Volume 8, Issue 11, November 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The Effect of Structural Transformation on Income Inequality in South Sulawesi []

This study aims to look at the direct and indirect effects of structural transformation (primary sector, secondary sector and tertiary sector) on income inequality through employment and per capita income in South Sulawesi. The type of data analyzed in this study is secondary data in the form of panel data (pooled data) that combines cross-regional data (cross-section) and cross-time data (time series). Analyzing data uses the path analysis method. The results showed that the primary sector had a positive and significant effect directly on income inequality and was negatively and indirectly related through employment and income per capita. The secondary sector has a negative and significant effect on income inequality both directly and indirectly through employment and per capita income. The results of testing the data indicate that the direct shift in the structure of the economy from the primary to the secondary sector has a significant effect in reducing inequality. Income inequality will decrease with the transition to the industrial sector. The tertiary sector has a negative and significant effect on income inequality through the employment and per capita income in South Sulawesi. The shift in structure towards the tertiary sector from the agricultural and industrial sectors has a significant effect in reducing inequality. Thus, it can be said that a shift in economic structure will improve income distribution.


The study was conducted in cafeteria of Institute of Education and Research Punjab University Lahore. Before disposable cups, shared cups were in use which were replaced by disposable cups because of hygiene. Now a days different types of disposable cups are in use, paper cups, PET (polyethylene terephthalate), Poly coated cups, Polystyrene cups and foam cups. In Department of Institute of education and research Punjab University Lahore (IER, PU,Lahore) 150, 200 foam cups (made from Styrofoam) are in use on daily basis. Styrofoam has health as well as environmental issues. 300 cups are being in used in daily basis, 9000 on monthly and 108,000 on annually basis. Foam cups are made up of Polystyrene which is carcinogenic. In Pakistan landfilling and dumping are better methods where high amount of foam cups reduces the lifespan of dump/landfill sites and are less recyclable. In landfill sites Styrene react under high temperature increasing cost of leachate treatment and reduces gas productivity. Under sunlight photo degradation occur causing powdery form which contaminate soil. Shared cups are costly but it is a onetime investment and more hygienic.


This paper aims: To determine the position in carrying out the functions of the council's court of honor in the house of representatives. The research method used is in the form of normative research that uses statutory approaches and conceptual approaches. In this study, primary, secondary, and tertiary legal materials were used, which were then collected using a literature study method of collecting legal materials. Furthermore, the legal materials were analyzed using qualitative analysis methods. The position of the Honorary Court of the Council based on Act Number 17 of 2014 concerning the People's Consultative Assembly, the People's Representative Council, the Regional Representative Council, and the Regional Representative Council has explained in Article 119 that the Council Honorary Court is an institution formed by the House of Representatives and in the form of complementary tools. The House of Representatives is permanent in nature and has the function and duty to maintain and uphold the honor and dignity of the House of Representatives as a people's representative institution.


Adoption is a common legal event in Indonesia, including in the Malind tribe in Merauke Regency. However, there is something unique in the customary of Malind tribe where there is a ritual of adopting an adult, even married person who comes from outside the Malind tribe, known as anak adat. This study aims to determine the ritual procession of adoption of ‘anak adat’ according to the customary law of the Malind Tribe and to determine the implications that occur in connection with the adoption. The results of this research show that (1) The adoption of anak adat in the Malind Tribe is carried out with a traditional ritual that lasts all night and ends with the inauguration of the customary chief who is given the name and clan of Malind and a plot of land from the clan land to own. (2) The implication of the ritual of adopting anak adat creates rights and obligations for indigenous children in their status as members of the Malind indigenous community and results in a break in the kinship between the customary child and the previous tribe.

Analysis of Determinants of Indonesian Non-Oil and Gas Exports to China on Indonesian Economic Growth for the Period 2000-2018 []

This study aims to examine and analyse the direct and indirect effects of exchange rates, China's GDP per capita, investment and inflation on Indonesia's economic growth through non-oil and gas exports to China. The data used in this study is secondary data in the form of time series from 2000 to 2018. In this study, the structural equation regression analysis method using AMOS software is used. The results of this study indicate that all variables have a significant effect on economic growth in Indonesia through non-oil and gas exports to China except that inflation is not directly significant to economic growth in Indonesia. This study shows that monetary and fiscal policies in maintaining exchange rate stability, inflation, increasing investment realization, and bilateral trade cooperation between countries have an impact on export productivity so as to increase Indonesia's economic growth. Keywords: Indonesia's growth, non-oil and gas exports, exchange rate, China's GDP per capita, investment, and inflation.


Abstract Myxoma is extremely rare during pregnancy, the surgical resection is required. Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary baypass (CPBP) during pregnancy is a high-risk situation for both mother and fetus. It remains exceptional performed mainly in the context of the emergency The authors report the case of cardiac surgery with (CPBP) in a young woman of 24 years pregnant with a progressive pregnancy of 22 weeks with a myxoma of the left atrium threatening. Per- and post-operative monitoring was performed by the usual monitoring in this type of surgery associated with tococardiograph. CPBP was performed in normothermia with a high flow rate for blood pressure of at least 70 mmhg, hematocrit, blood sugar and acid-base balance were maintained within the correct limits. The CPBP was short-lived and the baypass exit was simple without inotropics. The procedures were simple with a good evolution for the mother and the fetus. Keywords: cardiac surgery/ cardiopulmonary baypass/ pregnancy/ myxoma


In this paper we develop a deterministic compartmental mathematical model for the spread of the Mumps virus disease in the community. We develop our model by modifying the model designed by Yong et al. (2017) by incorporating the isolation compartment as control strategies to control the transmission rate. An appropriate system of ordinary differential equations (ODE) was formulated for the transmission and the method of linearized stability approach was used to solve the equations. The Existence and uniqueness, Disease free equilibrium (DFE), positivity of the solution, Reproduction number and stability analysis were carried out. The equilibria state showed that the disease can easily by trigged off or reduced, so the need to be constantly alert and effective prevention measures put in place against its spread, in addition, numerical analyses were carried out with the model parameter assigned specific hypothetical values and graphs were plotted to investigate the effect of these parameters on the transmission of the disease. The result showed that, with the nature of the virus, uncontrolled transmittable contact between infected individuals and the susceptible can lead to a very serious outbreak with effective isolation structure put in place such situation can be better managed and outbreak controlled.

Ischemic vascular accident malignant sylvian, which management: About a case. []

Abstract : The ischemic vascular accident malignant sylvian concernes the achievement of the entire sylvian aretre and causes a major brain damage engage the vital prognosis. Numerous medical studies show that there is not really any benefit in terms of medical treatment (mannitol and hypertonic saline serum), Decompressive craniotomy seems to be a very effective way to preserve the vital prognosis despite the persistence of a major disability. We report a control case of a patient aged :53 years, admitted to the UMC of CHU of Oran for an ischemic stroke malignant sylvian and who benefited from a decompressive component and whose results are: the preservation of the prognosis without improvement of the functional prognosis.


Background and aim: Internet of Things (IoT) enabled healthcare system is useful for proper monitoring of COVID-19 patients, by employing an inter-connected network. It helps to increase patient satisfaction and reduces readmission rate in the hospitals. Methods: Searched the databases of Google Scholar,Elsevier, SCOPUS and Research Gate Results: IoT implementation impacts on reducing healthcare cost and improve treatment outcome of the suspected patients.This present study based research is attempted to highlight the overall applications of the well-proven IoT philosophy by offering a roadmap to tackle the COVID-19 pandemic. Conclusions: IoT is helpful for an suspected patients of COVID-19 to identify symptoms and provides better treatment. It is useful for those people which have symptoms of corona virus.


This study examined the concept of vocational education in context to its aims and goals towards global competitiveness, the historical background of vocational education, challenges, and prospects of vocational education in Nigeria. Globalization has increased economic competition within and between countries and the world’s regions. Economic competitiveness is commonly seen as a valid index for judging a country’s level of economic prosperity. Many recent large-scale education reforms have been justified by the urgent need to increase labour productivity and promote economic development and growth through expanded and improved education. It is generally assumed that to increase economic competitiveness, citizens must acquire knowledge, skills and attitudes necessary for civic success and the knowledge-based economy. This article argues that what schools are expected to do in order to promote economic competitiveness often contradicts commonly accepted global education reform thinking. Experience in many countries indicates that increased standardization of teaching and learning, for example, may be counterproductive to the expectations of enhanced economic competitiveness. The conclusion is that rather than competition between education systems, schools and students, what is needed is networking, deeper co-operation and open sharing of ideas at all levels if the role of education in economic competitiveness is to be strengthened. The key features of education reform policies that are compatible with competitiveness are those that encourage flexibility in education systems, creativity in schools and risk-taking without fear on the part of individuals.

Harnessing the use of Day lighting as a means for Energy saving techniques in Art Museums []

Museums are places of natural and human creativity as well as history. The aim of museums is to provide examples of each classification available for a field of knowledge. Museums employ two main strategies for its lighting which includes: daylighting and artificial lighting. This study was able to identify and discuss the different daylighting systems, and the existing museums which used daylighting were analysed properly to see how daylighting was harnessed in their respective internal spaces. The research methodology used for this research work includes case studies and extensive literature reviews. Deductions from these case studies showed the various natural lighting techniques used which include clerestory windows, luminous ceilings and cove luminaires. All of these played a major role in harnessing daylight in the museums studied. In the course of research, Lighting is significant in museum artifact display, as it helps with the interaction between the artifact and the human in a defined space. Daylighting, as it is significant to the artifact, if not properly controlled, can cause discomfort in the eyes of the observer, at the same time be destructive to the objects on display. Other methods used for introducing daylighting into the spaces include the use of diffuse lighting through Luminous ceilings, skylights, cove luminaires and also clerestory windows which help light reflects deeper into the exhibition halls. The design parameters and considerations indicates that buildings using these methods use less energy to lighten up their spaces, at the same time improving visibility and appreciation of artifacts.Key words: Museums, Artifact, Day lighting, Energy saving, Cove luminaires, Luminous.

A Framework for Peer to Peer General Purpose GPU Distributed Computing []

In this present technological world, we can see a rapid revolutionary development in the field of IT. As the developments imply as well as the complexity of the problems that the computers can also solve gradually increases. Hence, Advancements of technologies and more computational power is essential to complete complex algorithms. Therefore, such kinds of algorithms need large servers. But we can’t anticipate such powerful resources are available to everyone. If there is a possibility to share its resources with another computer, it makes an immense revolution. In this paper, we proposed a peer-to-peer network that allows sharing idle processing power among other peers who are connected to the existing network. Hence, the shared processing power can be used to execute a complex problem by distributing it. The intention of this process to speed up the ordinary problem-solving procedure by parallel algorithms and parallelized data. In such scenario, proper scheduling and data splitting mechanism can improve the performance, cost of computation, and increase the reliability of the system. The application is based on a peer-to-peer network since there is a high probability of occurring faults. To reduce these errors, the system is implemented with fault tolerance mechanisms.


Abstract: Saving is an essential instrument for capital accumulation and formation which further enhance economic growth and development through investing the saved fund. This study examined saving habits among youngsters in IT industry .The objectives of the study were to: examine saving habits of the employees in the IT industry. The saving habit of individual helps them to grow individually and as whole society. The impression has, however, not been scientifically tested and substantiated due to lack of reliable data on income, consumption and saving behaviour of employees Key Words: Savings, IT Sector, Individual, Behavior

The Effect of Rural-Urban Migration on Socioeconomic Status. A Case of Sunyani Municipal Area of Ghana. []

The study examined the effects of rural-urban migration on socioeconomic status of migrants using the case study of Sunyani municipal area of Ghana. Data were obtained from the migrants using a survey questionnaire. The study also employed Statistical Packages for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.0 and regression analysis tool for data processing. The hypotheses testing of the study revealed that income is an important factor in the socioeconomic status of migrants. Also, the employment status of migrants in urban centers play an important role in socioeconomic status. Further, the education level of migrants is an important factor for enhancing socioeconomic status. The results also showed that the prime cause of rural-urban migration is as a result of the availability of job opportunities in the study area (36%). The findings also indicated that the main expectation of migrants is to maximize income and establish their own business. More so, the basic challenge faced by most migrants is the high cost of rent which is leading to the emergence of slums in the study area, hence the researcher calls for government interventions through the creation of job and provision of infrastructural facilities in both the rural and the urban areas.

Effect OF THE 2019–20 CORONAVIRUS PANDEMIC ON Schooling []

The 2019–20 Corona Virus pandemic has influenced instructive frameworks around the world, prompting the close absolute terminations of schools, colleges, and universities. At the center of April 2020, approximately1.723 billion students have been influenced because of school terminations in light of the pandemic. As indicated by UNESCO observing, 191 nations have executed across the country terminations and 5 have actualized neighborhood terminations, affecting about 98.4 percent of the world's understudy population.[1] School terminations sway understudies, educators, and families, however have expansive financial and cultural consequences.[2] School terminations in light of COVID-19 have revealed insight into different social and monetary issues, including understudy obligation, [3]digital learning,[4]food insecurity,[5]and homelessness,[6]as well as access to childcare,[7] wellbeing care,[8]housing,[9]internet,[10], and handicap administrations. [11] The effect was increasingly serious for hindered kids and their families, causing intruded on learning, traded off sustenance, childcare issues, and resulting financial expense to families who couldn't work.[12] in light of school terminations, Universities suggested the utilization of separation learning projects and open instructive applications and stages that schools and instructors can use to arrive at students distantly and limit the disturbance of education.[14]


Accumulation of solid dirt on the surface of solar modules over time arouses researchers’ curiosity of likely effect on the output per-formance of the solar module. Thus, the effects of solid dirt accumulation on the solar panel’s surface was investigated and quantified. The study was carried out at the Basic study unit environment of University of Port Harcourt, Rivers state, Nigeria (longitude 4.9˚N and latitude 6.9˚E and 468m elevations above the sea level). Two 250W mono-crystalline modules were employed for the study. One served as control (clean) and the other as Device Under Test (dirty). The output performance of the solar panels were evaluated using the testing parameters that include open circuit voltage and short circuit current, I-V characteristics and the soiling losses. Typically, a total daily power output for control solar module was 1758.487W while the corresponding value for dirty (mixture of algae, sand, dust and moist air) solar module was found to be 1286.813W at the instance of time and same insolation. This reveals 26.82% loss in the power output due to dirt on the surface of the solar module. Also, at another instance, total daily output power of 3539.326W was obtained from the control solar module while dirty solar module yielded 2051.732W which corresponds to 42.03% loss in power output. The output power losses due to dirt accumulation on the surface of the solar module thus range between 26% and 42%. Av-eragely, dirty solar module significantly loses 34.0% ± 8.0 % output power daily. The study shows that the solid dirt affects the output power of the solar module and consequently reduces the efficiency of the solar module. Keywords : Solar module, Solid Dirt, Solar radiation, Open circuit voltage, Short circuit current, Output power, Efficiency.

Synthesis and characterization of new derivatives of 4-fluoro benzoic acid as bioactive compound []

Infectious microbial diseases are a serious issue of the whole World. Medicinal chemists & biologists are paying special attention on disease causing pathogens and bacteria because risk of diseases is increasing day by day & fatal for life. A series of hydrazide hydrazones of 4-fluorobenzoic acid hydrazide were prepared and evaluated as potential antimicrobial agents. Reaction progress was checked by using pre-coated silica gel aluminium packed thin layer plates with the help of ethyl acetate & n-hexane that will serve as mobile phase. These new compounds were characterized by their physical properties (melting point, Colour, TLC spot, Molecular formula, Molecular wt, %yield, solubility), the structures were confirmed by elemental analysis, IR spectral methods


Abstract Generating adequate fiscal revenue is highly influenced by a number of socio-economic and political variables that are likely to have different, either positive or negative, impacts on tax revenues. The exploratory impact of tax revenues on economic performance depends on the degree to which the factors influencing tax revenue are certain. We can achieve the best determinants of tax revenue by recognizing the justification for low tax revenue. The research examines relevant factors in tax revenue generation that examine the situation in Nigeria. After carrying out various regression assumptions, we used the Ordinary Least Square (OLS) technique to estimate the study model. We found out that only GDP and the total trade volume of transaction positively and significantly affects tax revenue in Nigeria. This study concluded that,the economic determinant of tax revenue in Nigeria are gross domestic product and total trade volume of transaction.


The purpose of this study was on leadership styles and management of church youth development in selected Pentecostal churches in Nyeri Town Sub County, Kenya. The study adopted survey research design with target population of 57 church youth officials who were leaders in selected Pentecostal churches in Nyeri Town Sub County. Questionnaires were used for collecting data from the participants. Data analysis was through descriptive and inferential techniques. The findings revealed that servant leadership style had statistically significance influence on management of church youth development. The implication is that servant leadership style is an important factor in managing the church youth in their development in Nyeri Town Sub County. The study concluded that servant leadership style makes the concerns of others a higher priority than their own by empowering the youth and giving them autonomy to act and make decisions that concerns them as well as by giving them freedom to bring out their abilities and confidence about leadership in a church set up. The study recommendation is that there is a need to bring into the selected Pentecostal churches environment, diversity of youth opinions coupled by church youth participation, cultivating a culture of inclusivity and trust of the youth in the affairs of the church, and managing the church youth development through the persuasion and creating incentives for the youth that will trigger their leadership

Electromagnetic Simulation on Silver Nanoparticle Based Biosensors []

In this paper, we have theoretically investigated the biosensing capability and silver nanoparticle. We study the optical properties of the electromagnetic simulation of silver nanoparticle in far field and near fields. Silver nanoparticles have unique optical and electronic properties which make them suitable for biosensing applications. The interaction of light with silver nanoparticle produces a collective oscillation of conduction band electron known as localized surface plasmon resonance. Plasmon resonance occurs when the frequency (wavelength) of the source is equal to the target frequency. Around this peak wavelength, we can detect the presence of desired target. To simulate the extinction cross section of silver nanoparticle in the Plasmonic resonance peaks in far and near fields, Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method is applied. In our investigations the optical properties of plasmon resonance peak position occur in the visible and near infrared light (400 nm to 800 nm). Using FDTD method, the Plasmonic resonance enhanced light extinctions has been determined for nanodisk shaped silver nanoparticles with radius range from 10 nm to 60 nm. The electromagnetic sources are used based on the frequency- domain field and power design, including completely customizable uniaxial- perfectly matched layer (UPML) to simulates the real open system.

Méningocèle et méningo-encéphalocèle para-naso orbitaire : à propos d’un cas []

Les méningocèles orbitaires primitives sont des malformations congénitales rares. Elles résultent d’une hernie des méninges dans la cavité orbitaire à travers un défect osseux congénital. Dans le cas des méningo-encéphalocèles, le sac méningé hernié contient du tissu cérébral, généralement atrophique. Nous rapportons le cas d’un enfant de 6ans pris en charge dans notre formation et qui s’était présenté pour un syndrome tumoral de la région para-naso orbitaire droite. Au scanner crânio-facial, volumineuse masse kystique communiquant avec l’étage antérieur de la base du crâne. Nous avons adopté un abord transfacial qui nous a permis une confirmation du diagnostic et une résection tumorale avec fermeture de la brèche ostéo-dure-mérienne. L’évolution était favorable. Les méningo-encéphalocèles orbitaire sont très probablement liées à une anomalie de la fermeture du neuropore antérieur. Elles se manifestent généralement très tôt dans l’enfance.

A Book Chapter Entitled, “Do They Make Sense Anywhere Else? Urban Theories in Action: Bahir Dar City in Focus” []

Urbanization, as a major demographic trend, has become a global phenomenon. The year 2007, being taken as a tipping point where global urban population outnumbered the rural one for the first time, has been followed by increase in the magnitude of regional and global urbanization (Orum 2005). Ethiopia, with a projected 18% urban population in 2018, has also been urbanizing fast. Its urban growth implicates, inter alia, increase in urban areas of which Bahir Dar is among the most important ones. Bahir Dar has been urbanizing fast. Its population size increased from 167,261 in 2005 to 249,125 in 2013 and total area from 28 Km2 in 2005 to 286.6 Km2 in 2006 and then after. According to the city administration, Bahir Dar is also witnessing high rate of urbanization, 6.4 percent in 2017. Built up area has also shown large increase, especially, over the past three decades (Abraham 2020). Focusing on urban growth in the city in the post revolution period, especially since the city’s designation as the capital of Amhara region in 1993, the study assessed the nature of urbanization and urbanism in the city by through the lenses of urban sociological theories. Bahir Dar city provides what many literatures referred to as the ‘locale’ (its physical/territorial boundary) and ‘milieu’ (social, cultural, and political processes) dimensions that can possibly intrigue varieties of investigations. The milieu dimension is embedded in its locale dimension, but it transcends the locale dimension; locale provides the physical context for milieu, but does not delimit milieu (Durrschmidt 1997 cited by Smart and Smart 2003; Jayaram 2009). Bahir Dar city is the locale in which many milieus interact and define urban life apparent in it. Assessment of both the locale and milieu dimensions of Bahir Dar city by drawing on theories of both urban sociology, in particular, and social science, in general, would help capture the nature of urban growth in the city. In this paper, the researcher tried to explicate urbanization and urbanism in Bahir Dar city by drawing on the works of sociologists from Simmel to Wirth to Castells to Fischer, who had all expounded on urbanization and urban life with variegated lenses about it.

A Review on A Book Entitled, “The New Urban Sociology, 4th ed.” By Mark Gottdiener and Ray Hutchinson []

In this paper an attempt is made to give a critical appraisal on the book, written by Mark Gottdiener and Ray Hutchison, entitled ‘The New Urban Sociology’ published in 2011 by Westview Press in Boulder, USA. Gottdiener, a Professor of Sociology at the University of Sunny-Buffalo, and Hutchison, the late Professor of Sociology at the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay, published three editions of the same book, ‘The New Urban Sociology’. The intention of this paper is to put forward critical review of the book entitled, “The New Urban Sociology, Fourth Edition” based on its content and contribution to the knowledge stock of urban sociology, in particular, and social science in general.


Human [multi-dimensional] development has been a focused subject for centuries; epistemology (theory of knowledge) has expressed prime role of knowledge in this very regard. Scores of key philosophers and noted psychologists invested their best efforts to establish numerous scholarships to streamline the fact that human personality needs extensive variations and its progression requires constant interaction with various internal and external stimuli. Transcendentalism emphasizes that intellectual obsessions of humans seem more dependent on subjective intuition rather than objective empiricism. While, trans-humanism urges to transform necessary human conditions by evolving and creating broadly accessible refined technologies. This paper is an initial attempt towards determining the real knowledge corridor; the knowledge that enables a human to travel within and reaches the point of self-reliant and self-contention. Intensive interface of humans with rapidly emerging technologies has generated digitally connected and socially isolated generation; it is knowledge abuse rather than use.

Comparison between clustering algorithms: k-means and k-medoids using JAVA Program []

Clustering is the process of grouping or partitioning data into groups or clusters. Data is grouped into clusters based on the similarity of the objects. Objects of one cluster are similar to each but objects of two different clusters are quite dissimilar. Clustering process has application in several areas like business, medicine, e-commerce etc. Several clustering algorithms have been developed, each has its own pros and cons. K-means and k-medoids are two popular partitioning-based clustering algorithms. K-means algorithm create clusters that minimize the squared-error function and k-medoids create clusters that reduces differences between each object of a cluster and the its corresponding reference point. Effect of size of dataset and different reference points on the execution time of k-means and k-medoids are interesting idea to know.


The Endophytic mycoflora of Garcinia kola (Heckl) growing at Akamkpa and Oban, Cross River State, Nigeria was studied. Barks and leaves of G. kola were collected in February - March and June - September, 2019. Pieces of leaves and barks of were cultured on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA). A total of two hundred and forty four (244) isolates belonging to Hyphomycetes eight (8), Saccharomy-cetes one (1) and Zygomycetes one (1), species were recovered. Acremonium sp, with the highest colonization frequency of thirty two (32%), colonized both barks and leaves of G. kola in both locations and was significantly (P< 0.05) more, in the wet season in both locations. Geotrichum candidum significantly (P<0.05) colonized the barks at Akamkpa during the wet season. Penicillium sp was present in the barks from Oban during the wet season. Rhizopus stolonifer colonization was significant (P< 0.05) in the leaves and barks from both locations during the wet season but recorded only minimal growth in both plant materials especially during the dry season. Verticillium sp was significantly (P<0.05) present in the leaves from Akamkpa and Oban during both dry and wet seasons. The ecological indices suggest that G.kola from Akamkpa and Oban harbour diverse species of endophytic fungi. Keywords: Akamkpa, Colonisation, Cross River State, Endophytic fungi, Garcinia kola, Microorganisms, Oban.