Volume 9, Issue 2, February 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Catch Rate of Pepetek (Leiognatus sp)(Leiognatus Sp.) By Cantrang Fishing Gear Landed at PPP Mayangan Probolinggo []

Cantrang is a fishing gear usually used to catch shrimp and demersal fish. As well as catching shrimp and demersal fish, in the cantrang catch there is also pepetek (Leiognatus sp). Pepetek (Leiognatus sp) is one type of fish that is included in a superior commodity and has high economic value, so its existence must be maintained and protected. This study aims to see the trend of pepetek (Leiognatus sp) caught by cantrang fishing gear landed at PPP Mayangan Probolinggo during 2014-2018. Pepetek (Leiognatus sp) caught year-round by cantrang fishing gear, with a peak catching in January to April for 3 years (2014-2016) and in August to December in 2017-2018. The catch per unit effort of the pepetek (Leiognatus sp) with cantrang fishing gear decreased by 89% from 2014 to 2015, then it has increased until 2018 with an average percentage of 32.49%. Furthermore, it is possible to conduct an assessment of other fishing gear that catches pepetek (Leiognatus sp), so that the discussion becomes more comprehensive.

Availability of Assistive Technology Devices for Students with Visual Impairment: Evidence from the University of Cape Coast []

It is imperative to note that assistive technology allows individuals with visual impairment to overcome a major part of the difficulties in their daily lives and offers them independence and autonomy in their education and access to communication, just like their peers with vision. Several studies have shown that assistive technology has advanced and has positively influenced the lives of persons with disability especially in the area of education. This made the researcher to assess the availability of assistive technology devices for students with visual impairment from the University of Cape Coast. The study was nested into the qualitative interpretive phenomenological methodology using a case study design. The study revealed that assistive technology available to students with visual impairment are Perkins Braille, Braille embossers, scanner, closed circuit- television (CCTV) and finally computers installed with speech reader (JAWS- Job Access with Speech). These devices at the Resource Centre for Alternative Media and Assistive Technology are mainly auditory-based technologies and computer magnifiers that assist students with visual impairment in their academic work. The Perkins braille and the hand frame were considered by visually impaired student as outmoded devices. From the viewpoints of the students, the usage of the Perkins braille and the hand frame did not only retard their exposure to modern technology. Provide ample resources that support visually impaired student’s development in area of reading, writing, mathematics and mobility. See to it that old assistive technologies are replaced with the modern technologies trending in the education of visually impaired persons.


It is apparent that in life, housing remains the second basic need of man after food, and as such, several individuals act desperately to secure their own personal dwelling. Therefore, the need to build solid and functional building to avoid unexpected collapse is very vital. Building Collapse occur as a result of the following factors, factors such as; Poor workmanship, bad design, use of sub-standard building materials, foundation failure, faulty construction, extra-ordinary loads, among other factors such as negligence, design flaws, ageing, material fatigue, extreme operational and environmental conditions, accidents, terrorist attacks and natural hazards. Therefore, there is need to eradicate building collapse in Nigeria, most especially, the study area which is Abuja as it is believed to have increasing number of building developments and thus requires adequate attention in order to fore stall the collapse of buildings. In view of the aforementioned therefore, this research work investigated the issues that result into collapse of building in Abuja, Nigeria whether design or construction or other related problems. The research employed the use of primary and secondary data to find out the causes of building collapse and the actions or efforts made by the appropriate authority in solving the problem of building collapse in Abuja. The research showed statistically that the use of Sub-standard materials (53.09%) and poor workmanship (17.28%) are the major causes of building collapse, however there are other causes such as bad design, deviation from approved plan etc. The research also showed that Developers (82.1%) play a huge role in the cause of building collapse. Government (84.8%) currently shoulder the major responsibility of ensuring that building collapse is eradicated. The response from the administered questionnaire showed that Professionals ensure proper site supervision (74.1%), public enlightenment (14.8%), and regulation of building codes (11.1%) as means to reduce the occurrence of building collapse. Amongst other recommendations, Government should enact a Law that will aim to curbing the use of sub-standard materials and making sure that high quality material prices are subsidised so that all income level can afford it. Hence, if all these recommendations can be taken seriously, it would provide a lasting situation to the menace of collapsed building and the psychological traumas it causes on its victims. Keywords: Building collapse, Professionals, substandard materials, developers, questionnaire, respondents, and eradication


COMPARISON OF THE ASSESSMENT OF THE CHILD’S EXPERIENCE OF STUTTERING (ACES) WITH STUTTERING SEVERITY INSTRUMENT (SSI) IN KANNADA SPEAKING CHILDREN Vini Abhijith Gupta Assistant Professor/PhD Scholar Department of Speech and Hearing Salim Javed INTRODUCTION: Stuttering is a complex disorder involving interactions among what the child does, how he feels, and what he thinks (Bennett, 2006; Smith & Kelly, 1997). Stuttering can make it difficult to communicate with other people, which often affect a person’s quality of life. Some features of Stuttering are disruption in flow of speech, avoidance or fear of speaking, breaks in the forward flow of speech, such as repeating a sound or syllable of a word, stretching the beginning sound, or being unable to say a word at all (Guitar, 1998). Stuttering is common among young children and is a normal part of learning to speak. They may stutter when their speech and language abilities aren't developed enough to keep up with what they want to say. Most children outgrow this developmental stuttering. The cause of stuttering is still unknown. Some features known to influence stuttering are: family history of stuttering, gender, age at the time of onset, and/or the presence of other speech and/or language disorders (Conture, 2001) To evaluate a child’s stuttering, we typically use parent reports, disfluency frequency counts, Stuttering Severity Instrument -3 (SSI-3; Riley, 1994) scores, Stuttering Prediction Index (SPI) scores and severity ratings, Overall Assessment of the speaker’s Experience of Stuttering (OASES) and measures of the overall impact of the child’s stuttering, such as the ACES (Assessment of the Child’s Experience of Stuttering; Coleman, Yaruss, & Quesal, 2004). A comparison study between SSI scores and OASES scores was carried out by Bragatto et al., (2012), in the Brazilian version which revealed that, it is not possible to establish equivalence between SSI scores and impact scores of OASES. The people with Stuttering (PWS), exhibited more concern on their self esteem, self confidence and enthusiasm in life, which is in correlation with the study done by Caroline, Mathis, and Yarrus (2006). The need of the study: • To compare and contrast children in shaping their self awareness on disfluency in different perspectives • Incorporate both formal and informal tests in the assessment process along with self- rating scales. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY: To find if any correlation exists between the assessment data obtained from Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI) and the Assessment of the Child’s Experience of Stuttering (ACES) in age range of 8 to 10 years METHODOLOGY: 30 Kannada speaking male children participated in the study. The age range of participants for this study was from 8 to 10 years. Those with any cognitive or neurological deficits were excluded from the study. The study was carried in two phases. STUTTERING SEVERITY INSTRUMENT (SSI): It evaluates the four areas of speech behavior: 1.Frequency, 2. duration, 3.physical concomitants, 4.Naturalness of the individual’s speech. ASSESSMENT OF THE CHILD’S EXPERIENCE OF STUTTERING (ACES): It is a 100 item questionnaire with four sections on; (a) general perspectives about stuttering, (b) affective, behavioral, and cognitive reactions to stuttering (c) functional communication in Daily situations (25 items), (d) impact of stuttering on the speaker’s quality of life. The responses are rated on 5 point Likert scale. Procedure: Phase I: An informed consent was obtained from all the participants’ parents and appropriate instructions were provided before administering the questionnaire. A data sheet was filled for each subject that included demographic data (gender, age and education) of the patient and certain characteristics of stuttering (anticipation, avoidance and coping behavior.) Phase II: The Stuttering Severity Instrument (SSI) (Riley, 1980) was also assessed for all the participants. Assessment of the Child’s Experience of Stuttering (ACES) questionnaire was given to all the respected children and they were asked to read each of the questions carefully before filling. The overall time to complete the questionnaire was around 25 to 30 minutes. Statistical analysis: The data was analyzed using SPSS 16.0 version. Pearson co-relation was used to assess relationship between Assessment of the Child’s Experience of Stuttering (ACES) impact scores and SSI scores. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: 12 individuals who had mild degree in SSI show moderate degree in ACES and 9 with moderate had moderately severe degree and only 9 individuals showed vice versa results i.e., SSI scores revealed severe degree whereas ACES impact scores interpretation was moderately severe. Therefore we can see that • No significant co-relation between SSI scores and impact scores of ACES • Both the tools assessed different skills and revealed completely different results. CONCLUSION: Therefore ACES focus on the rating of stuttering by the child himself While SSI is based on the formal assessment procedures We can thus conclude that both tools are helpful to assess the stuttering in different perspectives. Limitations: • Sample size can be implied with increase in number of subjects Future Implications • Can be done in other age ranges, other languages • Gender differences can also be included specifically Key words: Disfluency, Physical concomitants, Frequency, Functional communication, Anticipation References: Assessment Of The Child’s Experience Of Stuttering (Aces): A New Instrument For Assessing The Entire Stuttering Disorder In Child Ages 7 To 18 By Craig Coleman, Children’s Hospital Of Pittsburgh; J. Scott Yaruss, University Of Pittsburgh; Robert W. Quesal, Western Illinois University Aces: New Stuttering Assessment Tool, Editors & Co-Directors Of The Stuttering Center Of Western Pa: Craig E. Coleman, M.A. ; J. Scott Yaruss, Ph.D. Tsha Fluency Eligibility Guidelines By Janice W. Lougeay, M.A./Ccc (Texas- Speech- Language- Hearing- Association Real-Time Analysis Of Speech Fluency (Yaruss, Journal Of Speech-Language Pathology, 1998) Communication- Emotional Model Of Stuttering - Edward Conture, Et Al. Vanderbuilt University (Ratner & Tetnowski, 2006)


Aquaculture is the highest fishery production in Indonesia. One of the freshwater aquaculture in Pangandaran is catfish cultivation. The end of catfish farming activities will produce waste. The waste generated from cultivation is in the form of liquid waste. This liquid waste can have a negative impact on the environment if it is not in accordance with the quality standards of the liquid waste so that it needs to be characterized by the liquid waste from fish farming. The purpose of this study was to determine the physical and chemical characteristics of fish culture waste. The raw material used is liquid waste from catfish farming with tarpaulin ponds. The parameters for testing liquid waste are physical appearance, pH, temperature, DO, and BOD. The test was carried out on day 0 and day 5. The results showed that the color of the liquid waste was cloudy brown, the smell of the waste was like ammonia, the pH of the liquid waste was around 7-8, the temperature was between 28.1 - 28.7oC. The DO value on day 0 was 12.35 mg / L and day 5 was 9.4 mg / L and a BOD 5 value was 2.9 mg / L.

Study Habit as Predictor of Academic Performance of Students in Public Secondary Schools in Imo State. []

In this study, the researcher investigated study habit as predictor of academic performance of students in public secondary schools in Imo state. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The population of the study consisted of 27, 652 SS3 students while the sample size obtained through the proportionate sampling technique is 5,248 students. The instrument used to collect responses from the respondents was a 12 – item questionnaire titled; “Study Habit as Predictor of Academic Performance of Students in Public Secondary Schools in Imo State Questionnaire, (SHPAPSPSSISQ). The instrument was validated by three experts, two from the Department of Educational Management and one from the Department of Educational Foundation. The instrument consists of three sections with a cumulative value of 0.84 considered high enough to be reliable for the study. The reliability of the instrument was established through a pilot – testing and analysing using Cronbach alpha. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to answer research questions and test the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The correlation of coefficients was classified in the forms they exhibited. In testing the null – hypotheses, when p-value is equal or greater than 0.05 ( P < 0.05), the null – hypothesis is accepted, when it is otherwise, it is rejected. It was found among other things, that study habit is not natural with student but can be acquired. It was then recommended that school authorities and parents should provide good learning environment to enable students develop good study habit.


This paper examines the complementary role of the Informal financial intermediaries in raising finance for the development and promotion of Entrepreneurship in Nigeria. Entrepreneurship is globally recognized as a veritable tool for economic development and growth in both advanced and developing economies. Significant contributions of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) include job and wealth creation, raw materials provision, income generation, poverty reduction among others. Access to credit is acclaimed as one of the limiting factors for the growth of entrepreneurship in Nigeria as most Small business firms are financially excluded by the mainstream banks due to collateral requirements. The role of Informal financial institutions as alternative finance sources has become more compelling in Nigeria more so as the formal financial sector and the informal financial sector co-exist as providers of finance to the productive sector of the economy – a situation usually refers to as financial dualism. The informal financial sub-sector plays a complementary function to its formal counterpart by providing credits to small businesses. The research methodology employed secondary data sourced from the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN), Small and Medium Enterprises Development of Nigeria (SMEDAN), and the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS). The study affirms the complementary role of informal financial intermediaries as an alternative source of finance for entrepreneurs as more than 70 per cent of entrepreneurs raise capital outside the banking system.


Most large spaces share a common challenge, which is poor sound management and control. Large spaces by necessity are conditioned by the need of all within it, to have a clear view of the stage and to hear the facilitator or actors on stage audibly. In life, the sound is as important as light. Light gives humans the visual connection to reality, while sound gives meaning to existence and differentiation. Architects and designers are constantly coming up with design suggestions to solve the challenge of acoustics in large spaces and this is one of the key reasons we now have auditoriums shaped in such a way that the audience will be close to the sound source and free from noise as much as possible. Hence, the authors investigate how the form of a building affects the quality of sound produced and transmitted within it. The work begins with a brief analogy of the application of sound in ancient times; the definition of sound and its concept as it relates to acoustics. Furthermore, various forms are taken into consideration, and their influence on sound is taken cognizance of. At the end of the research, the author seeks to establish the fact that, the behaviour of sound on a surface is determined by the shape of such surface and the material it is made of. It is well known that building materials and some other factors can also affect acoustics, but this research work is intended to investigate the effects of building forms on acoustics and suggest possible ways to achieve a sonically viable room space. To achieve this research work, the author has painstakingly explored several works of literature that deal on the issues of acoustics, also has visited some halls, both physically and via the internet, to take a look at how acoustics has been handled.

Policy Evaluation of the Minister of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Regulation 02/PERMEN-KP/2015 []

The fisheries sector is the main source of livelihood for the fishing communities through fisheries activities. Capture fisheries activities depend on the carrying capacity and availability of fish. Proper management of fish resources can affect the sustainability of fisheries. Minister of Maritime Affairs and Fisheries Regulation No. 2 of 2015 is based on a decrease in Fish Resources (SDI) which threatens sustainability, so a ban on the use of applied Trawls and seine nets is. The policy caused a vertical conflict between the government and fishermen. This study aims to determine the impact of the application of the policy of prohibiting the use of Trawl (fishing gearTrawl). Data analysis method used in this research is descriptive method with policy analysis. The results showed that the policy of prohibiting the use of payang fishing gear had many impacts. The biggest impact is the decrease in the number of fishing activities by fishermen that affect the production and income as well as psychology for fishermen. Because fishermen are the only livelihood that is used to make ends meet. The reason for the decline in fishing activities by fishermen is the limitations in fishing gear operations where fishermen in Paciran and Brondong Districts can only operate payang fishing gear

Effect of ethanol leaf extract of Terminalia chebula extract on kidney of wister rats []

Introduction/Aim: Nephrotoxicity is toxicity in the kidneys. It is a poisonous effect of some substances, both toxic chemicals and medications, on kidney function. Toxicity tests are intended to evaluate the toxicity of the chemical after repeated administration and also to help in establishing doses for the longer-term. Terminalia chebula, commonly known as black- or chebulic myrobalan, is a species of Terminalia, widely used in South Asia from India to across Africa. It is widely used in management of various illment. This work is aim at evaluating the toxic effect of Terminalia chebula on kidney of wister rats. Method: rats of either sex were selected. Group 1 received distilled water (10 ml/kg), while group 2, 3 and 4 received Terminalia Chebula 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg respectively. Animals were kept in standard cages and given access to the extract, water and food orally for 28 days, after which they were weighed and sacrificed. Blood was collected by cardiac puncture and taken immediately for hematological and chemopathological analysis. The kidney was also harvested for histological study on the effect of the extract using haematotoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining technique. Result: There was Significant (P<0.05) decrease in RBC, HGB, MCV, while there was no significant change in the level of neutrophiles, basophiles, eosinophiles and platelets. Terminalia chebula caused slightly significant (p<0.05) increased in Na level at 50 mg/kg and Creatinine level at 50 mg/kg dose levels respectively when compared to the control when compared to the control. Other parameters (K, CL and Urea levels) were not significantly affected. Histological study reveals slight tubular distortion. Conclusion: The result of the study showed that at normal dose the plant may have no effect on the kidney which suggests that the plant may be nephrologically safe for consumption.

SARS-CoV-2 vaccine administration allergic reaction management []

The new messenger RNA based vaccines against Sars-CoV-2 have had their efficacy and safety well established. Therefore, immunization campaigns have been organized throughout the world, bringing hope to put an end to the pandemic faced since the start of 2020. Despite the efficacy, the vaccines presented important hypersensitivity reactions such as anaphylaxis, in certain patients, allegedly caused by one of its components: polyethylene glycol. Adverse reactions as such undermine public confidence in the vaccine, even though anaphylaxis as a medic emergency has a fairly simple management given health care staff preparation. Thus, it seems of great importance that vaccination campaigns pay special attention to the hypersensitivity predisposed patients when administering doses, once the benefits of the vaccine outstandingly outweighs its risks.

Are hormones a cause of miscarriage? []

Miscarriage (abortion) is defined as the loss of a fetus before it is able to reach Independent of life and growth outside his mother's uterus, which is the difference of its types is a major problem in the field of public health and the inevitable death of the fetus, and despite the different types and causes, the result is either the death of the fetus or in other cases the death of the fetus and the mother together, and the miscarriage may happen one or several times, making up about 20-15% of pregnancies (Sachdeva et al., 2011). According to the estimates of the World Health Organization, a quarter of 25% of pregnancies annually end in abortion (WHO, 2018). The journal "BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth" published a statistic in 2017 that included a large number of women indicating that the percentage of women who underwent an abortion experience during the first trimester of pregnancy may reach to 43% of them. As for the causes of miscarriage, the main cause of miscarriage is often not identified although there are many reasons behind it, and it can be said that a miscarriage during the first trimester of pregnancy is often due to the presence of problems in the fetus itself. Its occurrence after the first trimester; It may be related to the mother's suffering from a specific health problem (Cohain et al., 2017). Genetic factors play an important role in miscarriages, at a rate of 5% (Byrne and Ward, 2002), besides, having a pregnant woman with Diabetes mellitus type II increases the risk of miscarriage and congenital malformations of fetus by 12.3% (Bartha et al., 2000). Many hormones contribute to the regulation of pregnancy, starting with the process of ova formation, fertilization, growth and development of the fetus in all its stages and initiated by the hormone Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) produced by the hypothalamus, which stimulates the pituitary gland to synthesize and secrete Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) And luteinizing hormone (LH), and these hormones have a great role in regulating the growth and development of the ovum, ovulation and the fertilization process. Progesterone hormone is one of the most important hormones that work to pregnancy stability and create an appropriate environment for the growth and development of the fetus during all stages of pregnancy (Arck et al., 2007), As well as the estrogen hormone just as important as other hormones that contribute to a successful pregnancy, as it plays. This hormone plays an essential role in supporting the secretion and synthesis of thyroid hormones during all stages of pregnancy, especially the first trimester, and even influencing the sex of pregnancy, in addition to the role of Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) (Abd and Ismail, 2015), and other hormones.

Research: SYSTEME FINANCIER INFORMEL : remède pour les personnes exclues du système financier classique dans la ville de Mbujimayi/RD.CONGO []

Résumé Introduction : Ce travail a pour objectif d’analyser le système financier informel entant que remède pour les personnes exclues du système financier classique dans la ville de Mbujimayi. Méthode : L’enquête a couvert l’ensemble des membres des tontines installés dans la ville de Mbujimayi étant données qu’elles sont la pratique la plus répandue. Elle a été réalisée pendant deux mois (octobre et novembre 2020) par quatre enquêteurs dont nous et trois autres formés par nous-mêmes. N’ayant pas une base de sondage, la procédure de sélection de notre échantillon a été basée sur le sondage par choix aléatoire, tout en considérant les volontaires et les pratiquants de tontines sélectionnés d’une manière accidentelle comme les composants de notre échantillon. En vue d’avoir un échantillon plus représentatif, nous avons opté pour un échantillonnage aléatoire stratifié. Notre population cible a été divisée en cinq groupes homogènes appelés généralement strates correspondant aux cinq communes de la ville de Mbujimayi dans lesquelles s’effectuent les pratiques tontinières, à savoir : la commune de Bipemba, commune de la Kanshi, commue de Dibindi, commune de la Muya et commune de Diulu. A partir de chaque strate, nous avons ensuite sélectionné des échantillons indépendants, étant donné que les personnes d’une strate ont presque la même culture et vivent les mêmes réalités socio-économiques. L’échantillon était constitué de 178 personnes. Résultats : La majorité des enquêtés avec 28,7 % des personnes utilisent les fonds bénéficiés à la tontine à faire des petits investissements, à les utiliser pour la suivie dans 15,7 % des cas et à payer la scolarité de leurs enfants dans 23,6 % des cas, alors que 23 % des personnes utilisent ces font pour augmenter leur capital d’affaire. Tous ces résultats confirment que les pratiques financières informelles sont un remède pour les personnes exclues du système financier classique dans la ville de Mbujimayi. Conclusion : Toute population a besoin du financement pour mieux vivre dans une économie donnée. Ce financement lui vient du système financier mis en place qui permet une intermédiation entre les opérateurs à capacité de financement et ceux à besoin de financement. Lorsque cette intermédiation n’est pas inclusive, les personnes exclues se regroupent et créent des mécanismes leurs permettant le transfert des fonds des mains de celles qui en détiennent plus vers celles qui en ont besoin. D’où la pertinence du système financier informel qui se présente comme remède pour les personnes exclues du système financier classique par le fait qu’il les aider à se financer par des pratiques souples et flexibles. Le Système financier informel comme remède pour les personnes exclues du système financier classique dans la ville de Mbujimayi n’est pas un thème nouveau car il est rare d’être premier à aborder un thème dans le domaine de recherche scientifique et nous pouvons affirmer que : les pratiques financières informelles sont un remède pour les personnes exclues du système financier classique dans la ville de Mbujimayi. Ces pratiques sont d’une grande importance dans la vie socio-économique de la population car elles prennent en charge les agents économiques exclus des circuits financiers par le système bancaire. En leur offrant des services à caractère bancaire (épargne, prêt, emprunt) ces agents économiques en profitent pour développer leurs activités et mener à bout leurs projets. Etant donné qu’à chaque étape de la vie correspond un besoin d’épargne, les personnes de la ville de Mbujimayi non prise en charge par le système financier formel crée et développe des mécanismes financiers lui permettant de récolter l’épargne en vue de disposer de fonds nécessaire pour parvenir à une croissance. Mots clés : Système financier, Informel, remède, tontine, économie

Assessing storm water drainage network in Sodo town, Ethiopia []

Urbanization is one of the key factors that contribute to urban flooding, which has caused major destruction to the environment, public and private buildings and disrupts public life. One way of minimizing urban flooding is to convey storm water to receiving waters through storm water drainage systems, which has been practiced in some parts of Sodo town. Despite development over the years, it remains a significant challenge to design sustainable and effective functioning of drainage system. This study assesses the storm water drainage network in Sodo town. To this end, households of the town and public sector officials were interviewed to obtain necessary information for the study. Inadequate coverage, poor quality and inappropriate provision of drainage infrastructure were problems identified in the study. Weak technical and institutional capacities associated with lack of finance, lack of integration among concerned bodies, lack of community participation and poor operation and maintenance are factors constraining proper drainage infrastructure provision.


Attacks on the web-based systems have been increased significantly over the last decade. Organizations needs to protect their systems from such attacks. However, for large organizations, it becomes challenging to decide which systems needs how much protection. In this paper, we aim to develop a technique that can classify web-based assets for security. This technique is called asset classification. For asset classification we designed a questionnaire that covers several areas related to security, e.g., user access etc. We evaluated our technique on several websites and found it very efficient in classifying assets.