Volume 9, Issue 2, February 2021 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Optimization of Wind/Photovoltaic Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems for Telecommunication Networks in Nigeria []

ABSTRACT This work presents a more sustainable approach to electricity generation using an optimized hybrid Wind/Photovoltaic renewable energy system for telecommunication industries in Port Harcourt. It uses sensitivity analysis of the optimized hybrid system model developed and performs comparative analysis of the selected energy schemes with fossil generation system in terms of energy production, cost, based on Net Present- Value (NPV). The HOMER Software was used to simulate as much as 25 different scenarios. The result of the comparative cost analysis show that Net Present-Value (NPV) , Annualized Cost, Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE), Operating Cost/Year are lower or cheaper for the PV/Generator Network compared to Grid/Generator network. This study established that there is comparative cost advantage of solar energy utilization in improving power supply in Nigeria.

The Impact of financial knowledge and Risk aversion on credit card usage with moderating role of income level []

The objective of this study is to identify the personal financial knowledge and risk aversion towards credit card using among the university student. This study also identifies respondents' gender, education level and monthly income towards credit card usage. This study is conduct at Rawalpindi and Islamabad sector. The primary data was used for analysis. The data was collected through structured questionnaire, this survey involves total sample of 200 questionnaires. We use SPSS software for analysis. Regression analysis was used to analyze the data. Results of data analysis showed that financial knowledge has a strong positive effect on the credit card usage. On the opposing, Risk aversion exhibits no significant effect on credit card usage. A positive direct effect of Income level on a credit card usage is also confirmed. It is also established that income level do not moderate the relation of risk aversion and credit card usage; however a moderation effect of Income level is establish in the relationship between job financial knowledge and credit card usage. The findings can be of immense use to international and Pakistani banks in marketing of credit cards. The convenience attribute can be emphasized to instill confidence among consumers and motivate them to use credit card.

Minimizing Total Inventory Cost of the Mechanical Spare Parts (Case of Messobo Cement Industry) []

Messobo cement factory is one of the competitive companies in Ethiopia even in east Africa. The importance, relevance, and organizational structure of inventory management and control have been gradually recognized throughout the developed countries. However, the degree of attention given is not up to the required level. Good and sufficient inventory management system will help the firm to be strong and highly competitive in an existing market situation. In Messobo cement factory there is maximum inventory costs. As I have seen this maximum inventory costs happen due to failure of machines, not well inventory management and technical control system. This problem could solve by using ABC and HML classification of inventory control analysis and economic order quantity (EOQ) model. The reason for choosing this inventory planning and control department for my research area are, due to be high inventory cost and the above explained problem. The objective of this thesis is minimizing total inventory cost by identifying the categories of mechanical spare parts requiring greater managerial control, because not all inventories need to be controlled with equal attention and also identifying when the spare parts are to be ordered, number of spare parts per order and the time between numbers of order. Data analysis of ABC classification based on cost criteria was formulated for prioritization of mechanical spare parts. The HML analysis is useful for keeping control over consumption at departmental levels, for deciding the frequency of physical verification, and for controlling purchase classification type of inventory control analysis is classified spare parts based on unit cost per item (per piece). The third method is Economic Order Quantity (EOQ) which has been proposed to determine ‘when’ and ‘how much’ the order should be placed. By using these analyses, the company could minimize the existing inventory costs of mechanical spare parts.

Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis of Sansevieria plant []

Temperature, carbon concentration, light and dark reactions, pH levels do not affect the rate of photosynthesis of S. triafaciata, S. hyacintoides, and S. stukyi. However, antibiotic disrupts the rate of photosynthesis.

Utilization of Canvas through Online Distance Learning to Education Amidst Pandemic []

The presence of COVID-19 pandemic brought unplanned and unwanted problems in education. The limitation of face-face classes was affected and forced student learning to be delivered online. Thus, it became a need to explore and learn possible innovative materials that can be used in delivering online distance learning. The utilization therefore in the teaching and learning process in education paved way for different institutions to be ready as part of this transformation towards new normal. Descriptive quantitative research was employed in this study that systematically described the situations of Utilizing Online distance learning by the College of Teacher Education. Online survey was conducted among 23 participating faculty members of the said college. Basic statistical tool like frequency count, weighted mean, averaging and percentages were used to analyze the gathered data. Findings show that 23 or 65.71% of the participants answered that they have been Utilizing Canvas through Online Distance Learning. Where 15 or 60.87% of faculty mentioned that using chat as an indicator in canvas has satisfied them in communicating with their students. Faculty were evaluated on their readiness towards the transformation to the new normal and it was revealed that there are challenges that faculty must consider the situation of their students with regards the Online Distance Learning and learn to adapt with the new situation. With the results of the study, teacher’s readiness is a big factor in making a decision in shifting from face to face to online distance learning to achieve quality education. Faculty members should therefore develop their own framework, continuity plan or game plan. Continuous learning and development anchored on the existing tools and resources of the institution, capability of staff and faculty members. The creation and discovery of certain tools is recommended as a framework in providing continuous learning where leading faculty will provide training and seminars to faculty members specially those who are just beginners in technology use.

New Algorithm for Reverse Conversion in Residue Number System []

Reverse conversion is an important exercise in achieving the properties of Residue Number System (RNS). Current algorithms available for reverse conversion exhibits greater computational overhead in terms of speed and area. In this paper, we have developed a new algorithm for reverse conversion for two-moduli set and three-moduli set that are very simple and with fewer multiplicative inverse operations than there are in the traditional algorithms like the Chinese Remainder Theorem (CRT) and Mixed Radix Conversion (MRC).


The peculiar nature of microfinance banks as financial intermediaries exposes operations to risks in their normal business activities. The period of business disruptions the level of risk is aggravated that tends to endanger the survival and sustainability of the operations of these financial institutions whose services are designed to bridge the access gap for the financially excluded productive poor. This paper examines the challenges of managing credit risk by the Microfinance banks in the disruptive economy to achieve corporate goals and objectives.

The Determinants of Trade Facilitation in Central African Economic and Monetary Union: An Analysis by the Gravity Model []

This study aims at identifying, by using the gravity model, the determinants of trade facilitation, likely to boost economic development in CEMAC zone. The data used cover the period 2004-2014 and come from five different sources namely COMTRADE of World Integrated Service (WITS), Center for Prospective Studies and International Information (CEPII), UNCTAD, Doing Business and Heritage Foundation Index of Economic Freedom from the Heritage Foundation. The results show that the distance between CEMAC countries and their partners significantly and negatively influences exports; sharing a common language is a proxy for cultural rapprochement that can foster trade. Therefore, our analysis shows that to reduce export and import delays, it is therefore important to strengthen cross-border administrations. In order to reduce transactions cost, it should be urgent to computerize the administrative system, reduce the digital divide and create an institutional framework of law enforcement and trade facilitation.


The application of biotechnology in fisheries is very broad, starting from the engineering of cultivation media, fish, to post-harvest fishery products. Microorganisms play an important role in the development of biotechnology. The role of microorganisms in fisheries is very important. Some diseases that attack fish are caused by microorganisms. The beneficial role of microbes will help with metabolism as well as feed ingredients or additional feed and probiotics. Probiotics which are used as biological control agents for fish diseases have been widely used in aquaculture. The target disease agent is usually bacteria, and challenge testing by means of infection with a wide variety of pathogens has been treated in several commonly farmed fish species. Some effective probiotics, especially those given before challenge tests against infectious agents, can increase colonization resistance compared to controls. Therefore a technical innovation is needed to overcome problems in fish disease prevention, one of which is probiotics as a biotechnological approach that has been widely applied to improve fish health.

Antibacterial Potential of Microalga Against Fish and Shrimps Bacterial Pathogens []

Bacteria are one of pathogens which caused fish and shrimps diseases. Some of them are Vibrio, Streptococcus, and Aeromonas. Some diseases can cause mortality and decrease the aquaculture production. Because of that, control of bacterial disease need to be done. Microalga has a lot of bioactive compound such as proteins, flavonoids, carotenoids, polyphenols, terpenoid, polysaccharides, polyunsaturated fatty acids and others. These bioactive compounds has been proved that can inhibit bacteria growth. The aim of this review paper are to describe kind of bioactive com-pound in microalga and its potential as antibacterial agent against fish and shrimps pathogens

Features of Intertextuality in Mäshafä Ziq []

This article proceeds from Mäshafä Ziq, which in various different ways, is a layered text. This is to argue that the concept of the so-called ‘intertextuality’ can only be understood if the intertextual influence of the various pre-texts on the final text is taken into consideration. It is obvious that texts always speak of other texts, and every narrative tells a story that has already been told. No text can have meaning without those prior texts. Texts may stuff with the main as well as the supplemental, the most significant as well as the less significant references to the mythical, religious, political, historical, cultural, and the like. Therefore, the different levels of intertextuality between Mäshafä Ziq and its pre-texts, its alternative forms which are present in it and the context into which it was embedded are described. To achieve the objectives, qualitative research methodology was applied; referential unit and syntactical unit have been utilized as units of analysis; “dialogical intertexuality” type of intertexuality was applied for it helps to describe a dynamic state of affairs; close reading of the manuscript has been done; potential extractions were extracted; and finally the intertextual features were identified.


Water is one of the most important and necessary factors in the life of living things. Water must be available whenever and wherever in sufficient quantity, time and quality. A hydram pump is a pump that does not require external energy as its power source. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the waterfall angle on the discharge and efficiency of the hydram pump. This study uses a hydram pump with a compressor tube diameter of 3 inches and a height of 24 cm. The height of the waterfall is 2 meters with five variations of the angle of the pump are 45o, 40o, 31o, 26o and 22o. The method of analysis is done by analyzing the data obtained during the study, where the results are quantitative data which is presented in tabular form and displayed in graphical form. The results showed that the best efficiency of the hydram pump with the ILK arrangement was 22.3%, which was obtained at a waterfall angle of 26o. Meanwhile, the IKL arrangement is 14.2%, which is obtained at a 45o angle. The best debit is obtained at a 45o waterfall in the ILK arrangement, the hydram pump discharge debit is 0.088 lt / second with a maximum discharge head of 30 meters, and for the IKL arrangement, the hydram pump discharge debit is 0.068 lt / second with a maximum head discharge of 25 meters.

Different types of PCR []

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) a technique which open a new level of scientific research in different direction to understanding the source of some genetics pathogen and polymorphism among population, its offer to amplifying the DNA outside of the organism " in vitro". A different type of PCR were created for detection many phenomena which appear in different disease and cases, abled the scientist to study these cases and diagnosis the reasons. RAPD, AFLP, ARMS, Colony, Nested and multiplex and other types of PCR are reveal the reasons of many genetics and heredity of some trait and disease.


Customer retention has become one of the main priorities for business these days. The more they retain customers the better they survive in competitive market. The goal of customer retention programs is to help companies retain many customers. To retain customer it’s a tough job because customer data is so large and imbalanced that company can’t handled it manually. There is a need for the system that can automatically predict leaving customers. Many researchers in past have tried to solve this problem by using data mining techniques. In this review paper we are reviewed the literature related to customer retention using data mining techniques. The structure of this paper is based on supervised, unsupervised, and hybrid models of data mining. At the end we have discussed the limitations of the previous work and future directions for the upcoming researchers.


The study investigated the effects of computer-based and jigsaw methods of teaching on senior secondary school students’ learning outcomes in Agricultural science in Ekiti State. The study adopted the quasi- experimental research design of pre-test, post-test and control group. The population comprised all Senior Secondary School Two Agricultural Science students in public secondary schools in Ekiti State. The sample consisted of 240 senior secondary school II Agricultural Science students. Two instruments were used to elicit information for the study; ‘Performance Test for Agricultural Science Students (PTASS)’ and ‘Students Attitude towards Agricultural Science Scale (SATASS)’. The instruments were validated by experts and reliability coefficients of 0.78 and 0.72 were obtained for PTASS and SATASS respectively. Two research questions and two hypotheses were postulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The data collated were analyzed using mean, standard deviation and Analysis of Variance. The findings of the study showed that Computer based and Jigsaw methods were found to improve students’ performance in Agricultural science when compared with conventional method. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that Government and administrators should provide relevant resources for the use of computer-based and jigsaw methods.

Effect of Social Capital on Competitive Advantage: The Mediating Role of Absorptive Capacity among Commercial Banks in Kenya []

ABSTRACT The objective of this research is to present a model that describes the general effect of social capital and absorptive capacity on company competitive advantage. The study processed data from 272 respondents of employees of commercial banks in Kenya that meet certain requirements. This study found that social capital has a positive and significant effect on absorptive capacity and competitive advantage respectively. Absorptive capacity has a positive and significant impact on competitive advantage. Furthermore social capital and absorptive capacity together have a positive and significant impact on firm competitive advantage. Absorptive capacity mediates the relationship between social capital and firm competitive advantage. Future research is suggested to try with additional other variables such as monetary incentives and/or corporate culture.The practical implication of this research is to improve social capital, it is necessary to improve social capital and absorptive capacity together. Furthermore firm competitive advantage can be improved if social capital and absorptive capacity are improved simultaneously.The model proposed in this research improves the understanding of academics and practitioners about the construct of social capital. The mediation function of absorptive capacity is something new from this research compared to previous researches. This research also provides an additional contradictory list of previous researches on the relationship between social capital and firm competitive advantage.

Implementing policies and plans for action: The imperative of coordination in disaster management []

Disaster management as a public service derives its processes and procedures from the legal and institutional framework already developed for the sector either locally or internationally. These frameworks are reenforced by the policies and plans developed by the sector in every country where they operate. To ensure that these structures are given life, a special ingredient is added to make it work and that is coordination, which is the variable that galvanises the industry to optimal performance. This paper therefore investigated the importance of coordination in the implementation of emergency management policies and plans. In order to achieve this objective, a qualitative survey design was adopted for the study using Abuja as the study area. The population was all the staff of the Ministries, departments and agencies, and other stakeholders involved in disaster management in Nigeria. The sample for this study is 100 staff of the organisations chosen using purposive sampling technique. Five research questions were adopted for the study and questionnaires, interviews and focal group discussions were used as instruments for the study. The study concluded that the coordination and implementation of plans and policies for disaster management in a country relies mostly on the leadership of the sector, the existing institutional and legal framework and governments buy in into the activities of the relevant institutions. Based on this the paper made recommendations on how to move the industry forward in the country.

Research Paper - Pakistan and India Trade: Prospects and Challenges []

Bilateral trade between Pakistan and India exist since the inception of both countries but it has not nourished as much as it should have over the period of time. This paper attempts to analyze the trade between Pakistan and India and the challenges and prospects for both countries regarding trade and the potential impact of granting MFN status to India by Pakistan. The study has been conducted as a case study and interviews were conducted from the business community representatives and notable think tanks. Administrative as well as Technical barriers to trade along with lack of R&D were identified as main obstacles in enhancing trade. Lack of capacity and institutional coordination is also a major concern among the business community in Pakistan and it has a negative impact on the trade. These along with consumer awareness were the issues that need to be addressed. In the end the recommendations to enhance the trade between both countries and solve the issues related to trade have been stated on the basis of the findings which are enhancing R&D, removing the trade barriers and increasing the capacity of Trade facilitating authority in Pakistan are important for promoting the trade. The conclusion hold that trade will better the relationships between both countries and will bring good fortunes to both countries, especially Pakistan and can be a big step toward regional integration. Keywords: MFN, Trade, Tariff, NTB’s, Technical Barriers, R&D.

The Ultimate Situation Jaspers’ Vision of Freedom []

Kamlesh Kaur Assistant Professor (Philosophy) Government College for Girls Ludhiana, Punjab Mobile No:-9876314265 The Ultimate Situation Jaspers’ Vision of Freedom Abstract An understanding of the concept of boundary situations is most essential for determining the climate of Jaspers' philosophizing. The situations which are felt, experienced and conceived at the limit of one's existence are termed boundary situations. Experiences like death, suffering and guilt are discussed under the heading "boundary situations".Unlike some other existentialists, Jaspers catalogues many levels of situations. One may discern the economic and political structure of a society, the conditioning power of a scientific outlook and techniques relevant to it and the potentialities produced by the cultural relations among men.' One investigates either universal typical situations or historically determined non-recurrent ones. Jaspers shows man's active role in a given situation, for here he makes full use of his potentialities. He takes the situation in his hand, chooses a definite line of action and thus modifies the situation. Boundary situations form an essential constituent of human existence itself. Man lives and like every other living being is subject to death. He experiences joy and sorrow.' One attempts to avoid, ignore and forget these situations even though one finds oneself constantly delivered up to them. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Keywords:- Boundary Situation, Struggle, Guilt, Death, Freedom.

Sustainability of Cooperatives: THE Impact of Motivation []

Sustainability is the driving force that significantly helps the organizations survive in their respective industries. This appears to be the goal of organizations nowadays specifically those belonging to the cooperative industry. The cooperatives are exploring means to guarantee that their organizations will last long to continually provide them their needs and assist them increase their income. This sector serves as a powerful tool to alleviate living conditions of the members at the same time sustains economic growth; however, an extremely changing and competitive environment currently challenged this industry. This research work finds its essence through the genuine efforts to contribute knowledge to the current scenario. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of motivation on the sustainability of multi-purpose cooperatives. This study employed mixed method research design. The survey conveniently selected a total of 641 cooperative officers among the 75 coopera-tives in Bukidnon. The researcher conducted interviews with five officers holding key positions and focus group discussions among 30 mem-bers from five cooperatives. The findings show that resources have significant impact on the sustainability of multi-purpose cooperatives. Limitations of this study include the utilized indicators of resources which are; trust and openness, playfulness and humor, and interpersonal relations and conflict management that were solely assessed by conveniently selected cooperative officers of Bukidnon. Over-all the study concludes that if multi-purpose cooperative officers are motivated, economic sustainability will be possibly realized.

Implementing policies and plans for action: The imperative of coordination in disaster management []

ABSTRACT: This study examined the impact of Fiscal Policy on Economic sustainability and Growth of Nigeria. Specifically the study sought to; (a) evaluate the long-run effects of Capital expenditure on Economic sustainability and Growth of Nigeria (b) ascertain the impact of Domestic Debt on Economic sustainability and Growth in Nigeria(c) determine causality relationship existing between Recurrent expenditure and Economic sustainability and Growth of Nigeria (d) examine the relationship between Non-oil Revenue and Economic sustainability and Growth of Nigeria.. The researchers adopted time series data from 1990 to 2019 which were drawn from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) statistical bulletin and Debt Management Office (DMO). The data obtained was subjected to Johansen Co integration method of analysis because the study involves the use of multivariate estimations. The multivariate Co-integration result indicated that there are two co-integrating equations which indicate that there is long-run relationship between the dependent and the independent variables. The result of ADF reveals that all the variables are integrated of same order. The regression result indicates that Fiscal Policy has positive and significant effect on economic sustainability and growth of Nigeria. The study recommends that Nigeria should keep her assets well diversified by holding foreign mutual funds, gold and other commodities.

Pattern of Thyroid Diseases in King Salman Hospital,Riyadh []

Introduction :The incidence of thyroid diseases is on the increase in Saudi Arabia, yet there are well known regional and geographical variations .Objectives: This study aims at analyzing the patterns of thyroid diseases among patients who were surgically treated in King Salman hospital between 2016 and 2020.Methods:The records of the selected patients were studied retrospectively for the variables of age, sex, functional status, preoperative cytology and postoperative histopathology. Result :Sixty-one patients were included with a female to male ratio of 3:1.The majority had benign thyroid diseases. Malignancy is more common among females. FNAC had an accuracy of 85% compared to histopathology.


Mobile money laundering has one of the main challenges for the world. Mobile money laundering is a process of sending money through illegal ways using mobile applications. In past, many researchers have worked on detection of the transactions involved in mobile money laundering using data mining techniques. . In this review paper, we have analyzed the previous literature related to mobile money laundering using data mining methods. We have categorized the literature into supervised and unsupervised learning methods. After reviewing the literature, the limitations and future work is also suggested


Heat is something, which flows from a body at higher temperature to another body at lower temperature, when the two are in contact. Heat is an energy that is transferred from one body to another body owing to a difference in temperatures of the two bodies . The energy is the ability of a body to do the work .The work done is the measure of the kinetic energy of the body .The kinetic energy of a body is the energy possessed by the body by virtue of its motion .The work is said to be done by a force acting on a body such that the body is displaced actually in any direction except in a direction perpendicular to the direction of force. Work is energy that is transferred from one body to another body owing to some force that acts between them. Work = Force * displacement = Energy This law is applicable equally to all three phases of matter i.e. solid, liquid and gas .It is impossible to get work from any machine without absorption of some amount of energy to the machine .The law of conservation of energy applies to every process in nature. Rotation is motion and vice versa. If a force is applied on a wheel and that force simultaneously converts to the centripetal force as well as the centrifugal force then the wheel moves forward. So every point of the wheel moves vertically on a curved path to cover horizontally on a straight line path. The following laws are derived from the above facts as follows , LAW OF MOTION ------------------- Nrusingh’s 1st law (a) INERTIA OF REST : A body is at rest, until the applied force on it , converts to the centripetal force as well as the centrifugal force (b) INERTIA OF MOTION : A body is at motion, as long as the applied force on it , converts to the centripetal force as well as the centrifugal force The following law is derived from Nrusingh’s 1st law THE FORCE OF ACTION IS ALWAYS EQUAL TO THE SUM OF OPPOSITE REACTION AND ABSORPTION ------------------------ Nrusingh’s 2nd law This implies that, 14 PARTS ACTION = 11 PARTS REACTION + 3 PARTS ABSORPTION So 1 part action = (11/14) part reaction + (3/14) part absorption The following laws are derived from Nrusingh’s 2nd law FORCE = (11/14) MASS * ACCELERATION ----- Nrusingh’s 3rd law ENERGY = MASS ( VELOCITY OF LIGHT )² ---- Nrusingh’s 4th law PRESSURE * VOLUME = (11/14) TEMPERATURE ---- Nrusingh’s 5th law PRESSURE = (11/14) FORCE/AREA ---- Nrusingh’s 6th law Energy = (11/14) frequency ---- Nrusingh’s 7th law WORK = (11/14) FORCE * DISTANCE ---- Nrusingh’s 8th law THE ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY OF AN OBJECT IS 11m/s² ON THE EARTH - --- - --- Nrusingh’s 9th law THE GRAVITATIONAL FORCE OF THE HEAVIER BODY IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE PRODUCT OF THE MASS AND ACCELERATION OF THE LIGHTER BODY => GRAVITATIONAL FORCE = (11/14) MASS * ACCELERATION - --- Nrusingh’s 10th law Heat works in a system just like the wheel moves on the road by a force . Energy is derived from the force as WORK = (11/14) FORCE * DISTANCE = ENERGY and Action = Reaction + Absorption This implies that, THE SUPPLIED HEAT TO A SYSTEM IS EQUAL TO THE SUM OF THE INTERNAL ABSORBED HEAT AS WELL AS THE EXTERNAL WORK DONE HEAT

Is IL6 gene polymorphism predictor marker for severe illness and deaths among healthy adults who get sick by COVID-19 infection? []

COVID-19 is the disease caused by a novel coronavirus called SARS COV2. The most common symptoms are fever, dry cough and fatigue. More severe symptoms include shortness of breath, reduce consciousness, neurological complications such as stroke, brain inflammation, cardiac problem, lever dysfunction and systemic hyperinflammation with multiorgan failure and death. 80% of patients recover from covid19 without need to hospital admission. About 15% become seriously ill and require oxygen, while 5% become critically ill and need intensive care. Ageing people with underlying chronic disease are at higher risk of developing serious or critical illness and death. Some healthy adults without known serious chronic illness may be vulnerable to severe complications and or death by covid19. In general, clinical outcomes of COVID-19 varies between individuals from spontaneous viral clearance and severe illness or death specially among elderly people and in less extent in healthy adults. IL6 is cytokine involved in a variety of host inflammatory reaction produced by numerous types of cells, particularly lymphocytes, and fibroblast and monocytes as well. This diversity to host reaction may be affected by host genetic factors including alteration in gene encoding cytokines as proinflammatory agent. IL 6 gene polymorphism may be implicated in developing serious or critical illness among healthy adults who have been infected with COVID-19. High level of IL6 and CRP have been related to poor prognosis among those who have been included in this study. Future large studies need to address this issue. Continuation of more research on IL6 gene polymorphism to determine its role in some mortality and pathogenicity among healthy adults infected by COVID-19 in order to get significant knowledge how to reduce mortality rate among such patients.


Green Turtle (Chelonia mydas) is a marine reptile that has a nesting habitat in coastal areas. The bio-physical environmental characteristics of a coastal area greatly influence turtles to land and carry out the nesting process. The purpose of this research is to analyze changes in the character of the bio-physical environment of Pangumbahan Beach and to correlate these changes with the arrival of Green Turtles (Chelonia mydas) to lay eggs. This research was conducted in the Pangumbahan Beach Turtle Conservation Area, Kab. Sukabumi, West Java, which was held in November 2020. The methods used in this research are survey and observation methods for taking coastal characteristics and literature review methods for secondary data collection. After that, changes in the characteristics of the coast were analyzed descriptively and comparatively. Then the correlation between changes in coastal characteristics and the number of turtles laying eggs were analyzed using linear regression and polynomials. The data used in this research include the num-ber of turtle nesting data from January 2008 to October 2020 and the bio-physical characteristics of Pangumbahan Beach in 2008, 2015, and 2020. The research results show that changes in characteristics do not affect the arrival of turtles to lay eggs if changes are still within the optimum limit for turtles to lay eggs. The decline in the number of turtles laying eggs in 2015 was due to the large beach width of 88.01 m and the 3-year cycle of turtles to reproduce. Keywords: Characteristic Change, Green Turtle, Laying Habitat, Pangumbahan

Relationship between School Attendance and Academic Performance of Primary School Students from TASAF III’s Targeted Households in Lushoto District Tanzania []

TASAF III programme supporting poverty reduction strategies in Tanzania incorporates conditional and unconditional cash transfers as among the Productive Social Safety Net (PSSN) interventions to help poor households to attain sustainable livelihood. The study examined the efficacy of unconditional cash transfers by assessing relationship between attendance of primary school students from poor households complying with unconditional cash transfers for education services and examination performance in Lushoto District Tanzania. A cross-sectional study was used to collect quantitative data from student registers in seven selected primary schools. Purposive sampling was used to select 36 students from four schools located in rural villages and three schools located in urban villages. Structured questionnaire was used to fill information of standard VII students who sat for leaving examinations in October 2020 and their results released in December 2020. Descriptive analysis and Chi-square was used in analysis of data collected from questionnaire by using SPSS version 16. Results showed that 52.8% of students had good attendance while 47.2% had poor attendance. Other results showed that 61.1% of students passed examinations while 38.9% of students failed. The study revealed that there was significant relationship (χ2 =5.386, p=0.02) between attendance and performance in examinations among the PSSN targeted primary school students at 5% significance level. This study recommends that TASAF management should more enhance strategies of educational compliance particularly by conducting regular monitoring and evaluation to targeted poor households in order to make sure that all students from poor households attend school and perform better in examinations.

Application of bacteriocin in meat preservation []

Fresh meat is a highly perishable product due to its biological composition. Many interrelated factors influence the shelf life and freshness of meat such as holding temperature, atmospheric oxygen, endogenous enzymes, moisture, light and most importantly, micro-organisms. The effects of 2ml of nisin at different temperatures when tested with meat for preservation ability with viable cell counts of bacterial from Day 1 to Day 42. The increase in the concentration of nisin at higher storage temperature (-18 °C, 4°C and 20°C) and length of time (Day 1 to Day 42), the higher the viable microbial cells recorded. The total viable cell counts at dilution factor 10-3 for 2ml of nisin was 52 x 10-3 CFU/ml , 64 x 10-3 CFU/ml and 101 x 10-3 CFU/ml for -18 °C, 4°C and 20°C respectively. The results revealed that the increase in the volume of nisin at higher storage temperature and length of time, the higher the viable microbial cells recorded.


The existence of equilibrium in Walrasian economic model of pure exchange economic problem is considered. A stochastic iteration method in solving variational Inequality scheme of an economic equilibrium problem is examined. Let be a price vector, and Let be a real price vector space. Let p→P be a continuous linear monotone operator and is a nonempty closed convex subset of P. From an arbitrary initial point , a stochastic iteration scheme is defined as follows: is a strong approximation of P and Under suitable condition on we show that converges strongly to the solution of variational inequality formulation of Walrasian equilibrium.


This study aims to examine the effect of education level, minimum wage and inflation on unemployment rate through labor productivity in Eastern Indonesia. The data used is secondary data obtained from the Central Statistics Agency. The data in this study are panel data from 2015-2019. In this study, using the simultaneous regression analysis method with the Amos program. The findings of this study indicate that education directly and indirectly through labor productivity has a positive effect o n unemployment. Meanwhile, wages directly have a negative and insignificant effect on the unemployment rate. However, i ndirectly it has a positive and significant effect on the unemployment rate through labor productivity. Then, inflation directly has a positive effect on the un employment rate. However, inflation indirectly has a negative effect on unemployment through lab or productivity. And labor productivity directly has a negative effect on the unemployment rate.

Governance and Skilled Migration: Evidence from sub-Saharan Africa – OECD Migration []

Although migration, particularly skilled migration is generally considered as a first consequence of income differences across countries, it remains a fact that the quality of institutions seems to be the most important determinant. From a theoretical perspective, the explanation of migratory flows seems therefore ambiguous. An ambiguity which is also apparent in the empirical literature. To solve it, this paper examines, on the one hand, the effects of governance on skilled migration and on the other hand, the impact of this migration on human capital formation in countries of origin. Our empirical strategy is based on a simultaneous equation model which consists of a gravity equation and a nonlinear one. We estimate this model for 33 sub-Saharan Africa/OECD countries between 2000 and 2010. Our results show that strong institutions tend to reduce emigration of skilled Africans. These results imply that skilled Africans seem more prompt in migrating, especially if the perception they have about their total involvement in societal choices does not appear to be guaranteed. The acquisition of human capital (education and health) in sub-Saharan countries is, over the short-term, negatively affected by the absence of “breeding stocks”.