Volume 10, Issue 7, July 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Global issues []

Abstract: This paper is addressing NAM described as the second biggest groups of countries after the United Nations as an international group. The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) was founded at the hardest time of the Cold War during the collapse of the colonial system and the independence struggles of the several peoples of Asia Africa and other regions of the world. The movement's membership has continuously grown from 25 at establishment reaching over 100 countries in 2021. It was expected to have an important role in international policy. The paper showed the reasons why the NAM movement lost its way.

A Review On The Toxicological Implication of Cosmetic, Hair Dyes and, Relaxer. []

The use of cosmetic products is on the increase worldwide and the variety of chemical compounds used in the manufacture of these products is also on the increase. As a result, the risks of intoxication, allergy, and indiscriminate use are also increased. This work aims to highlight the biological risks that cosmetics pose to human health because of the toxic substances used in most formulations. This study attempts to relate the main toxic chemical substances present in cosmetic products to the possible health implications. Despite the toxicities associated with cosmetic usage, the cosmetics, and makeup industries enjoy wide acceptability irrespective of age and sex. Studies on the possible toxicities of cosmetics have caused the ban in many countries on poisonous substances in cosmetic products. Among substances suspected of toxicity in cosmetic products are lead, chromium, nickel, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, hydroquinone, steroids, and nitrosamine. Surprisingly, most of these substances with toxic potentials are still used in the manufacturing of many cosmetics in use today. When the levels of these substances exceed regulatory values, pathologies such as cancers, renal disorders, thinning and easy brushing of the skin, dermatophyte infection with lesions, macular hyperpigmentation, pityriasis vesicular, diabetes mellitus, maculopapular eruption, hypertension are the possible result. Toxicological and health hazards associated with cosmetic use can be minimized by adherence to regulatory policies, use of non-toxic alternatives in formulations, the addition of active anti-toxic substances, limiting the quantity used, and constant monitoring of adverse effects after use.

An Examination of Theory X Leadership Style and its Impact in the Business Environment – Literature Review []

The literature study focuses on autocratic leadership as a barrier to success in the workplace and other institutions where it is used. The study accomplishes this goal by reviewing and synthesizing the present scholarly literature on this burgeoning topic. The review was conducted by using the Web of Science academic search engines to identify papers from top publications in operations and management. Leaders in developing economy organizations have been reported to have an autocratic leadership style. This review is intended to remind leaders that authoritarian leadership, no matter what color it is painted, is a style of leadership that is generally despised by the people who lead in enterprises. The majority of the time, employees do not have a favorable work attitude. Leaders have mostly ignored employees by adhering to an out-of-date set of principles because they stuck to Theory X, whereas most employees would be more aligned with Theory Y. The different definitions proposed by researchers were emphasized and explored in this review. The advantages and disadvantages of utilizing an authoritarian leadership style were also discussed. It was found that using an autocratic leadership style to solve problems hinders the development of creative ideas; as a result, executives should learn to apply restraint while employing the technique in their organizations.


In hotel businesses, sentiment analysis allows companies to accurately identify negative or positive sentiment about their products or services and take the necessary steps to address these areas. Customers prefer to book a hotel with a large number of positive reviews. There are various sources to find reviews about the hotel to better understand its reputation. Therefore, customer reviews play an important role for business owners to improve their services. This study uses Logistic Regression classifier to analyze and predict customers’ polarity in sentiment analysis. Keywords: Hotel, Customer feedback, customers’ polarity, sentiment analysis, machine learning

Precipitation of Asphaltene on Reservoir Rock Surfaces Resulting from Water Injection []

ABSTRACT Asphaltene are high molecular weight components of crude oil that originally exists in the oil as colloidal suspension that is stabilized by resins absorbed on their surfaces. The precipitation of asphaltene might lead to formation damage, wellbore plugging and overall reduction in production performance. Although significant effort has been made to understand the impact of water injection on asphaltene precipitation tendency and analysing the effect of water injection on asphaltene precipitation on a field scale has not been extensively studied. Additionally, most of the study on asphaltene precipitation due to water injection has been approached experimentally and there is still contradictory opinions on the larger scale effect of water injection on asphaltene precipitation. In this study we have modelled asphaltene behaviour using a three-phase algorithm with basic equations of state. The models were validated by comparing results with fundamentally accepted principles of asphaltene precipitation in petroleum reservoirs. The model developed in this study is a compositional and robust thermodynamic consistent model better suited to understand the physics of asphaltene precipitation. The PVTSim software was used to predict the behaviour of asphaltene through the implementation of material balance, flash vaporization, fluid flow, thermodynamics and transport mechanisms. The data used for this analysis were from three fields in the Niger Delta region, namely: X, Y and Z. The results obtained shows that water saturation increase in the reservoir resulting from water injection and induce asphaltene precipitation which affect flow performance. One important observation from this analysis was that at the initial water saturation, the simulation showed a very small level of asphaltene precipitation compared to the increased value of 0.2. But at a pressure 2600 psig, significant asphaltene precipitation started as the injected water reached 0.4 pore volumes with about 0.15% of asphaltene already precipitated from the reservoir oil. Further increase in reservoir pressure through water injection, asphaltene precipitation up to a point where additional increases in injected volume causes the precipitated asphaltene to re-dissolve. This research have contributed towards a better understanding of the precipitation of asphaltene in petroleum reservoirs, which will eventually lead to the development of cost-effective strategies to mitigate the detrimental effects of asphaltene precipitation on productivity.


Covid-19 caused economic and societal pressures and technological opportunities occasioned by the global lockdown. During this period, food manufacturers in various parts of the world experienced unprecedented inventions and occupational challenges, which arose from the pressure of being replaced by digital technologies. However, stakeholders in the food industries have not fully exploited the pandemic's vast innovation options. Accordingly, this paper seeks to understand the potential innovations in the manufacturing sector that can enhance productivity in the food industry (food security, food safety, and sustainability) in the Covid-19 era. A systematic review of the available literature is conducted to identify the suitability of various initiatives to improve and maintain productivity in food manufacturing. Incorporating information and communication technology in this initiative is explored and appreciated. The study identifies specific approaches to consuming food, such as laboratory-grown meat, governmental regulation of bio-resources, and incorporation of industry applications as some of the innovations with the highest potential for enhancing food security in this new era. The use of social media marketing is also identified as one of the avenues for understanding the perceptions, attitudes, and barriers that can impact consumers of the agro-food industries. The present study is relevant to developing countries, which struggle to cope with the unprecedented economic challenges due to the pandemic. The findings can bridge significant gaps in knowledge and decision-making and help policymakers in the manufacturing sector borrow ideas to adopt new norms in food industries. Keywords: Technological innovation; Disruptions; Sustainability, Covid-19

Exergy Analysis in Gas Turbine []

The increasing demand of electricity in different fields either domestic, industrial or the business field has increased, which has made it very crucial for the criteria of selection of the operating conditions for the power plants also, in the selection of their location and site to obtain the optimum performance and avoid exergy losses, exergy destruction and cost conservation. The present work scopes the combined cycle analysis on exergy analysis bases, analyzing the main parameters affecting the performance of the combined cycle and methods to improve them. Conventional power plant based on the combined cycle in the Egyptian new administrative capital was taken into consideration as a case study, to assess the effect of compressor pressure ratio, gas turbine inlet temperature and the ambient condition in that site, the analysis showed a significant increase in the second law efficiency and a remarkable decrease in the exergy destruction within the main components studied. The present work limited the exergy destruction improving the second law efficiency and the whole gas turbine efficiency, each component exergy destruction was limited to significant values to improve the plant components efficiencies.

Macrozoobenthos Diversity in Sunyanyuri Lake, Sumedang Regency as an Indicator of Water Quality []

Sunyanyuri Lake is a small artificial lake located in Cimarias Village, Pamulihan District, Sumedang Regency which is currently used for various activities of local residents such as camping ground, agriculture, and fishing. Macrozoobenthos was chosen as a biological indicator of lake waters because of its relatively sedentary life, limited movement, easy analysis, and living in and on the bottom of the waters which are very good for biological indicators of water. The purpose of this study was to determine and analyze water quality based on the diversity of macrozoobenthos in Sunyanyuri Lake, Sumedang Regency. The research method used is a survey method by making direct observations at stations that have been determined based on a simple random sampling technique. The study was conducted at 4 stations based on the cardinal directions of Lake Sunyanyuri from June 20, 2021 to October 20, 2021. The results of the study at Lake Sunyanyuri found 3 families (Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae, and Hirudinea) from 2 classes (Clitellata and Insecta). The diversity index ranges from 0 to 0.36. The uniformity index ranges from 0 – 0.33. The range of water quality and BOD showed variations and dynamics that were still within the tolerance limits of macrozoobenthos life.

Exponential Maps on Complex Matrices []

This essay examines the matrix exponential function exp, which is a function defined on the additive abelian group Mn(C, +) of n×n matrices over the field C of complex numbers with values in the non-abelian multiplicative group GLn(C, ·) of invertible n × n complex matrices. Because GLn(C, ·) is a non-abelian group, the matrix exponential function exp : Mn(C, +) → GLn(C, ·) is not a group homomorphism, except in the case n = 1 where the familiar formula e w+z = e we z holds for all complex numbers w and z. However, there are cases in which the matrix exponential does act like a group homomorphism. For example, if A, B ∈ Mn(C, +) commute multiplicatively (that is, AB = BA), then exp(A + B) = exp(A)exp(B) = exp(B)exp(A). This essay proves this fact, and presents several examples in which exp(A + B) = exp(A)exp(B) fails to hold for noncommuting matrices A and B, as well as examples of cases where exp(A+B) = exp(A)exp(B) holds even though A and B do not commute. The matrix exponential function is a substantial interest in different branches of mathematics. This essay presents some applications in which the matrix exponential has a natural role.

The Effect Of Capability On The Quality Of Financial Reports Of The Regional Government Financial Statements Mediated By The Regional Management Information System (Simda) In Toraja Utara Regency []

Mastery and utilization of SIMDA has not been optimal in the process of regional financial management with the most common obstacle being the lack of understanding of users regarding SIMDA features. In North Toraja Regency. The type of research used in this study is to obtain objective, valid, and reliable data with the aim of discovering, proving and developing knowledge, so that it can be used to understand, solve and anticipate problems that occur. The data analysis method used in this study is the Partial Least Square (PLS) approach and the Sobel test. The data in this study were processed using SmartPLS software. The sample in this study were 46 respondents. The data in this study were obtained by using a questionnaire. The results of this study indicate that capability has a positive and significant influence on the Quality of Local Government Financial Reports either directly or through the mediation of the Regional Management Information System (SIMDA) in North Toraja Regency.

Evaluation of The Effect of Legend Flusher Bitters on Liver And Kidney of Wistar Rat []

Legend Flusher bitters is a poly-herbal formulation used for various ethno-medicinal purposes in Nigeria and Ghana. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxic effect of legend flusher bitters on the liver and kidney of wistar rats through biochemical and histopathological studies. Adult wistar rats of either sexes weighing between 57g-96g were divided into three groups of five animals per group. Group1 was the control and was given standard feed and distilled water only.Group2 and Group 3 received 2.5mL/kgBw and 5.0mL/kgBw of Legend flusher bitters respectively by oral gavage. The administration lasted for 15days, after which the animals were anesthetized, bled and blood sample collected and then sacrificed. The liver and kidneys were excised, fixed in formalin, cleared and prepared for microscopic examination. The results showed elevated levels of AST, ALT, creatinine and bilirubin in rats treated with 5.0mL/kgBw of Legend flusher bitters when compared with the control; while administration of 2.5mL/kgBw of the herbal bitters (LFB) showed non-significant changes in some biochemical parameters. Histopathological studies revealed normal, preserved liver and kidney architecture in wistar rats treated with 2.5mL/kgBw of Legend flusher bitters but treatment with 5.0mL/kgBw (LFB) caused some pathologic changes in liver and kidney morphology when compared with the control. Thus, Legend flusher bitters may have adverse effects on liver and kidney when taken at high dose especially in individuals with liver and kidney diseases.

Histopathological evaluation of the kidney of wistar rats following sub- acute administration of methanolic leaves / root extracts of Thaumatocòccus danieli []

Plant extracts are used extensively in traditional medical practise based on the belief that they are rich in bioactive principles, natural and relatively safe, cheaper than orthodox treatment and are readily available. The leaf sap of Thaumatococcus danielli is used as an antidote for venoms, stings and bites, while, the leaf exract is used as sedative and to treat insanity. However, there is limited data available on the toxicity profile of this plant. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the level of safety of methanol leaf/root extracts of Thaumatococcus danielli on the kidney morphology of albino rats. A total of one hundred and forty (140) wistar rats of bth sexes, weighing between (180- 220g) were grouped into 7 of 20 rats in each, while group 1 served as normal control for both extract, other groups were treated with different doses of the leaf and root extracts of Thaumatococcus danielli. Doses of the leaf extract used were 8.25, 16.5 and 33mg/kgbw, while doses of 6.25, 12.5 and 25mg/kgbw were selected for root extract. The treatment was for a period of 4 weeks by oral intubation. Kidney histopathology revealed mild tubulonephritis in rats treated with 33mg/kgbw of leaf extract in weeks 3 and 4 and presence of necrotic tissue when treated with 12.5mg/kgbw of root extract in week 4. Thus, continuous ingestion of leaf and root extracts of Thaumatococcus danielli especially at high dose can be toxic to the kidney in spite of its nutritional and medicinal benefits.Keywords: Medicinal Plants; Kidney; Toxicity; Histopathology


Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease that infects the skin, in which rashes and chronic ulcers appear, and it is classified within the group of zoonotic and anthroponic diseases. This means that it can be transmitted from animals to humans and between people. It is caused by parasite of the genus Leishmania, a single-celled, predatory organism that breeds in humid or aquatic environments. It is spread by a female bloodsucker , known as a sand fly, which forms its reservoir in vertebrate animals. Leishmaniasis is directly related to poverty and the determinants of health: sanitation, lifestyles and resource availability. However, social, environmental and climatic factors also directly affect the epidemiology of the disease. Climate change is one of the factors that should alert us to the way in which the humidity is increasing in Thi-Qar, and the high temperatures favor the proliferation of insects that transmit leishmaniasis.This study determines the assessment of nurses' knowledge of leishmaniasis in primary health care centers in Thi-Qar governorate, in 2020. It is a descriptive study, and a non-experimental design, with the nursing department 9 centers and 339 nurses in primary care centers. The sample was conducted using a non-probability intentional data type with 179 male and female nurses. The questionnaire was used on the topic of general information about cutaneous leishmaniasis, source of information about cutaneous leishmaniasis, awareness (knowledge) about the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis, awareness (knowledge) about the characters and places of reproduction of the disease-causing vector, and awareness (knowledge) of the clinical manifestations of cutaneous leishmaniasis. SPSS version 24 software was used to develop statistical database and tables. Related to knowledge about cutaneous leishmaniasis, from 179 nurses (92.73%) had heard or read about it and that more than half of the participants had regular knowledge of it. Whereas with regard to knowledge of infection (84.91%) of the sample had good knowledge of leishmaniasis infection and (15%) had poor knowledge of leishmaniasis. Thus, the nursing staff in Thi-Qar governorate have regular knowledge of cutaneous leishmaniasis and most of them apply good practices to prevent this disease. Key Words: Assesssment, Nurses, Leishmaniasis

Effect of Import and Export on Gross Domestic Product of Nepal []

Abstract: this study investigates specifically effect of import and export on GDP. Data were collected from period 1994/95 to 2017/18. Multiple regression approach was used defining import and export as independent variable and GDP as dependent variable. Furthermore, this study uses Natural logarithm of import (LNIMP), Natural logarithm of export (LNEX) and Natural logarithm of GDP (LNGDP) .The result shows that import has been positively significant with GDP of Nepal and export has also positively significant relationship with GDP of Nepal .Which concludes import and export both trigger the increase in gross domestic product of Nepal.


In recent years, Nigerian health care has experienced a number of epidemics of infectious diseases outbreaks of Ebola virus, cholera, polio virus, Lassa fever, coronavirus, and other diseases have swamped the federal ministry of health and its agency, the Nigeria Centre for Disease Control (NCDC). Making it difficult for the country to provide adequate medical care but also track, monitor and control disease. The paper looked at the challenges that state and local governments face when it comes to disease control and management. The paper was a quantitative research. Data was obtained from secondary sources including journals, articles and publications. Inadequate funding of the health sector, a dearth of medical personnel, a lack of medical facilities, and a weak linkage system were all mentioned in the study have all contributed to the inability of government to control and manage disease, most especially by the state and local governments. The paper concluded that if the goal of government at all levels is to provide universal health care coverage for all citizens, efforts must be geared towards control and management of disease outbreaks in Nigeria. It consequently encouraged boom increased budgetary allocation to health sector, recruitment of certified medical personnel, provision of clinical infrastructure, establishment of useful surveillance device and aggressive health campaign and attention as mechanisms to correctly control and manage disease in Nigeria.


This study explored about “Family Structure and Parental Involvement on Pupils ‘Learning Outcomes. (1) It determined the family structure of Grade 5 pupil of Bongbongon Elementary School in terms of family structure, and parental involvement. Under family structure, this study delves on the type of family, size of family, and head of the family;(2) identified the level of Parental involvement; (3) assessed the level of Grade 5 pupils’ learning outcomes when categorized as outstanding, very satisfactory, satisfactory, fairly satisfactory, and did not meet expectation; and (4) find out the relationship between Grade 5 pupils’ learning outcomes and the family structure and parental involvement. This study employed a descriptive research design where the method included a quantitative approach in collecting data through question-naire. It was conducted at Bongbongon Elementary School, Kauswagan, Division of Cagayan de Oro City. It has forty-two (42) teaching person-nel and 1,501 pupil-enrolees. The researcher concluded that that the child who belonged to a small size of the family and parents who are actively involved in school, are most likely well managed and excel academically. The researcher used (KII) Key Informant Interviews to any people who have particularly informed perspective on an aspect of the program being evaluated. The majority of the respondents belonged a nuclear family and it signifies a “Low or Slight Relationship “to the pupils learning outcomes. However, the size signifies a moderate correlation to the learning outcomes. It is recommended that parents need to attend parent-teacher conferences, to know the pupils’ learning outcomes in school. Parents should be role model, develop a partnership with child’s teachers.