Volume 9, Issue 2, February 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Urbanization is the new trend in human migration and population growth. In the quest for good jobs and economic growth, sustainable cities and communities and ongoing implementation of the sustainable development goals (SDG) 2030, building professionals, government, key decision-makers and stakeholders are sensibly adapting to the rapid growth in urbanization. Urban growth expansion also comes with its challenges which could result in over-concentration, overconsumption and unhealthy competitions etc. New policies, frameworks and strategies are needed for mitigation and total prevention. This research paper presents a new model for the approach of mixed-used development. It reveals how a mixed-used development strategy can be used to reshape a city and attain sustainable urbanization. The Authors did a study of Daning neighbourhood, china which could serve as case study for modern day mixed-used development. This paper further entails the history and importance of mixed-use facility and development for a successful urban migration, revitalization and redevelopment.

Potentiation of FSH-like effects of the extracts and fractions of Senecio biafrae (Oliv. & Hiern) J. Moore (Asteraceae) by a subthreshold dose of PMSG []

The FSH-like effect of Senecio biafrae can be potentiated by reproductive hormones to accelerate the awakening of the Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Gonad axis in immature animals. This research evaluated the synergistic effect between Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotrophin (PMSG) and the extracts and fractions of S. biafrae (EFSb) in boosting sexual maturation. Various PMSG doses were administered to immature female rats during 5 consecutive days. Its highest dose without effect on ovary and uterus was co-administered with 4, 8, 32, 64 and 128 mg/kg doses of aqueous, ethanol and methanol/methylene chloride extracts as well as hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of S. biafrae during five days. Ovarian and uterine masses, proteins and cholesterol, serum FSH, LH, estradiol, progesterone levels and ovarian follicle numbers were evaluated. The subthreshold value of PMSG was 0.011 UI/rat/day. Its co-administration with EFSb led to a significant drop (p<0.05) in ovarian mass, but to an increase tendency in ovarian proteins and cholesterol. Uterine mass and proteins significantly increased in almost all treated animals. FSH, LH and estradiol significantly increased while progesterone was decreasing. Primary and secondary follicle presented high counts in almost all treated groups (p<0.05). Co-administration of EFSb and PMSG led to successful stimulation of the reproductive axis.


The study focused on the phytochemical screening and brine shrimp lethality assay of the Billy goat weed (Ageratum conyzoides Linn.). Dried leaves of the A. conyzoides were prepared as a sample for phytochemical composition analysis. The ethanolic crude extract of A. conyzoides was obtained for phytochemical screening using the test tube method. The same crude extracts were used for the detection of cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp lethality assay (BSLA) against brine shrimp eggs (nauplii). The phytochemicals detected were alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids, phenols, terpenes, coumarins, steroids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, and resins. These phytochemicals were expected to possess pharmacological activities, anti-allergic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial properties. The toxicity level was found out to be active with LC50 of 56.23µg/mL. Different solvents are explored in order to optimize the phytochemical screening and cytotoxic level of Billy goat weed (Ageratum conyzoides Linn.).


Zimbabwe has witnessed a phenomenal growth in social media use over the past few years. The use of these social networking sites has infiltrated the workplace, with a potential impact on employee productivity and work quality. Employees are spending more time on social media engaging in non – work-related activities. The study sought to assess the impact of social media use in the workplace on service delivery in the public sector. Specifically, the study set out to establish the extent of social media use in the workplace by public sector employees, and examine policy initiatives that the respective departments were taking on the use of social media in the workplace. The study was conducted in Hwange district, Zimbabwe, with a population frame of 351 public sector employees. Data were collected using the questionnaire and interview schedule and analysed using Microsoft Excel both qualitatively and quantitatively. The study found out that the civil servants in Zimbabwe visit social media sites while at work engaging in non-work-related activities, mainly through their own devices. None of the public sector departments had a social media policy in place to regulate the use of social media in the workplace. The frequent use of social media in the workplace by government employees compromises public sector service delivery. The study recommends that the Zimbabwe government should come up with a social media policy to guide the use of social media in the workplace.

Public Debt and Incidence of Poverty in Sub-Saharan Africa: The role of Institutional Quality []

Abstract The continuous accumulation of public debt and ever increasing incidence of poverty in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) has been investigated by various researchers. This study aims at investigating the role of institutional quality in the public debt, incidence of poverty relationship. Using the Generalized Method of Moment (GMM) approach on a sample of 42 SSA countries, the link between public debt and incidence of poverty was examined over the period 2011 to 2019. The findings of this study revealed that the relationship between the public debt and Household Final Consumption Expenditure Per capital is negative, and this shows that public debt accumulation is one of the leading causes of poverty in SSA. However, the result of the interaction term of public debt and institutional quality confirms that this negative relationship can be averted or even reversed if the quality of the institutions improves in the region. This indicates that, while public debt accumulation aggravates the incidence of poverty, such an appalling trend can be reverted or even prevented. The study therefore, recommends the need for governments to take a determined stand of not only minimizing public debt accumulation but also ensuring comprehensive improvement of institutional qualities to alleviate the incidence of poverty in SSA.


The present work aims to show the heritage fruits consumed by the people of the Nyong and Kelle division. Heritage fruits are fruits which come from an area and are consumed by the people of this area for many years; these fruits are bequeathed to the next generation. A systematic survey was carried out to identify heritage fruits in the markets, crop farms and forest of the study area. With modernization heritage fruits are been abandoned by the present generation in the way that if nothing is done some of these heritage fruits will disappear from the consumption chain if they are not bequeathed to the next generation, this will lead to the loss of food identity and acculturation of the population of the study area. In all 34 heritage fruits were encountered and they fell under 21 botanical families according to the Linear Angiosperm Phylogeny Group III classification. Nine of these fruits were not consumed directly but are dried and transformed into spices to season meals. 90 % of these heritage fruit had a market value and are a source of income to this population. The physico- sensory properties of these fruits were given with the largest part of fruit having a humid nature; the color of the pulp was reddish, brownish, greenish and whitish. Most of the fruit tasted sweet, the large part of the shape was ovoid. Some of these heritage fruits trees are used in folk medicine by the population to relief from certain illnesses. The present study promotes heritage fruits, sustainable development and empowerment of the rural population.

How Global Leaders Can Actively Shape the Future by their Present Actions and Choices []

ABSTRACT Today’s global organizations exert much more influence than they wielded just a few decades ago. In a relatively short period of time, the world marketplace has undergone industrialization, mechanization, urbanization, and a technology boom. On the heels of these technological advancements, we have witnessed the deterioration of moral and ethical values, corruption, financial irresponsibility, and disregard for social responsibility in the United States and in other countries. In juxtaposition with these changes stakeholders; investors, individuals, environmental groups, expectations of organizations have greatly expanded to necessitate the need for universal truths and morality as the foundation of business practices. This paper discusses the driving forces affecting the future of global organizations, how important transformational leadership driving strategic thinking and planning based upon the foundation of biblical principles will transform the global organization into one of great moral value and sustainability. Keywords. Industrialization, urbanization, technology, mechanization, global organizations, technological advancement, transformational leadership, biblical principles, moral values, and sustainability.

Leaders- Followers Communication []

ABSTRACT Communication has always been one of the greatest tools for people to interact with each other. Taking into consideration that the easiness of interacting with people all over the world was never easier, one can see that, today, we have more different channels, languages, and ways of how to communicate than ever before. But globalization also means that our communication and understanding are changing. Globalization asks for adaptation of our old and beloved perception of communication, and creates synergies of our understanding, coming from all over the world. As the world is moving and changing, we are moving and communication plays an important role for us, to recognize and understand what is actually going on around us. Organizations are facing confused employees and leaders do not know how to handle their followers. This change is the reason why communication so to say is a pillar for a world of interacting people. I see great importance, causing threats, and at the same time, I see opportunities for improvements with this pillar, which organizations, individuals, as well as groups, should be aware of. To understand the necessity of this pillar, this project tries to analyze their importance by relating and presenting their effects to and on people’s interactions. As it is a project within the field of business and leadership it will mainly deal with the perspectives of organizations and the people involved. Furthermore, it will be tried to narrow down the topic, even more, going into detail of internal communication of the modern world, meaning the younger generations using all new methods of communication. Keywords, leadership strategy, sense-making, communication, language, emotional intelligence, social intelligence, follower, leader, organizational structure, multiculturalism, communication technology, vision-mission, organizational environment, organizational communication

Knowledge, attitude and practice and its associated factors towards dengue fever in Dire Dawa military camp, Ethiopia []

Abstract: Background: Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne infection that in recent decades has become an important global public health issue. It is most emerging infections in Eastern Ethiopia and can be fatal but preventable. Dengue has a significant impact on the health and readiness for combat of military personnel. Exploring the factors that affect behavior and practices on dengue among military populations is essential for implementation of effective prevention and controls interventions.. Objectives: To assess the knowledge, attitude and practice and its associated factors towards dengue fever in South Eastern Command, Dire Dawa military camps. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among military personnel aged 18-52 years. A total of 296 participants were enrolled from February 8 to March 9, 2018 in Dire Dawa military camps and systematic sampling technique was applied. Pretested structured questionnaires were used .The collected data was entered to Epi data version3.1and exported in to SPSS version 20. Descriptive statistics such as percent, frequency, mean, SD, and proportion were used. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to explore the association of dependent and independent variables. Result: Overall poor knowledge were 138 (46.6%) with 95% CI (40.9-52.2), overall poor attitude level 108(36.5%) with 95%CI (30.7-41.9) and the participant’s overall poor preventive practice 167(56.4%) with 95% CI (50.7-62.5). Main source of information was health personnel180 (60.9%). In multi variable logistic analysis the preventive practice was significantly associated with monthly income lessthan2000 birr were [AOR=6.754(1.624-28.096)](p=0.009), monthly income between 20001-3000 were (p=0.028),3001-4000 were (p=0.047)and4001-5000 birr also were(p=0.006). Overall knowledge [AOR=2.346(1.319-4.172) (p=0.004) and overall attitude [AOR=2.249(1.198-4.224)(p=0.012), were 2 times more likely and health education less likely [AOR =0.072(0.031-0.167)(p<0.001) were significant associated with preventive practice. Conclusion: This study found that overall good knowledge, good attitude But it was found that poor preventive practice of dengue fever. Factors associated with over all poor preventive practice in this study were monthly income; health education, knowledge, and attitude of participant’s were significant associated with preventive practice. More emphasis must be given to health education can be given to more improve their awareness regarding dengue fever which can improve their poor preventive practice among military personnel’s. KEY WORDS: knowledge, Attitude, Dengue, Army personnel, preventive practice, associated factors


The advancement of TiO2 has always been serious concern for the better performance of photo- catalytic behavior even in unsuitable intensity of light. For this issue, the doping of TiO2 with transition metals has attracted serious attention for the researchers. Zn2+ metal ion is more effective among other transition metal ions such as Fe2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ etc., because the ionic radii of Zn2+ (0.074 nm) and of Ti4+ (0.075 nm) are similar to each other and hence, it is easier for substituting Ti4+ ion by Zn2+ ion without destroying crystal structure. For the preparation of zinc ion doped titania nanoparticles very useful Sol- Gel synthesis tool has been used during this research. Zn2+ ion was doped on titania varying the concentration of Zn2+ (from 0.1 M to 0.5 M). The prepared samples were characterized by XRD and SEM tools. The prepared samples were found to be having 7 nm average grain size after the determination of sample diameter by applying Debye- Scherrers formula. While the XRD data for specific sample (A2), of which SEM analysis was carried out, was found to be 12.32 nm and was supported by the information derived from SEM (11.90 nm). On comparison between annealing temperature and size of nanocrystals, it was found that on increasing annealing temperature the crystal size also increases gradually. The variation in annealing temperature above 5000C results in the transformation of anatase TiO2 crystals into rutile crystals.

Selection of Drug Candidates for Docking with the N-terminal Prion Protein. []

The porphyrins bind specific residues at the Octapeptide repeat region of the N-terminal Prion Protein; this has been suggested to be a novel highly valuable strategy in Alzheimer's disease therapy. The Lipinskin rule of 5 is a criterion to select ligands with drug-like properties from the ZINC database. We have classified 29 porphyrin- like molecules that will be used for Docking with the N-terminal of the Prion Protein. The best binding poses will qualify for molecular Dynamics Simulation. The binding poses interfares with the interaction between the Prion Protein and amyloid beta protein. This is a strategy for Alzheimer's disease therapy.

A Review- on Xanthium strumarium Linn to use as traditional Plant of Herbal Medications []

Xanthium Strumarium L. (Family: Asteraceae/ Compositae) a medicinal plant commonly found as a weed, folklore medicine and is found to be an ancient Ayurvedic remedy. Xanthium strumarium L. (Asteraceae) is a common and well-known traditional Chinese herbal medicine usually named Cang-Er-Zi, and has been used for thousands of years in China. Xanthium strumarium L. is an annual herb which reproduces solely by seed. So far its centre of origin was considered Central or South America. The plant occurs all over Pakistan, India, China, Eurasia and also in America. The trade name is Cocklebur and Chota dhatura while generally known as Chota gokhru. Xanthium strumarium L. is studied for different pharmacological and phytochemical activities. The pharmacological activity of Xanthium strumarium L. are antibacterial, antitumor, antitussive, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, hypoglycaemic, antimitotic, antioxidant, antitrypanosomal, CNS depressant activity, diuretic effects, contact dermatitis and insecticidal. The phytochemical present in plant sesquiterpenoids, phenylpropenoids, lignanoids, coumarins, steroids, glycosides, flavonoids, thiazides, anthraquinones, naphthoquinones and other compound.


Agriculture is one of the sectors with the potentials to enhance people’s standard of living. Severe hunger and poverty affects nearly one billion people around the world and as a result, the demand for food necessitates improvement in planning and management techniques of food crop production. Given that food crop cultivation remains crucial for livelihood sustenance, management techniques by farmers are largely unsustainable. With continuous increase in population, the demand for food crops remains a threat to the community as the inputs of farmers into the farms does not reflect their output in the Ndop Plain. The supply of food crops is becoming unsecured in view of the post-harvest losses incurred by farmers. Farmers Competence in Food Crop Management holds promises to increase food crop production and minimise post harvest losses. This holds that farmers success in food crop management requires a certain level of knowledge, skills, attitudes and experience acquired through formal and informal training. The study intends to investigate farmers’ competence and challenges in food crop management in the Ndop Plain. The study makes use of primary and secondary data collection in which purposive random sampling was used in administering the questionnaires. Primary sources of data collection used in the study include field observation, interview and administration of questionnaires. Direct interviews with resource persons such as the Divisional Delegate of Agriculture and Rural Development, the director of UNVDA, the Mayor of Ndop Centre, Babessi and Balikumbat Councils and the director of Rural Development Consultancy helped to identify farmer’s competency in pre and post-harvest management activities that ensures food security in the Ndop Plain. A total of two hundred and fifty three (253) questionnaires were randomly sampled to household directly or indirectly involve in the agricultural sector in the Ndop Plain. With a total agricultural population of 141757 farmers and a sample size of 14176, a sample population size was selected according to the agricultural population of each village in the Ndop Plain. In the Ndop Plain, farmers competency was determined by evaluating farmers level of education, skills in food crop management, experience in food crop production and attitudes towards training in food crop management. The Factor Analysis reveal that challenges of farmers’ competence in food crop Management is strongly significant by contributing 63% drawbacks in farmers’ livelihood in the Ndop Plain. The study concluded that challenges of farmers competence in food crop Management account for poor food crop production in the Ndop Plain. The study recommends that effective implementation of innovative programs, farmers’ education and sensitization on environmental changes and agrarian development programs vis-a-vis food security should be created at all levels.


In general, the internal combustion engine requires air and fuel as input and gives mechanical power output. The air quantity depends on the engine cylinder size and volumetric efficiency. Limited power can be generated from a particular size of engine due to limitation of air availability for combustion. Turbocharger is required to increase air quantity for same size of engine. Turbocharging technique is more and widely employed on CI and SI internal combustion engines to improve performance of same size of engine. Diesel engine operates with excess air and can be operated with higher compression and peak firing pressure. SI engines compression pressure limitation due to knocking. Turbocharger is more advantageous for CI engines to increase power and improve fuel consumption and exhaust emissions. Turbocharger is a significant contributor to meet fuel consumption and stringent emission norms. Turbocharger optimization required a systematic approach for best optimum results. Selection of a proper turbocharger is very important for engine performance and emissions. Keyword- Turbocharger, EGR, Genset, CPCB II

Factors in security agents’ homicide: Implications crime management in Nigeria. []

The study explores homicide among security agents and its obvious implications on crime prevention and control in Nigeria. The rate of gruesome and violent death of security persons is becoming alarming. It was uncovered that violent challenge from armed robbers and kidnappers, mob action an inter-agency clashes were the dimension of security agents homicide. The study further revealed recklessness and carelessness, weak intelligence-gathering capacity and armed proliferation are some of the factors that promote security agents homicide. The upsurge in security agents homicide has resulted in the demise of some skillful and experience officers and reduction in security persons which affect crime management. It was recommended that there is need for security organizations to ensure that officers are properly train on intelligence-gathering, technological and other facilities required for intelligence-gathering should be provided for the personnel. There should be a strong legislation mandating all security agencies to share intelligence information with others Security agencies, that government must not relent in its effort to provide essential facilities such as arms and ammunitions and other modern crime fighting equipment for security persons this will inevitably improve security agents’ efficiency and effectiveness in crime prevention and control.

Comparative Analysis of Three methods for Inverse problems applied in Imaging []

Nowadays, a core technology for solving image processing problems such as denoising and deblurring is regularization. Image pro-cessing is an interdisciplinary research area which has profound applications in many areas of science, technology, engineering and medicine. We plan to present a comparative analysis of three methods for commonly used regularization method namely total varia-tion regularization. The three methods are the well-known Split Bregman algorithms, the Alternating Direction Method of Multipliers and the Rudin Osher Fatemi denoising model on the graph (ROF model on the graph) which is very recent. The analysis is performed through experimental results on multiple test images both synthetic and real. We observe that they are all comparable in many cases; however the ROF model on the graph achieves a prescribed tolerance in fewer iterations than the other methods.


ABSTRACT Background: This project work was based on the knowledge and attitude of health workers towards Health Information Management system in Delta state University Teaching Hospital Oghara Delta state. Objectives: The objectives of this work are to knowledge and attitude of health workers towards Health Information Management system in Delta State University Teaching Hospital, Oghara; to identify if the use of Health Information Management System in the healthcare sector enhances quality and efficiency of patient care. Design: A descriptive survey design was employed for the study. Methods: Data were collected with the aid of a self-structured five (5) point rating Likert scale format questionnaire, and analyzed using descriptive statistical tools for the biographic data and research questions; and the null hypothesis (Ho) was tested using one sample T test at 0.05 level of significance and n-1 degree of freedom. Result: From the analysis, it was revealed that the level of computer literacy of health workers does not significantly affect the implementation of Health Information Management System (HIMS). It was revealed that passion of health workers does significantly promote the implementation of HIMS in the hospital; Many Health workers are enthusiastic about the ease that will be brought along when it is fully implemented due to all the numerous advantages. Conclusion: Based on the discussion of results, it was concluded that management should make necessary provisions to support the HIMS in the country. Since health information management system enhances patient care delivery, Health workers should be trained and retrained on computer literacy


ABSTRACT Participatory Forest Management (PFM) is a typical forest management approach that critically requires the active participation of the local community for the wise exploitation of forest products while protecting the forest from any unplanned intervention. PFM started in Ethiopia in the mid-1990s and proved to be successful practice in benefiting the local people and improving forest conditions. PFM has been practiced in Bonga forest, South West Ethiopia. There are no adequate site-specific empirical studies on the effectiveness of PFM approaches through the use of rigorous and scientifically valid impact assessment methods in this study area. This paper assessed the impacts of the PFM on the livelihoods of rural households’ of PFM member of Bonga PFM sites. A total of 269 households, 141 from PFM member and 128 from Non-PFM members were randomly selected for household survey to collect socio-economic data. Key informant interview and focus group discussion was also employed. The collected cross-sectional data were analyzed using the propensity score matching (PSM) model. The result revealed that PFM increased the forest income of PFM members by 3466.60 ETB and the number of consumption assets by 1.25. PFM had also decreased livestock holding in TLU by 1.44 and household income from the crop by 4827.68 ETB. We conclude that PFM has a positive impact on rural households’ livelihoods and recommend that other livelihood strengthening interventions should be integrated with PFM to enhance the performance of PFM. KeyWords PFM participant, impact assessment, livelihood assets, propensity score matching, rural household income


In this research, numerical iterative techniques were used to conduct voltage stability analysis of Port Harcourt Electricity Distribution (PHED) in Ikwerre Road, Diobu axis of Port Harcourt in Nigeria, with the view of addressing the system overload on the power system components such as transformer, undersize cable/conductor bus bar feeder links, etc. The application of reactive power support by capacitor compensation can help minimize the cost of distribution loss in the power supply to Ikwerre Road, Diobu axis Port Harcourt. The objectives focus on the following areas: compensation of capacitor bank before penetration to improve the system reliability, penetration of voltage stability indices values with different Distributed Generator (DG) size, increasing the DG size on voltages of dif-ferent load point, increasing the DG size of power flow with different DG and without DG size, increasing the DG size as a result of maximum loading point, increasing the DG size on the penetration level from the Load, increasing the DG size on power losses. The tendency of studying the analysis of voltage instability in power system operation and planning is to strongly identify, monitor, plan, and predict the gradual increase in power system demand and voltage profile of the Ikwerre Road, Diobu axis of Port-Harcourt. Elec-trical Transient Analyzer Program (ETAP) software was used for the simulation of the system. The simulation of the existing system case shows inequality and overload conditions on the system components. From the simulation, it showed that increasing the size of DG unit on power flow causes a reduction in real power generated by The Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) due to the in-stalled DG unit at Gambia street, Port Harcourt. Also, the maximum value of the loading parameter of the power system increased when the size of DG increases. Maximum load ability changes from 3.1217 to 4.0125 when the DG generates 60% from the load, thus the increase is by 0.8908. The increment in the value of Maximum load ability is due to the install DG. The results also showed that Reduction in the cost of power distribution and consumption in the network improves the system voltage profile and power system quality.

Integrated Nutrient Management in Rice- A Critical Review []

Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a staple food for nearly half of the world’s population. Being an agricultural commodity it is the third-highest worldwide produced commodity after sugarcane and maize. At present the current world population is 7.3 billion which is expected to reach 8.5 billion by 2030. As a result the global demand towards grain is projected to double but the challenge to achieve even higher rice production level still remains. In order to meet the global demand of the growing population, rice production must be substantially increased with the adoption of the concept of Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) which must be given top-most priority. Integrated nutrient management is the maintenance or adjustment of soil fertility, plant nutrient supply to an optimum level for sustaining the desired productivity through optimization of the benefits from all possible sources of plant nutrients in an integrated manner. This concept is of very much importance since it involves the use of inorganic fertilizers along with organic sources that are applied to soil for increasing the quality and yield of plants in a sustainable manner without harming the natural ecosystem. With the use of integrated nutrient management in rice it has increasingly improved the overall respondents on the grain crop which leads to maximum growth characteristics and yield attributes.


Selling airline tickets is one of the methods used by ticket agent service providers to make it easier for prospective aircraft passengers to get plane tickets. In the past, people who wanted to buy airline tickets had to buy them through travel agents or go directly to the airport and this was deemed inefficient in today's technology. Traveloka.com is an internet company that provides online airline ticket booking services, initiated in March 2012. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of service quality (e-service quality) and satisfaction (e-satisfaction) on purchasing decisions and loyalty (e-Loyalty) Traveloka consumers in Makassar City. The research method used The quantitative method can be interpreted as a research method based on the philosophy of positivism, used to research on certain populations or samples, data collection using this research instrument uses quantitative data analysis / statistical software SPSS 26 (Statistical Package for Social Science) Path Analysis with the aim of testing the hypothesis that has been set. From the results of data processing, it is known that service quality has a significant effect on purchasing decisions, purchase satisfaction has a significant effect on purchasing decisions, service quality has a significant effect on loyalty (e-Loyalty), purchase satisfaction has a significant effect on loyalty (e-Loyalty), purchase decisions have a significant effect on loyalty (e-Loyalty), service quality has no significant effect through purchasing decisions on loyalty (loyalty), purchase satisfaction (e-Satisfaction) has a significant effect through purchasing decisions on loyalty (loyalty).


ABSTRACT Early ANC attendance promotes early detection and treatment of complications which result in proper management during delivery and puerperium. The research aimed to examine the factors behind late ANC services among pregnant women in Rwanda. This research was a cross-sectional study using a mixed research approach. The study population was included pregnant women in the age group of 15–49 years coming for ANC services from February to March 2020 in the seven health centers from Mugonero District Hospital catchment area. For quantitative data, a sample size of 140 respondents were selected using a two-stage randomized cluster sampling procedure from the study population. For qualitative data, 23 key informants were involved in the research and 8 FGDs and were selected using purposive sampling technique. Data were collected through structured questionnaire from quantitative data and through interview guide for qualitative data. Quantitative data were coded and analyzed using SPSS version 21 while qualitative data were transcripted from the key informants and FGDs for their deep understanding. The research findings revealed that the prevalence of late ANC utilization was 57.1%. The multivariate analysis showed that ANC late was 2.1 times higher among pregnant women with primary education level (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI: [1.32-2.60]), 1.85 times higher among housewives compared to mothers who were employed (AOR = 1.85, 95% CI: [1.36-3.82]), 1.90 times higher among mothers who paid themselves transport cost (AOR = 1.90, 95% CI: [1.25-2.18]), and was 2 times higher among mothers who previously attended ANC and failed to be served compared to well served mothers when previously attended ANC services (AOR = 2.0, 95% CI: [1.82-3.16]) keeping other variables constant. Qualitative result from the seven FGDs indicated that the main barriers for ANC utilization were the absence of their husbands, fear to go for ANC while pregnancy not visible, payment for laboratory tests, long distances to go to health facility, waiting time at health facility while waiting for ANC services, all of these were declared as the factors limiting the pregnant mothers to attend in time, while for the sources of information on antenatal care services, all groups pinpointed the community health workers and health facility staff. The key informants suggested that health care providers have to increase the number of health care providers, field outreach by approaching women for ANC, training of workers on ANC, health education to women about antenatal services, presence of various partners in ANC related services and avail free of charge for ANC service. The district health offices should work closely with CHWs on creating awareness about the benefits of early attendance of ANC both for the mother and the fetus. It is also better to make the service closer to mothers who need to travel long distances. The researcher recommended to the Ministry of Health to strengthen health education on ANC among women to guarantee that the late utilization of ANC service is eliminated. Keywords :Antenatal care, factors ,

Understanding Factors Affecting Livelihood Strategies of Firewood and Charcoal Producers in the Dry Lands of Ethiopia []

Abstract This study identifies the determinants that influence the livelihood strategies of firewood and charcoal producers. The paper involves a survey questionnaire of 295 sample households based on snow ball sampling method in the dry lands of Oromia and Afar regions during 2019. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multivariate probit (MVP) model. Results show that 39% of households derived their income from crop and 47% from wood fuel for those households whose livelihoods strategy in farming. While household in agro pastoral livelihood strategy, about 58% and 21 % derived their income from wood fuel and crop, respectively. Households whose depend their livelihood strategies on pastoral, 51% generate their income from wood fuel and 29% from wage. The model reveal that sex, age, education, family size, livestock holding, farm size, distance, off-farm activity, relief aid, training, market information, and membership on institution were significantly affected the livelihood strategy of firewood and charcoal producers in the dry lands of Ethiopia. Therefore, firewood and charcoal producer livelihoods are diverse and policy makers need to reflect on the most suitable ways of supporting sustainable use of dry land forest management and socio-economic intervention options. Keywords: Charcoal, Dry land, Ethiopia, Firewood, Livelihood