaptability in decision-making processes. It emphasizes the importance of incorporating diverse perspectives and expertise from various sectors, including academia, civil society, and the private sector, to effectively address complex security challenges. Overall, the article argues that adopting a more inclusive and holistic approach to decision-making is essential for ensuring the effectiveness and legitimacy of national security policies in an increasingly complex and interconnected world. Keywords: Keywords: national security, policy-makers, decision-making, collaborative approach,


This study aims to determined the depression, anxiety and stress level of freshmen students, and the factors contributing to the depression, anxiety and stress level as well as the coping mechanisms used. It determined the: depression, anxiety and stress level of the freshmen students using DASS-21; the experiences of freshmen students that leads to depression, anxiety and stress; the coping mechanisms of freshmen students; and the different guidance activities provided for freshmen students to cope with depression, anxiety and stress. The study utilized a explanatory sequential design, 100 students from Sorsogon State University-Bulan Campus were the respondents . Thematic analysis of focus group discussion facilitated by an interview guids, provided the researcher�s additional data. Ethical considerations, including informed consent and confidentiality, were upheld. The depression, anxiety and stress level of students falls under the normal level or very low level. Out of the seven (7) courses six (6) have higher stress level compared to their depression and anxiety level. These are the freshmen students of BSCS,BSIT, BSA, BPA, BSE and BSAIS. One (1) out of the seven (7) courses has higher anxiety level (BSIS) than their stress and depression level. The freshmen students enumerated the following experiences that led to depression, anxiety and stress. These situations and experiences are related to difficulties and adjustments when it comes to the drastic changes in the college life, packed schedules and activities and examinations, lack of support financially and emotionally, unhealthy relationship with peers, not accepted by family members as part of the lgbtqia +, terror teachers, scholarship pressure and fear of disappointing parents. To cope with depression, anxiety and stress experienced by the freshmen students, enumerated the following mechanisms or coping strategies; listening to music, dancing, singing, exercise or being physically active, eating their comfort food, socialization with friends, drawing or sketching, writing poems and play their favorite sport. The different guidance activities were provided through its Guidance Office to assist the freshmen students in coping with depression, anxiety and stress. Keywords related to the study: Depression, Anxiety, Stress Level, Thematic Analysis, Guidance, Mechanisms, Explanatory Sequential