Volume 7, Issue 3, March 2019 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Results of Testing Situational Leadership []

This study provides a discussion of the survey data collected and summarizes the results of the data analysis. It identifies the research questions with respective hypotheses and analytical techniques used. The Center for Leadership Studies Inc. performed a statistical analysis using the 360-Degree Leadership Style Feedback, Composite Profile and the Style/Readiness Matrix software.

Application of Regression Type Estimator in Double Sampling Skills to Students’ Enrollment in Oyo State []

This research derived the precision using Regression Estimation technique with the application of secondary data obtained using the number of students enrollment in 2015 (Auxiliary variable “x”) and 2016 (response variable “y”) respectively in secondary schools of Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria for the purpose of obtaining average enrollment figures in the selected state in order to know the bright future of secondary schools in Oyo State in general and to establish the empirical comparison of the optimum variances in obtaining the most efficient estimator in order to satisfy the condition; based on the coefficients of Variation for the validity and reliability, the relative efficiency was also determined based on the conditions attached to the supremacy in terms of the estimated mean square error (variance) whereby the regression line does not pass through the origin from the graph of Relative Efficiency (R.E) against Correlation Coefficients that maintain inverse relation. Proper conclusions and recommendations are made based on findings from the analysis in terms of adequate record keeping among the contemporary states within.

Design Thinking for Gesture-based Human Computer Interactions []

Gesture is a way of communication which involves body language and can be defined with or without spoken words. The primary goal of gesture interaction applied to Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) is to create systems, which can identify specific human gestures and use them to convey information or control devices. Gesture interaction is already a promising input modality in modern gaming, augmented and virtual reality. Gestural input makes computing more “natural” by enabling communication with a computer the same way we also communicate with one another. Computer users face challenges when engaging and implementing gesture interactions, that is: complex coordination of all gestures regularly, mastering approachability to different gestures, muscle fatigue and a lack of supporting data input that is seamless with gesture interaction. In combination with a lack of tracking success or failure, end users often struggle to execute gestures correctly. To compensate this, users require a design thinking framework that supports them during execution of gestures.

A study on the Diversity of Mushrooms from Cauvery Delta Region, Tamil Nadu, India []

Mushroom belongs to the group of organisms known as macrofungi under the phylum Ascomycotina and Basidiomycotina. Mushroom is the fleshy and spore - bearing organ of the fungi that called as fruiting body. Mushrooms are seasonal fungi, which occupy diverse niches in forest and territory ecosystem. They mostly occur during the rainy season, particularly in forests, where the dense canopy shade from trees provide a moist atmosphere and decomposing organic material such as leaf litter, and favors the germination and growth of mushrooms. We have studied eco- social forestry of Cauvery Delta Region of Tamilnadu. A total of 35 mushroom species belonging to 23 genera in 15 families were recorded in this study. The species richness was found more in famililes Agaricaceae followed by Ganodermataceae, Lycophyllaceae, Schizophyllaceae, Xylariaceae, Polyporaceae, Marasmiaceae, Psanthyrellaceae, and Strophaniaceae. Auriculariaceae, Botetaceae, Fornitopsidaceae, Mycenaceae, Tremellaceae, and Tricholomataceae showed less diversity. The difference in the distribution of commonly observed mushroom fungal families over this location was compared with other locations in India.


If you look world economy and compare with the Swiss economy. It has been seen that it is fifth in the world rank as far as Gross domestic product is the concern. Most of which is contributed by the service sector. Meaning to say the 2/3 of GDP is comprised of the service sector. On the contrary, if you see the next contribution is by industry. While the agriculture sector is very less. However, not more than one percent. The foreign economy depends on the European economy. Why? Simply there are few reason but one of them is a business reason. Much businesses depend on trading of European countries. In research sector, Switzerland is almost looking to make better and spending nearly three percent .In industry majority of companies are small size also medium size. There is fewer major industry .Good and service tax is common and it assume to be around eight percent. For further progress of industrial sector there is need to do some effort. Analyst say that, although agriculture sector is required to be developed first in comparison to industrial sector. However, as noted earlier that agriculture sector is performing very lower in all sectors. The government is doing much effort in industrial sector hence contribution is more but it next is next to service sector. However, major industry contribution is very limited. The most percentage of income come from medium and small size industries. The Swiss currency name is Swiss franc. The abbreviation for Swiss franc is CHF. Sometime it is denoted by SFr; or Fr. The Swiss currency is one of competitive currency in the world. In economic sense obviously one of dominated currency in the world. This is one of reason why Swiss economy is rising at faster rate.


The purpose of this research are: (1) To provide empirical evidence between partially significant influence of social media facebook on consumer satisfactionbuying Muslim fashiontoward Student of UniversitasMerdekaMadiun; (2) To provide empirical evidence between the influence of social media instagram on consumer satisfaction buying Muslim fashion toward Student University MerdekaMadiun; and (3) To provide empirical evidence there is influence of social media facebook and instagram to consumer satisfaction buying Muslim fashion toward Student of UniversitasMerdekaMadiun.Population in this research is student of University of MerdekaMadiun which amount very much, so must be determined research sample. Determination of the number of samples in this study using the Lemeshow formula and accidental sampling technique. Once calculated using Lemeshow formula then the number of respondents in this study are set as 100 students. Data collection techniques in this study was using questionnaires. While the technique of analysis in this study using multiple linear regression analysis, determination analysis, hypothesis test (t test and F test).The research findings show that (1) There is partial influence of social media facebook towards consumer satisfaction of buying Muslim fashion at student of UniversitasMerdekaMadiun; (2) There is partially influence of social mediainstagram to consumer satisfaction of buying Moslem fashion at student of UniversitasMerdekaMadiun; (3) There is influence simultaneously in social media facebook and social media instagram to consumer satisfaction of buyingmoslem fashion at student of UniversitasMerdekaMadiun; and (4) Social media variable which is instagram have dominant influence to consumer satisfaction to buy Moslem fashion at student of UniversitasMerdekaMadiun.

Assessment (Evaluation) of the trophic status of Ouiouane Lake (Middle Atlas) -Morocco []

Eutrophication is the natural aging process of a lake. As the word suggests, eutrophication is characterized by a gradual enrichment of the lake with nutrients which are essential for the growth of algas and aquatic plants. The purpose of this study is to analyze the quality of the lake's types of water in order to determine the trophic level of Ouiouane lake while following the spatiotemporal evolution of the physicochemical indicators that control the eutrophication of the lakes. This was during a spread period of 12 months (from January to December 2015). With my own sampling campaign. During this study, Ouiouane Lake showed persistent water disturbances as its transparency is less than 2 m for a maximum depth of about 14 m. This water is poorly oxygenated, alkaline with a pH> 7. Its electrical conductivity varies between 611 and 778 μs / cm. Examination of the vertical profiles of the temperature shows that Ouiouane lake has stratification according to the period of time, when itwas under study. And the concentrations of the indicators of organic pollution (nitrogen and phosphorus compounds), allow to conclude that Ouiouane lake, which requires an emergency intervention to preserve this natural inheritance.is classified eutrophic for the year 2015.

Assessing Role Of Small And Medium Enterprises In Industrial Development ( Case Of Akaki Kality Sub City In Addis Ababa ) []

Abstract Industrialization speeds up economic growth by transferring the agriculture led economy to the industry led economy. Small Scale Manufacturing Firm, Small Firm, which is a part of small scale enterprises, under the aegis of right framework of industrialization process, can take this country to an appreciable level of industrialization. Role of Small Scale Enterprises in Industrialization of Addis Ababa is needed to highlight the roles they play in economic development especially by the Small Scale Manufacturing Firm. This study sought to know whether small firm can accelerate the pace of industrialization by creating employment opportunity, increasing government revenue and supporting investment on capital goods, industrial infrastructure, technology adaptation and technical training. The researcher adopted quantitative research approach to carry out this study. The population of the study area was small manufacturing enterprises found in Akaki Kality Sub – City in Addis Ababa city. Key words: Small and medium enterprises. Industrialization, manufacturing, capital goods

Dioscoria Hispida Dennst (Korot) Extract as a Potential Rust Stain Remover []

The study aimed to determine the capacity of fresh Dioscorea hispida Dennst (korot) tuber extract as rust stain remover. Physical and chemical properties of the extract were also assessed. Korot extract has a percentage yield of 74.4%. It is yellow in color, has an unpleasant odor, a pH of 5.42, miscible in water and ethanol, immiscible in benzene, has a density of 1.08 g/mL, and a boiling point of 98.7°. Korot tuber extract is found positive for the presence of oxalic acid and tartaric acid and negative for borate, sodium carbonate, and citric acid based on the qualitative test conducted. From several tests, fresh korot extract can effectively remove rust stain that has been left in the cotton fabric for 12 hrs. Rust stain in fabric driied for 24 hrs can only be partially removed by the extract.


ABSTRACT Geothermal energy is one of the clean, sustainable and renewable resources which provide heat energy that is derived from radioactive decay elements within the earth’s crust. The non-electric utilization (direct use) of geothermal heat has been reported in various domains that have a need for sustainable supply of heat energy. Adoption and direct use of geothermal energy in Kenya is one way which can enable waste control to enhance environmental protection and optimize the use of energy. In this research, heat energy from the geothermal well was simulated using an experimental model in which polyethylene terephthalate (PET) pieces were melted and moulded into usable products under suitable pressure conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential of using geothermal heat energy in recycling PET plastics through an experimental model. The ground plastic waste material was exposed to heat and the resulting molten medium was subjected to selected polymer processing techniques to obtain desired products. The suitability of geothermal conditions in recycling PET was investigated through numerical analysis. In the design, the study performed experiments on three controlled factors temperature, velocity and pressure. The data collected was analyzed by use of MATLAB. This study established through experimental model that geothermal heat energy conditions in Olkaria are viable in recycling PET plastics. These findings, will enhance control of environmental pollution and create job opportunities in the recycling process. The study recommends that KenGen should explore the utilization of geothermal energy in the recycling of PET plastics. Key words: experimental model, geothermal heat energy, recycling and polyethylene terephthalate


This paper interrogates the idea that international border disputes between Nigeria and Cameroon had been settled at The Hague, but circumstantial evidences purport a relevant fact of Nigeria’s negligence of her porous borders in the wake of her good neighbourliness practices. The border problems went beyond the celebrated Bakassi Peninsula and further included the north eastern region, a geographical environment that is rich in varieties of valuable natural resources, important to Nigeria, especially in the wake of dwindling world natural gas, and with the urgent need for alternative economic source of national wealth. At The Hague, the major contention was who the true owner of the Bakassi Peninsula was. The peoples and natural resources were not considered in their proper perspective. The boundary created by the colonial masters has been and still is a problem to those nations who inherited them. Further the two agreements on the Nigeria-Cameroon crisis; that is the Green Tree Agreement and the International Court of Justice Ruling specifically talk on the Bakassi Peninsular, and the Lake Chad regions, problematic delineations created by geographical factors were not put in their proper perspective. It is important to say that, in the North Eastern part of Nigeria, there are other natural resources more expensive than the oil in the south, which could bring huge revenue to the nation. It is thus the contention of this paper that, Nigeria had lost valuable wealth in people and natural endowment due to administrative negligence and Nigeria should pay more attention to the border territories. Proper governmental attention and management with a good consideration for its rich natural endowment would prevent future problems. The paper further examines the idea that diplomatic negotiations were the better alternative to resolving post-colonial border disputes as boundary created by the colonial masters has been and still is a problem to those nations who inherited them.

Water Quality Index and Assessment of Heavy Metals in Two Groundwater Wells in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. []

The growing population need tremendous amount of more freshwater for drinking, irrigation, and domestic affairs in arid countries like Egypt. In this study, 12 groundwater samples were taken for a one year (2016-2017) from Nawsa El-Gheit village in Aga city and Qlabsho area in Belqas city (Dakahlia governorate) to assess the quality of groundwater for drinking and irrigation purposes. A total of 23 water parameters were analyzed monthly for collected groundwater sample. Water quality index (WQI) is a mathematical model used to transform any water parameters into a single indicator value which represents the water quality level. Results of WQI showed that Nawsa El-Gheit groundwater fell in good water category and represented 48.785% while Qlabsho groundwater fell in poor category and represented 66.169%. For irrigation suitability, the study proved that Nawsa El-Gheit groundwater and Qalabsho groundwater were unsuitable. Atomic absorption spectroscopy documented high levels of the heavy metals cadmium, chromium, lead, manganese and nickel; however the levels of iron, copper and zinc were safe. This indicates the possible negative health impacts of this water type on human and animal.


The Technological, Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK) model developed by Mishra, P., & Koehler, M. J. is a combination of three core components in knowledge of teacher in the current period: Content knowledge, Pedagogical knowledge (PK) and Technology knowledge (TK). This model is considered to be the basis for analyzing the knowledge and essential competencies of the teacher, thus providing solutions for teacher training to meet the teaching requirements of the 21st century. In this paper, we review the research issues related to the TPACK model, and propose phases to develop a TPACK framework, in line with the education context and teacher training in Vietnam. Some initial results of the TPACK framework for Vietnamese education were also mentioned.


Fundamental needs of human beings food, clothes and shelter are fulfilled through the medium of soil. Soil is an important part of our agriculture. Global cultivation of crops and other vegetation is directly dependent on soil quality. An understanding of physical and chemical condition of any soil is essential for proper implementation of the other management practices. Therefore, the study of physicochemical properties of soil is very important because both physical and chemical properties are the once that affect the soil productivity. This review on physicochemical study of soil is based on various parameters like pH, electrical conductivity, texture, moisture, temperature, soil organic matter, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. This knowledge will create awareness among the farmers about economic productivity of Ethiopian soils.


For good health, including fresh fruits and vegetables in our daily diet is very important. However, fresh fruits and vegetables are highly perishable and affected by different microbial contaminants from production up to consumption. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the important microbial spectrum of selected fruits and vegetables and their management from Hawassa (Ethiopia) town markets. A total of 27 fruit and 9 vegetable samples were analyzed for pathogens from their surface wash. The mean aerobic mesophillic count (AMC) ranged from 2.04x10-7cfu/ml to 3.2x10-6cfu/ml from the surface wash and the total coliform count (TC) ranged from 2.50LTBccfu/ml x10-7 to 1.5x10-6cfu/ml. Fecal coliform ranged from 3.2x10-6 to 0 cfu/ml and the range for Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus were 1.8x10-6 to 0 cfu/ml and 2.50LTBcx10-7 to 0 cfu/ml respectively. Mold and yeast count ranged from 7.6x10-6 to 0.2x10-4 from the fruit surface wash. There was statistically significant difference regarding to AMC and TC between markets in between banana and orange samples and they were detected in all fruit samples. From the 36 samples E. coli (except M2 in cabbage) and molds and yeast were found in all fruit samples, and Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus were detected in 89% fruit samples in each. Activities during harvesting, transportation, storage and marketing conditions favored contamination of most commonly used fruits banana and orange. Besides, poor hygiene of the venders, using microbially unsafe containers, poor handling practice and poor environmental conditions such as sanitarily unsafe marketing environment were identified to be another sources of contamination. Hence, for safe and clean supply of fruits, community members working with the fruits must be trained on the ways by which fruits can be contaminated and the safe methods of harvesting, transportation, storage and vending the fruits.

Packaging features and consumer buying behavior towards packaged food items []

This study aimed to determine the effects of packaging attributes on consumers’ buying behavior. Specifically, to investigate the effect of packaged food’s graphics, color, size, shape, product information and/or packaging material on consumers’ buying behavior in Pakistan. Data was collected through the used of questionnaire from 300 individuals and was analyzed through Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Structural Equation Modeling. The study found a significant relationship between graphics colors, packaging size, shape, product information of packaging material with consumers’ buying behavior. The study concluded that the packaging attributes are examined, are contributed in communicating product quality that affects purchase behavior. The study recommends that food manufacturers must understand the consumer response towards their packaging and integrate their input into designing a better packaging by innovations. This can be achieved by involving consumer directly in designing the final packaging of product through their response.

Sensitivity of juvenile and adult freshwater Clams (Mercenaria Mercenaria) to acute and sublethal toxicity of Chlorine concentration []

This study evaluated the Sensitivity of Adult and Juvenile Freshwater Clam (Mercenaria mercenaria) to Chlorine toxicity. Six concentrations of Calcium Hypochloride were tested using 96-h static renewal toxicity tests and 8 weeks using the water renewal system respectively for acute and sub-lethal tests. Based on their respective mean 96-h lethal concentration to 50% (LC50s), Juvenile Clams (52.78 mg/L Ca (0H)2) were more sensitive than Adult Clams (53.56 mg/L Ca(0H)2). For the 96 h bioassay at a significant difference of p<0.05, mortality ranged from 3.40±0.92 to 0.00±0.00 mg/L for the Adult Freshwater Clams and varied from 3.66±0.33 to 0.00±0.00 mg/L. The variation of water quality in the acute test showed the Total Dissolved Solids (mg/L) varying from 356.33±0.88 to 330.67±0.88 for adults and 3.67.50±2.53 and 347.00±0.00 for juvenile Clams, Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L) ranged from 5.66±0.06 to 4.49±0.15 for adult Clams and 6.75±0.05 to 3.51±0.15 for juvenile Clams, pH varied from 8.95±0.02 to 9.67±0.00 for adult M.mercenaria while the juveniles showed 9.68±0.00 and 8.96±0.03, Electrical Conductivity (µS/cm) ranged from 612.33±0.88 to 693.67±0.88 for adult Clams and 683.25±5.25 to 613.33±0.88 while the Temperature (ºC) ranged from 23.00±0.00 to 25.40±0.01. Water quality parameters were also varied in the sub-lethal test and they showed the highest Total dissolved solids of 358.67±4.12 at 0.87mg/L for adult Clams and 345.88±1.06 for juveniles while the lowest of 333.79±3.36 for adults and 329.79±2.39 for juveniles. The Dissolved Oxygen ranged from 7.00±0.00 to 3.84±0.07 for adult Clams and 6.27±0.03 to 4.82±0.02 for juvenile Clams. The pH ranged from 9.65±0.01 to 9.57±0.01 for adults and 9.61±0.01 to 9.50±0.01 for the juvenile Clams. The Electrical Conductivity varied from 6.62.96±7.38 to 714.96±9.34 for the adults and 662.00±3.66 to 689.79±3.58 for the juvenile M. Mercenaria. Temperature varied minimally from 24.80±0.14 to 24.89±0.13 for the adult Clams and 24.82±0.13 to 24.95±0.13 for the juvenile Clams. Mortality in the sub-lethal test for adult M. Mercenaria of 1.00±0.00 occurred at 1.78mg/L on week 6, concentration 3.57 mg/L on week 5 and 6 and concentration of 4.46mg/L on weeks 4, 5, 6 and 8 while for Juvenile Clams, mortality of 1.00±0.00 occurred at week 7 and 8. Comparison of LC50s reported for other aquatic organisms to the 96-h LC50s calculated for juvenile and adults of Mercenaria mercenaria shows this bivalve mollusc species to be among the most sensitive to Chlorine toxicity. Based on reported levels of discharge of chlorine effluent in the aquatic environment from anthropogenic sources, it may be an important limiting toxicological factor to freshwater Clam populations. The results indicate that the younger life stages of Clams generally were more sensitive to chlorine than the older life stages. The study also investigated the Histological alterations of the gills of M. mercenaria following a long-term exposure to sub-lethal levels of Chlorine toxicant. Clam gills were extracted and taken to the laboratory to determine the Histological damage of this tissue. It was observed that most histological alterations were highly localised in the glandular cells of the gills; secretions of the glandular cells was found to be increased by increased exposure time. Histological changes in the gills used for this evaluation were the common lesions were epithelial lifting, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the respiratory epithelium, lamellae fusion, and aneurysms in the gills. Histo-pathological results showed the activation of resistance mechanisms that allowed the Clams to survive under sub-lethal stresses. Thus, histological changes on localised tissues were sensitive and they had positive correlation to the time of exposure to the toxicant suggesting that they may serve as biomarkers for roundup exposure. Keywords: Toxic, Histology, chlorine, Clams.


Hydropower on a small scale is one of the most cost-effective energy technologies to be considered for rural electrification in Ethiopia. It is also the main prospect for future hydro developments. Where the large-scale opportunities either have been exploited already or would now be considered environmentally unacceptable. Whereas large hydro schemes often involve the construction of major dams and the flooding of whole valleys, micro hydro is one of the most environmentally benign energy technologies available. The technology is extremely robust and systems to enhance the economic welfare of people in the rural areas, it is necessary to increase agricultural productivity and promote the development of rural enterprises. Both these approaches depend highly on the accessibility of commercial sources of energy. The promotion of micro hydropower system is expected to positively impact social welfare through improvements in health and education. In terms of economic welfare, energy from micro hydropower system is expected to be beneficial for both producers and consumers in rural economies via the opportunities to create links between them and the national economy. However, the establishment of these plants requires initial as well as running costs and proper design. Here it has been design the system of micro hydropower plant on Temie River to electrify Dombit and saint marry villages, by taking in to account the their far distance from the central grid connection as well as their hearted demand of electricity. The parameters for the design are focused on the economy of the population and the topography of the site. These parameters are taken from the literature review and data’s of the site. Key words: electrification, hydropower, economic, design

Socio-economic and environmental impact of charcoal production in Rangiro, Cyato and Bushekeri sectors, Nyamasheke District []

This study is entitled ‘Socio-economic and environmental impact of charcoal production in Nyamasheke District particularly in Rangiro, Cyato and Bushekeri sectors. Generally the study assessed socio-economic and environmental impact of charcoal production in Nyamasheke District particularly in Rangiro, Cyato and Bushekeri sectors. Specifically examined the methods of charcoal production; identified the basis for involvement in charcoal production; analysed socio-economic impact of charcoal on rural well-being; and analysed the perception of Rangiro, Cyato and Bushekeri inhabitants on impact of charcoal production on environment. A survey instrument was administered to 88 charcoal makers randomly sampled across the community in Bushekeri, Cyato and Rangiro sectors. Additionally, in-depth interview with local leaders were conducted. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used for analyzing data. The study findings revealed that reasons responsible for engagement in charcoal production were rated above 50%, it was concluded that charcoal makers involves in charcoal making as they regard this business as their daily activity and in it they additional income is generated. Moreover, it was revealed that all respondents confirmed that the price of charcoal per sac is from 4000 Rwf and above which simply signifies reason for deep involvement in charcoal making and this was also confirmed by 91% of informants who clarified that charcoal production positively affects economy. Yet, it was noted that any type of environment-related impact like complete loss of forest cover, permanent reduction in the density of the forest, removal of vegetation cover, thinning of woodlands are all recognized by charcoal makers in three sectors: Rangiro, Bushekeli and Cyato and the researcher concludes that there is a need to implement adequate measures regarding charcoal production given the sustenance of environment since the mean calculated (84) itself reveals closeness to the frequencies being referred to. Moreover, the research revealed that there is a need to sensitize the population to implement other income generating projects more than charcoal making in case modern methods are unavailable in order to stop massive cutting of trees.