Volume 10, Issue 7, July 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Online Library Collection of Hiligaynon Urban Legends []

This study aimed to develop an Online Library Collection of Hiligaynon Urban Legends that will greatly benefit the province of Negros Occidental and its people, the Negrenses. The researcher used the Qualitative Approach as the main guide to the entire research and in achieving the main objective of the project. The researcher conducted an interview in gathering the data. The gathered data are then analyzed, transcribed, and translated from Hiligaynon to English. Incremental Model was used as the method in developing the system. This development could provide information to all Negrense about the Urban Legends located in a particular city through publishing their urban legends stories online and this can help promote the tourism in the province of Negros Occidental. The overall system functionality was conducted with a total of 15 respondents and the results of the assessment in terms of Mean Range was 4.49 or equivalent to High interpretation. This means that the developed system is feasible to use. It is recommended to further gather more interesting urban legends around the province of Negros Occidental.


The purpose of this study is to critically assess the level of performances in Mathematics by some primary school pupils in Sierra Leone and Kenema City to be specific. Mathematics is a science of numbers, quantities and measurement. A person skilled in Mathematics can display a measure characterized by logic. Mathematics is therefore, universal subject owing to the fact that other scientists need it in their daily activities. According to Fremont (1986 page 5) Mathematics is the study of structures whose form can be expressed in symbols, it is the grammar of all symbolic system, symbolic reasoning appears to have been first used in connection with counting, for this reason mathematics referred to a liberal of education (learning).


Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) is very important to encourage an organization to achieve long-term success. This study aimed to examine the effect of competence, training, and organizational climate on OCB by using job satisfaction as an intervening variable. This paper is made to propose a conceptual model. It comprehends the research background, literature review, conceptual model, hypotheses, and research methods. The implementation of this paper to PT Adhi Karya (Persero) Tbk can provide information about the effect of com-petence, training, and organizational climate on OCB with the use of job satisfaction as the intervening variable.


Abstract This paper is concerned with rationale of defunct of power sharing between OLF and PP in Ethiopia since 2018. The reason is that despite three years attempt of military operation, the conflict has continued hitherto. As the result, the empirical lesson we had had so far vindicated that power sharing is the only option left to realize peace in Ethiopia. This is because the modus vivendi of hegemonic exchange is to grant rebellion group fair representation and decision making in governance sphere so that everlasting peace can be envisaged since it guarantee rebellion group to have moderate position. Alternative approaches used to ensure prevalence of power sharing elsewhere such as consociation democracy, deliberate democracy, and incentive based inclusion have all failed in Ethiopia. Dysfunctional and pitfalls to approaches of power sharing in Ethiopia emanated from interwoven of historical legacy with the juxtaposition of status quo such as pressure from unitary pro power, lack of consensus on forms of government, suspicious political culture, non-compliance with popular sovereignty, denial of adopting experience, adverse effect of first past the post electoral system and hate speech. Because of these pitfalls, although it is the only way to solve current crisis of OLF and PP, the role of power sharing has awfully underestimated in Ethiopia. The attempt of power sharing had been orchestrated by different fakes. Despite underestimation of power sharing, experience denotes that such conflict is not only continued for such a long time but also helm to prompt to genocide. To this effect, the recommendation shall be re arranging negotiation for power sharing undertaken via supervision of impartial third party umpiring. Unfortunately, despite the claim, military response and the national dialogue underway are not believed to be effective to solve current turmoil in Ethiopia. The reason is that the former is devastating while the latter is not realistic due to its exclusion among not only rebellion group but also other political elite. Thus, power sharing is the only alternative left if everlasting peace is reckoned to be realized.


This study was undertaken to examine the current implementation of modular distance learning in Balubal Elementary School. Specifically, this study sought to determine issues and challenges in the implementation of modular distance learning and pupils’ achievements. It employed a descriptive research design where the method included a quantitative approach to collecting data through survey questionnaires. The result revealed that the respondents rated always on the level of issues in the implementa-tion of modular distance learning and rated always on the level of challenges in the implementation of modular distance learning. The majority of the pupil respondents were rated very satisfactory in their level of achievements; respondents’ extent on issues and challenges of modular learning implementation denotes a moderate positive correlation to the level of pupils’ achievements. It concluded that the level of issues and challenges of modular learning implementation and the pupils’ achievements were corre-lated. Thus, it is recommended that the school shall implement a system awareness for the delivery and retrieval of modules to both parents and teachers.


This study aimed to describe the lived experiences of the parents of the Kindergarten pupils in Tagoloan Central School, Misamis Oriental on Modular Distance Learning (MDL) during COVID-19 pandemic. Only one parent from each Kindergarten class for a total of 20 individuals were taken as respondents in this study because this research was a Qualitative study that utilized the Self Monitoring Tool in the Annex E of DepEd Order No. 31 s, 2020. Thematic and Content Analysis Technique were used to get a deeper analysis of the data to be coded and themed. Additional information was gathered through a Key Information Interview (KII). Respondents were expected to tell if their children can accomplish the learning modules and to give comments and suggestions about the MDL. The following were extracted from the responses, coded and themed: Guidance from Parents, Time for Study, Children are Tired/Bored in answering the Modules, Less Learning, Parents prefer MDL for Safety, Many wants Face-to-Face Classes and Lessen the Activities in the Modules. This study concluded that Modular Distance Learning is preferable for pandemic for the safety of their children but it has less learning. They believed that Face-to-Face can have better learning for their children because their teachers can teach them better than they do. Moreover, activities in the modules are plenty which children get bored and tired in answering the modules. It is recommended to give Individual Learning Monitoring Plan (ILMP) to each pupil to guide them in answering their modules because it is a way to lessen activities for pupils to do since ILMP only gives activities according to the competency needed by each pupil.


Noise pollution is recognized as a major problem globally, hence this study tend to analyse the vibration in Noise pollution of land use types and time periods of the day Across the Niger delta Region. The study adopted the cross sectional and quasi experimental research design. The study adopted the use of questionnaire, noise meter and air pollutant counter as the instrument for data collection. Taro Yamane formula was used for sample size determination of 400 respondents. Results showed that electricity generating plants was the major source of noise pollution across the study area and that noise level is higher in the city centers and decreases as one moves farther away. The result indicates areas of high noise levels in the different land uses in the sampled state capitals in the Niger Delta. Also the mapping of the different land uses spatial distribution maps were generated across land uses in the state capitals; the map showed places of high and low noise zones in the study area. Keywords: Noise Pollutions, Noise Level, Air Pollutant

The Levels Of Acceptance And Urgency Of COVID-19 Vaccine Among Adults With Comorbidities In Metro Manila []

For the past few years, the COVID-19 pandemic has been the utmost concern for public health and safety. COVID-19's highly transmissible nature, along with its wide spectrum of symptoms and tremendous mortality toll, has made it one of the worst pandemics in human history. Vaccines have been made available to control the spread and severity of the pandemic. These vaccines were developed with the goal of minimizing symptomatic COVID-19 infections and reducing the risks of a more serious prognosis. This study focused on determining the levels of acceptance and urgency of COVID-19 vaccines among adults with comorbidities in Metro Manila, considering that these respondents are at risk of acquiring the disease. A total of 139 respondents participated in this survey which was disseminated online to the four central districts in Metro Manila using the stratified purposive sampling technique. The survey questionnaire obtained the respondents' demographic information and subsequently determined the levels of acceptance and urgency. The study concluded that age has a significant effect while sex and location do not have a significant effect on the level of acceptance and urgency. Knowledge, attitude, and preference for the COVID-19 vaccine positively influenced the level of acceptance, while the sources of information and the practices of health protocols negatively influenced the level of acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination among adults with comorbidities. Moreover, knowledge, sources of information, and attitude positively influenced the vaccine urgency, while practices of health protocols negatively affected the vaccine urgency towards COVID-19 vaccination among adults with comorbidities.


ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between performance management systems and employee performance. The study was guided by the following research questions. To determine the significance of performance management systems on the employee performance? to measure the relationship between the performance management systems and employee performance? and factors influencing the Effectiveness of the Performance Management Systems The study used descriptive research design to obtain information concerning the relationship between performance management systems and employee performance. This was done by describing in details the significance of performance management systems on the employee performance and stating the relationship between performance management systems and the general employee performance. This was a case study based on the employees of Samfya District Hospital, whose total number is 100; therefore making up the target population of this study. The essence of this study was to acquire the perception, views and observations of the employees at Samfya District Hospital on matters 54 pertaining to the performance management system that they were exposed to by their organization and how it related to their overall performance. The study used a survey method to collect data from the field. The data was coded after editing and entered into the statistical program named SPSS for analysis. This study used descriptive statistics. Descriptive statistics such as percentages and frequency distribution was used to analyze the performance of the employees. While the measure of central tendency, particularly the mean measured all the data variables on performance appraisals and its effect on employee performance. The data was presented using tables so as to give clear pictures of the research findings at a glance. In this research, the findings on effects of implementation of performance management on employees and factors influencing the effectiveness of the performance management system, performance management systems was found to have a linear significant influence to employee performance. In the findings of the measure of the relationship between PMS and the employees’ performance, it was found that the relationship between performance management systems and employee performance is positive. Therefore, findings indicated that employee performance at Samfya District Hospital is highly influenced by factors such as performance management systems and performance appraisal. This means that performance management systems improve employee performance and it is therefore a relevant tool for Samfya District Hospital to provide them with purposes of improving the efficiency of employees in their organizations. Any Hospital that aspires to get the best from their employees should consider performance appraisal systems as they were found to drastically improve the employee efficiency of any organization.

Philosophie politique []

L’article porte sur l’arbre à palabres comme alternative à la gouvernance libérale contemporaine. Il vise à rendre intelligible les pratiques et les performances de gouvernance par la palabre dans la société africaine traditionnelle et montrer comment elle permettrait la normalisation des comportements dans nos sociétés démocratiques. Comme lieu d’échanges, la palabre se présente comme le meilleur outil de gestion publique employé dans les sociétés africaines traditionnelles. Elle institue la vie communautaire en organisant les relations entre membres du corps social dans l’Afrique noire d’antan sur la base de l’humilité, du dialogue, … à l’effet de promouvoir la paix. Cette pratique met en scène de nombreux acteurs de sorte que le consensus qui se dégage des débats, s’impose à tous. En s’appuyant sur la méthode archéologico-critique des textes, et puisant les preuves dans l’actualité, il s’agit d’établir qu’avec la palabre, l’Afrique peut apporter son expérience de la gouvernance dans la mondialisation. Mots-clés : Arbre à palabres, Afrique, Démocratie, Gouvernance libérale, Paix.


This work furnishes researchers with a concise view of cloud computing (CC) through the integration of two distinct works of literature, that is; cloud computing (CC) and information technology outsourcing (ITO). The attainments of CC in enterprises, then as a trending computational technology in summation is due to: (i) the outsourcing decision and supplier selection, (ii) contractual and relational governance, and (iii) industry standards and legal framework. Although, CC clients have limited control over standards and legal framework but are able to influence other factors to maximise the benefits while at the same time minimising risks. This project renders ground rules for the (potential) users in cloud computing with respect to; vendor selection, outsourcing decisions, service-level agreements etc. In conclusion, this work proffers a number of research directions for prospective researchers.

The Effects of Information and Communication Technology in Fraud Reduction in Nigerian Maritime Services []

Terminal operators, shipping lines, shipping agents and clearing agents in Nigeria have taken advantage of the largely unregulated maritime industry in Nigeria to hike charges like demurrage, and container deposit, berthing rates among others which are far higher than what is obtainable in neighboring West African ports. Therefore, this work takes a critical look at the Effects of ICT in fraud reduction in Nigerian Maritime Services. It looks at the ways to curtail the fraudulent activities in the Nigerian maritime Industry using ICT tools and techniques. The key objective of this study includes: To ascertain the effects of ICT on fraud reduction in the Nigerian maritime services, to examine the various types of fraud being perpetrated in the Nigerian Maritime Industry, to evaluate the various means employed by fraudsters associated with Information and Communication Technology in Nigerian Maritime services, to assess the potential impact of ICT tools and techniques on fraud reduction. The study uses a well-structured questionnaire for data collection. A non-probability sampling technique (Purposive sampling) was used to select the sample size. Data analysis/techniques are based on the number of questionnaires retuned and the statistical method used in the chi-square (X2). Simple percentages were also used in analyzing responses in the questionnaires within the preliminary stages. The researcher findings are that Nigeria is losing a lot of revenue from not embracing technology in the running of her ports. Like the use of NII Scanners and the transfer of most paperwork to cloud computing Network. Secondly, the crude and outdated equipment still used in Nigerian ports has greatly slowed operations resulting in most vessels diverting to neighboring ports. Like the manual checking of cargoes by custom officers, poor loading/offloading equipment which most times vessels make use of their onboard cranes to offload or load its freights.

Effect Of Education And Training, Work Motivation, And Leadership Style On Employee Performance Through Health Services As Intervening Variables (Case Study of Sadan Malimbong Public Health Center, Sadan District, North Toraja Regency) []

The phenomenon that occurs in the field shows that several important aspects of supporting employee performance still need attention so that they can improve their services. For example, the Competence of Service Providers already has good medical personnel, but still needs to be balanced with training and training related to the field of work carried out, there is still a lack of enthusiasm and work motivation, as well as the leadership pattern of the head of the puskesmas which also affects the level of health services at the puskesmas. This study aims to examine and analyze the influence of education and training, work motivation, and leadership style on employee performance through health services as an intervening variable. This research is a quantitative approach. This study will explain the causal relationship between the variables through hypothesis testing. In this study, the analytical method used is multiple regression analysis model using IBM's SPSS 26 program. The sample used in this study were 53 respondents. The results of this study indicate that education and training, motivation, and leadership style have a positive and significant influence both directly and indirectly on employee performance at the Sadan Malimbong Health Center, Sadan District, North Toraja Regency. ..


Steam power station is affected significantly by the performance of the condenser since the condenser determines the back pressure of the station. Accordingly, this paper introduces exergy analyses for the condenser performance. The present work aims to demonstrate the effect of condenser parameters on its exergy and exergy destruction. These parameters are the mass flow rate of cooling water, exit temperature of cooling water, the inlet temperature of steam, and the overall heat transfer coefficient for the condenser. The results of this study illustrate that the second law efficiency is increased, and exergy destruction is reduced with the increase of mass flow rate of cooling water, the reduction of ambient temperature, reduction of inlet steam temperature, and increasing of overall heat transfer coefficient.


Network analysis is the process of capturing network traffic and inspecting it closely and determine what happened on the network. The data packets of popular protocols are decoded by a network analyzer, which then shows the network traffic in readable format. A sniffer is a program that keeps track of data as it travels across a network. This study aims on the design and development of a virtual real time intranet networks monitoring using packet sniffing, provide accurate evidence on corporate fraud when investigation is being carried out in an organization. These network analyzers converts raw binary data into human-readable format which helps to analyze the network. The methodology adopted and implemented was the Object Oriented Analysis and Design Methodology (OOADM). C# with SQL was used as a programming language to develop this system. Keywords: Network, Packet, Protocol, Intranet, sniffing, Software, Monitoring


Due to increase emergence of deadly diseases like noble corona virus (covid-19) which has mandatory forced everyone to work at a distance. There is a great need for an intelligence smart phone-based health monitoring system to enable both the health workers and the patience to operate at a distance thereby minimizing the spread of this deadly diseases. So in this regards, Intelligent Smart phone based Health monitoring System(ISPBHMS) is the best answer for such a pandemic. This study helps to provide a means of reducing the spread of diseases as well as to get a proper diagnosis of patient's health irrespective of where the doctor is presently located. This research is based on literature review and other academic writings. The research is aimed to reduce the spread of deadly and contagious diseases. In this paper i present Intelligent Smart phone based Health monitoring System(ISPBHMS) which can provide medical feedback to the patients through mobile devices based on the biomedical and environmental data collected by deployed sensors. Keywords: Intelligent, Health, Heart Beat, Temperature, Sensor, Patient, monitoring System, Mobile Health care, Health Monitoring System, Intelligent Medical Server, ISPBHMS(Intelligent Smart phone based Health monitoring System)


A virtual classroom also known as an e-learning space is a digital learning environment that allows teachers and students to connect online in real-time. Virtual classrooms utilize video conferencing, online whiteboards, and screen sharing to allow educators to hold live lectures, virtual office hours, and discussions with students in an interactive setting. This research is aimed to design and implement an enhanced virtual classroom that will integrate both the asynchronous and synchronous modes of learning in one environment which has been the major setback of a most virtual classrooms in existence. The method used in designing and analyzing the system is Object-Oriented Analysis and Design methodologies. This research is based on a literature review, academic analysis, and design that gather information from different sources. From my findings, it is apparently clear that the various researchers neither integrated a system that features both synchronous and asynchronous modes of learning in a single platform. The research will improve another virtual classroom in existence. This system will output an Enhanced Virtual Classroom that will solve the problem of isolation in the virtual classroom and bring friendship, networking, and collaboration to the traditional classroom. The system was developed using PHP and MySQL as server-side programming and database respectively and was tested and observed to be working well. The result shows that there is improvement and more features in the designed system than in the existing systems. Key Words: Virtual, classroom, enhanced, implemented, database.

Leucaena leucocephala FOR FISH AND POULTRY FEED []

Vegetable raw materials have high potential as an alternative source of feed protein that is able to support optimal fish growth. Vegetable raw materials have advantages, including abundant and inexpensive availability, and sometimes in the form of waste or weeds, for example, Leucaena leucocephala. Its use in fish feed formulations is limited by the presence of some antinutrient substances such as phytic acid, mimosine, and tannins, as well as a fairly high content of crude fiber. The utilization of lamtoro raw materials for fish is limited by the high content of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) of 39.5% and acid detergent fiber (ADF) of 35.10%. Studies evaluating the nutritional quality of Leucaena as a fish feed ingredient gave varying results. There are significant differences with using Leucaena leucocephala as a substitute food for fish feed. It shows an increase in performance from the point of view of a certain growth rate, weight gain, and feed conversion ratio. However, not all dietary experiments are affected by fish growth due to the processing techniques applied that involve soaking and drying the leaves thus reducing the antinutrients in Leucaena leaf meal which are mostly mimosine. The levels of incorporation of Leucaena leaf meal did not affect the palatability of the diets Clarias gariepienus, and can replace soybean meal in tilapia feed formulations up to 75%. The level of 20% Leucaena meal diets) increased mean feed intake during the finisher broiler phase

Electromagnetic shielding of Conductive Cotton Fabric Developed by In situ polymerization of Aniline []

The present paper reports studies in-situ polymerization of aniline on cotton fabric to develop conductive properties for electromagnetic shielding properties. Cotton fabric having plain weave has been treated with ammonium persulphate (APS) as oxidant, Hydrochloric acid as a dopant and aniline monomer to produce in situ polyaniline (PANI). This polymerization of polyaniline(PANI) cotton(C) substrates carried out in water circulating bath for maintaining desired polymerization temperature. The synthesizing parameters which govern the properties of the resulting conductive fabrics such as monomer concentration, oxidant concentration, monomer and oxidant molar ratio, polymerization time, polymerization temperature have been studied. The polyaniline coated cotton fabrics (PANI +C) are also characterized for their electrical, morphology and physical properties. The conductivity of the fabric was in the range 10-5 to 10-3 S/cm. The electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding parameters absorption (SEA), transmission (SET) & refection (SER) evaluated for composites in frequency range 2.5 -3.5GHz.

Assessment of Noise Levels in Abali Motor Park, Port Harcourt, Rivers State []

Motor Park is an important part of a growing and a developed city as people converge in parks to ensure transportation. The study examined Noise Level in Abali Motor Park Port Harcourt. Noise level measurements in the motor parks were conducted with a type II noise meter called Sound Level Meter GM1352, measured in Decibels (dB). Measurements were carried out at five points within the selected motor park (Abali Park) during morning, afternoon and evening time periods from Monday to Sunday. The minimum mean and maximum mean noise levels for morning time periods were between 74.3 dB(A) and 85.1 dB(A) respectively. The afternoon time periods showed a minimum mean noise level of 67.8 dB(A) and a maximum mean noise level of 82.7 dB(A). In the evening time periods, A mean noise levels were between the lowest of 68.7 dB(A) and highest of 83.8 dB(A). The day time noise levels for the commercial location therefore revealed that at Abali Motor park, all noise levels measured exceeded the acceptable noise pollution levels (> 65 dB(A).The findings of the study showed that high noise levels are generated in the park and exceeded WHO limits therefore, strict policies in reducing noise pollution in motor parks should be ensured by the government.

Analysis of Employee Performance: A Case Study Extrinsic Motivation Effect and Development Career (Study at PT. Angkasa Adibayu Buana Surabaya) []

This study aims to examine and analyze the Implications of Extrinsic Motivation and Career Development on Employee Performance during the 2-year pandemic. Where since 2020-2022, it is experiencing a severe shock due to the distance or gap, if analyzed empirically with the potential it has achieved at PT Angkasa Adibayu Buana Surabaya. The total population in this study were 34 employees and the total sample of the study was 34 respondents. The sampling technique used is the total sampling technique, where the entire population is used as a sample in the study. The techniques used for data collection are questionnaires, observation and documentation. The analytical methods used in this study include Instrument Test (validity test and reliability test), Classical Assumption Test (normality test, multicollinearity test, and heteroscedasticity test), Multiple Linear Regression Analysis and Statistical Test (Ttest test and R² test). Hypothesis testing was carried out using SPSS software for Windows version 25. The results showed that extrinsic motivation did not have a significant effect on employee performance because employees did not feel safe with meeting family needs, the standard of giving rewards was not as expected, and the support for the work environment had not been realize, and this is indicated by a significant value of 0,452 > 0,05. Next, career development shows a significant impact on employee performance, the impact of company policies providing opportunities for increasing formal education, the existence of programmed international training, and development opportunities and it is shown by SPSS analysis with a significant value of 0,000 < 0,05. And the findings in this study, extrinsic motivation is not only due to rewards, family needs are not as expected, and the environment is not conducive, it turns out that there is a dominant variable that can affect performance, namely high emotional religiousness in all employees. Keywords: Extrinsic motivation, career development, employee performance

nutrition disorder in ruminant []

Abstract In this review we focused on nutritional disorders in ruminant can result poor animal health, lowered production, and animal loss. Mineral imbalances, sudden shifts from high roughage to high concentrate diets, and consumption of foreign objects are some of the factors associated with nutritional disorders in beef cattle. The common nutritional disorders in this review are bloat, acidosis, hardware and liver abscess. Key words: nutrition, disorder, bloat, acidosis and liver abscess

The perception of Teachers and Students about Assessment for Learning in some selected Secondary Schools in Bui Division []

Society at large has been concerned about what students are learning in school. There has been a rise in unemployment among graduates in recent years in Cameroon. The rise may largely be a reflection of the decrease in the quality of education. In spite of the need for STEM related man power requirements, which arguably is strong anchor to emerge Cameroon by 2035 (Ministry of Economy, Planning and Regional Development (2009), the number of students pursuing studies is these areas is just about 5% (WB, 2018 &2012). Assessments have been carried out at various levels, as a control mechanism for various reasons in the school sector. However, the argument is that the assessment being carried out often than not, assessment of learning, has not had much to do with improving learning, but rather, to quantify the amount of learning that has taken place. As such, conventional tests are not suitable enough to reveal physiological and psychological factors on which learning is hinged, which could be taken advantage of, to improve and maximize learning. For this reason, the study investigated the perception of students and teachers concerning assessment for learning, learning and the use of transcripts with the aim to understand how assessment could be used to improve upon students learning; Assessment for Learning (AfL). In a cross-section survey, a Five Point Likert Scale questionnaire was administered to 260 students and 47 teachers in Bui Division as an instrument of data collection. Test of statistical significance at 95% confidence level, using the Student T-test to explore significant differences in mean, tested the following hypothesis; Ho1: there is no mean difference in perception about AfL between students and teachers in selected High Schools in Bui Division; For Ho1, t = 70, p˂.05; df =306 therefore the null hypothesis was rejected; The implications of the results were discussed while recommending that future research should find out feasible ways through which teachers can acquire the technical knowhow to enhance AfL in Secondary. Furthermore, research should also find out the extent to which transcripts are a true representation of the knowledge, skills and attitudes they are meant to represent, and techniques to improve student and teacher trust on the worth and value of student transcripts. Key words: Assessment, Learning, perception, students, teachers, secondary schools, Assessment for Learning


Shaheen: Shine- Change is within the air "Pakistan's most desired airline, targeting to offer greater service and worthy value for currency to our valued consumers, responding to their essentials with highest standards to security & ease" One excellent morning, one of the senior manager was in the thought process while sitting alone on his residence lawn and having a cup of tea, the thinking was a process that how Pakistan’s Second-largest carrier faced downfall and claimed bank corrupt. Shaheen air is an icon and got fame as the second-largest airline. It was sincerely an icon for Pakistan’s private Airline enterprise.

An evaluation of formative assessment techniques employed at Higher Education Institutions in Zimbabwe during the Covid-19 pandemic. []

The study focused on evaluating the effectiveness of formative assessments at Higher Education Institutions in Zimbabwe during the covid-19 pandemic. A case study research design was employed, where one department at Midlands State University was selected for analysis. The research adopted a qualitative research approach where interviews and focus group discussions were conducted to collect primary data. The study sample included 120 final-year undergraduate students and 11 lecturers in the department of Risk and Insurance. Thematic analysis of qualitative data revealed that the most common formative assessment methods that were used during the covid-19 pandemic were online quizzes, group work/presentations; work-related learning technology enhanced assessments, in-class tests, and lastly dissertations. The study established that group work, in-class tests, and online quizzes were the most effective formative assessment techniques employed during the covid-19 pandemic. However, lack of technological resources, delay in providing assessment feedback, and students' attitudes were the major challenges that affected the effectiveness of the formative assessment. The study recommends the training of lecturers and the use of informal methods of assessments.


Theocentrism, or simply called God-centeredness, is the position, analogous to anthropocentrism and the likes, that returns everything as revolving around God as its sole proprietor. It exists in many strands but here it is strictly employed in environmental sense. There was a misconceived assumption that theocentric position is nothing but a typical ontological anthropocentrism, a strand of anthropocentrism that claims humans' superiority on the ground of his beingness. Of which, anthropocentrism, or any strand of it for that matter, however enlightened it claims, has been prosecuted for ‘rape' allegation and can never be freely acquitted from the environmentalists court of law, no matter how eloquent its solicitor could prove. The question is; could true theocentric position be co-notorious given the acclaimed qualities of God as Omnipotent and Omniscient?