Volume 10, Issue 7, July 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Work placement, compensation, and leadership are important aspects of human resource management that affect employee performance. This study aimed to examine the effect of job placement, compensation, and leadership on employee performance with organizational culture and work environment as mediating variables. In this regard, this paper proposes a conceptual model and comprehends the background problems, literature review, hypothesis development, and research methods used. The implementation of this paper will result in knowing the status of the influence of work placement, compensation, and leadership on employee performance, with the mediators being organizational culture and work environment.

Assessment of uptake ICTs and other interventions to deliver online learning during the covid-19 pandemic: the case of institutions of higher learning in Zambia []

Abstract The study sought to assess the uptake of Information Communication Technologies (ICTs) for online learning in institutions of higher learning during the novel corona virus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. In March 2020, Zambia announced its first two clinically confirmed COVID-19 cases. In the same month, the government announced the indefinite closure of all schools including institutions of higher learning in a bid to curb the spread of the disease. Forthwith, statutory instruments Nos.21 and 22 were issued under the Health Act to guide the manner the pandemic was to be tackled. In a bid to ensure continued learning, most institutions of higher learning had to discontinue face-to-face pedagogies and switched to virtual platforms of learning. The use of ICT platforms and tools for online teaching and learning has become a competitive tool for institutions for higher learning and industry as a whole. The study was designed in such a way as to asses a preparedness of institutions of lecturers to deliver lectures and learners to receive lessons using online platforms. It also sought to determine effectiveness of carrying out assessments and evaluate the challenges delivering lectures using online platforms. A total of five (5) higher learning institutions were purposively sampled from the Higher Education Authority (HEA) database. The respondents from these include administrators of institutions, lecturers and students and data were collected through interviews and questionnaires. A mixed method approach was employed. A total of 765 respondents were sampled but 473 were actually enumerated resulting in a percentage response rate of 61.8%. The data was analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. Results indicate that, higher institutions were not very ready to deliver lectures online due to inadequate investment in ICT infrastructure; lack of and/or unstable internet connectivity; power outages; inadequate ICT delivery skills coupled with lecturers and student perception pertaining to online delivery. Lecturers were not prepared and, in some cases, were unable to fully utilise ICT for online teaching and evidenced by a mean value of 2.65 which fell in the interval 3.5 to 4.2 revealing a notable “Bad” overall experience justified by a higher percentage distribution of 55.1%. This indicate that lecturers’ capacity to use gadgets was reasonably bad at 55.1%. It is recommended that higher learning institutions invest heavily in ICT infrastructure and train lecturers and other support staff Key terms: ICTs, Online learning, Infrastructure, COVID-19, Delivery skills

The Effect of Soil amended with Organic Materials of Varying Qualities On the 6-Gingerol Content of Ginger []

The use of Organic Manures to meet the nutrient requirement of crops is likely to be an unavoidable practice in so many years to come for sustainable agriculture since it has been proven to generally improve soil physical, chemical and biological properties. It has also been used widely to dispose animal waste and reduce environmental pollution. This study evaluates the influence of different organic amendments on the 6-gingerol content of ginger with aim to identify the best organic material source for improved 6-gingerol content of ginger. The treatments used were sawdust, Cow dung, Poultry manure, rice mill waste and Absolute control (no manure or inorganic fertilizer). Five treatments were used and replicated three times using randomized complete block design (RCBD). 6-gingerol content of the harvested ginger was quantified in the laboratory using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Data analysis was done using “R” statistical software version 4.1.0 and further mean separation was obtained by honest significant difference (HSD) at 5%.The result showed that the organic amendments enhanced the 6-gingerol concentration of ginger. The plot amended with cowdung gave the highest value of 489.1331 ug/ml which was significantly different from the absolute control and other organic amendments used in this experiment followed by poultry manure(476.3344 ug/ml), Rice mill waste (430.1956 ug/ml), saw dust(343.2329 ug/ml), and Absolute control(270.1886 ug/ml). The result showed that use of cow dung manure at the rate of 268g/plot of 2m should be applied to significantly enhance 6-gingerol content of ginger without compromising yield.

Children and Adolescents under the Labour Act: A legal Analysis []

Abstract Purpose – To investigate the perspectives on the labour act's protection of children and adolescents. Design/methodology/approach – Through the examination of secondary data, this article offers new perspectives on the labour act's protection of children and adolescents. Findings – It presents some suggestions through a legal analysis. Research limitations – The biggest drawback is that little research has been done on the subject in relation to Bangladesh. Practical Implications – For academics and practitioners, the findings advance knowledge in the fields of law, economics, and business. Originality/value – Among the few other studies on this topic already in existence, this one is quite distinctive. Keywords – Law, Economics and Business, Labour Act, Child and Adolescents Labour, Cross-disciplinary Approach. Paper type – Analytical paper Contact author and particulars Mowrin Rahman Lecturer, Faculty of Law Times University Bangladesh Email:mowrinrahman1991@gmail.com

Audit Quality And Under-representation Of Women Chartered Accountants At Managerial Positions. []

The study analysed gender impact on audit quality and the under-presentation of women Chartered Accountants at managerial positions in the auditing industry by one of the big four audit firms operating in Zimbabwe. A qualitative approach where data was collected through interviews was conducted and data was analysed through thematic and content analysis. The study established that gender has an impact on audit quality as women were more thorough in their audit work, more risk averse, and focused much on detail, unlike their male compatriots. However, to a lesser extent, the study found that gender has no greater impact on audit quality as the audit was governed by ISAs. Findings pertaining to the under-representation of women CAs show that intense workload, long hours, motherhood, family responsibilities, and discrimination play a vital role in women's representation at the management level. The study recommends that audit firms should improve their planning in a way that there is gender balance amongst audit team members assigned to an engagement as this was found to improve audit quality.


Mr. Ali is the HR Manager of a Nonprofit Organization called Indus Hospital & Health Network located in Pakistan . He is facing many issues in his HR department related to HR resources. These issues are present all over the organization and higher management is unable to resolve these issues. In his findings the members of the HR department are complaining about; lack of career growth, low salaries, no proper promotion policy, unnecessary pressure, and stress, and a Manual working system i.e. using excel for payroll. These are the main causes that are affecting the whole system of HR negatively and also causing a high rate of turnover in the department. The HRM alone cannot take major decisions because the Organization does not give powers to other campuses. Every decision is taken by the Head office in Karachi and the Organization doesn’t have a proper centralized system to manage the HR Department which has over 12k employees all over the country. This case is designed to teach the Students of Human Resource, so that they can analyze and understand the real life situations of any organization facing similar HR scenario.

Anaerobic Fermentation of Solanum tuberosum (Potato) Peel Waste for Bio-ethanol Production []

In this research work, Solanum tuberosum peel waste was used to produce bio-ethanol. Bio-ethanol is an alcohol made by microbial fermentation, mostly from carbonhydrates produced in sugar or starch bearing plants, is one of the bio-energy sources with high efficiency and it’s environmentally friendly. The bio-ethanol produced from Solanum tuberosum peel waste has a large potential market value. Solanum tuberosum peel wastes contain sufficient quantities of starch, cellulose, hemi cellulose and fermentable sugars that can be used as feedstock for bio-ethanol production. Batches of Solanum tuberosum were washed, sun dried and milled, hydrolyzed (saccarification) with sulphuric acid and then fermented anaerobically with saccharomyces cerevisiae (bakers’ yeast) to determine the fermentation and ethanol production. From the results obtained, ethanol’s yield was one-tenth of every distilled batch. From the results obtained, the bio-ethanol Reid vapour pressure at 37.80C was 16.0kpa, specific gravity at 600F was 0.791, octane number was 122.2, density was 791.4kg/m3, flash point was 260C, kinematics viscosity at 20oC was 1.5mm2/s and its refractive index @ 20oC was 1.3618. This result shows that Solanum tuberosum waste has high potential for ethanol production.


The nicotine supply received from tobacco was considered to be a major contributing factor in creating and maintaining a smoking habit. The hypothesis that nicotine has pharmacological effects that a smoker might desire is supported by reports in the literature of both animal experiments and human observations. Hence, it was thought that smoking withdrawal would be easier if the ex-smoker can supply himself with suitable doses of nicotine while avoiding the dangers of tar and carbon monoxide in the smoke. To help smokers quit smoking, a chewing gum containing nicotine bound to an ion exchanger was developed. The advantage of this preparation are that it allows administration in a convenient way of nicotine ad libitum, it precludes intoxication of the preparation if swallowed and it allows reducing the nicotine content for withdrawal purposes while keeping other properties unchanged. The preparation is now undergoing clinical trials. Key words: Smoking, NRT, Withdrawal, Nicotine, Tobacco.


As an indispensable and essential commodity for industrialization, electricity in Nigeria is unavailable, inaccessible, and of poor quality. This paper extensively discussed installing a solar photovoltaic power plant (SPPP) that would meet the energy requirement of Federal Polytechnic Nekede, Owerri Imo State, Nigeria. To alleviate inefficiencies posed by the electricity challenge, a 5.56 MW SPPP design was proposed with regard to the energy demand of the Institution estimated to be 4.275 MW. The project is estimated to require 6.27 Ha (15.49acres) of land area. Again, considering the available land mass of the Institution, this design recommends that the SPPP be sited in Special Use allocation because it is a unique project and the estimated maximum solar field required for the PV is 6.27 Ha (which is 23.8% of the lot for Special Use and 4.52% of the total land mass).


The study was undertaken to determine the level of competence Effects of Electrical Performance of Senior High School Stu-dents. The electrical performance focused on Perform Roughing- in Wiring and Cabling Works, Installing Electrical Protective Devices, and Installing wiring devices while academic performance on the weighted average grade of students (n= 50) of East Gusa National High School, Senior High School, the School Year 2021-2022. The questionnaires were based on the Vocational Skills in Electrical Training Regulations (TR) that serve as the basis for Competency Assessment and School Form 9 to gather the needed data. Data gathered were then analyzed through the utilization of frequency count, percentage, mean, standard deviation, and the inferential statistics of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. A quantitative research design was used to find adequate and accurate interpretations. Results revealed that students were at a very competent level in terms of installing wiring devices and very satisfactory level of academic performance. Furthermore, significant relationships were also disclosed between electrical installation and maintenance level of competence and academic performance. Therefore, teachers were recommended to conduct additional activities for mastery among Electrical Installation students in terms of competence in all three (3) competencies at a high level, and the same goes for academic performance. Moreover, teachers are also encouraged to attend seminars and training to upskill themselves.

Perceptions of UNAB students regarding the change from face-to-face academy to ICTassisted virtual work []

Quantitative study carried out between November 2020 and January 2021 with seven hundred twenty-two (722) undergraduate students from the Autonomous University of Bucaramanga, Colombia, with the purpose of recognizing their perceptions regarding the pedagogical experience that the change of the face-to-face academia has meant to virtual work assisted with ICT during the isolation caused by the COVID 19 pandemic. The researchers applied a survey-type survey to students of various semesters assigned to undergraduate academic programs belonging to the six faculties of the institution. Some of the most important conclusions are that students believe they learn better with lectures, workshops and case analyzes than with project work. Likewise, it was determined that future UNAB professionals expressed having problems maintaining attention during working hours; especially because they develop activities other than academic ones in class sessions.


The study examined the impact of monetary policy on economic growth in Nigeria. This research work covers the period between 1986-2020. The data was analyzed using Ordinary Least Square (OLS).. Findings from the research showed that there is no causality between monetary policy rate and economic growth in Nigeria; Money supply causes economic growth in Nigeria; There is no causality between exchange rate and economic growth in Nigeria; Economic growth (GDP) causes interest rate in Nigeria and that investment causes economic growth in Nigeria. it was therefore recommended among others that Monetary policies should be used to create a favourable investment climate by facilitating the emergency of market based interest rate and exchange rate regimes that attract both domestic and foreign investments, create jobs, promote non-oil export and revive industries that are currently operation far below installed capacity. In order to strengthen the financial sector, the Central Bank has to encourage the introduction of more financial instruments that are flexible enough to meet the risk preferences and sophistication of operators in the financial sector. Keywords: Gross Domestic Product at current market prices, Monetary policy rate, Money supply, Real exchange rate, Interest rate, and Investment.

Behavior of Concrete Incorporating yeast, a by-product of brewery factory, for production of light weight foamed concrete []

Now a days in Ethiopia there are so many brewery factory that produced by- product of yeast that used for an air entrained in concrete. Million liters of brewery by-product yeast wastes produced every year with no commercial return on it. Thus, the aim of this research is to study the effects of by-product of brewery yeast on engineering properties of light weight foamed concrete with of its density in terms of compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, workability, Water absorption capacity, setting time and consistency. Six types of concrete were prepared, namely i) CC (control concrete) and AAC (artificial foam) with 100 % water and 3% by weight of the cement as control mix respectively. ii) AC-FA 25 Light weight foamed concrete with 25% brewery yeast foam as part of water iii) AC-FA 50 Light weight foamed concrete with 50% brewery yeast foam as part of water iv) AC-FA 75 Light weight foamed concrete with 75% brewery yeast foam as part of water v) AC-FA 100 Light weight foamed concrete with 10% brewery yeast foam as part of water. All the specimens were water cured before being tested. The laboratory results showed that the incorporation of brewery yeast foaming agent into the concrete has decrease its compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, dry density and also increases water absorption capacity and workability. Besides, it was found that the light weight foamed concrete was lighter and has large pore size due to the presence foaming agent compared with that of the control mix which results a volume change of 24.52%, 33.82, 37.54% and 48.8% compared to the controlled concrete for the 25%, 50%, 75% an 100% water replacement by yeast respectively. Keywords: foamed concrete , brewery yeast, artificial foam, foaming agent

Comparing the Growth of African NightShade (Managu) Using Compost Manure and Diammonium Phosphate (D.A.P) in Alego Usonga Sub-County, Kenya. []

The agrarian revolution has resulted in major changes in the agricultural sector, especially with a focus on increased agricultural yields. It has led to changes in pesticide application and inorganic fertilizer. However, these have led to adverse effects on crops and environmental resources. Alternative agricultural practices like organic composite and Diammonium Phosphate (D.A.P) can be applied to improve agricultural productivity growth. Farming subsistence crops like African Night Shade (Managu) is lucrative in Kenya, and when farmed using appropriate practices, it will help achieve food security. These are why using composite and D.A.P. are important in the farming of Managu. This study aimed to determine the effect of Compost and D.A.P. on the growth of African Night Shades and determine which is better between the two. The study was conducted at Siaya Institute of Technology under the experimental agricultural farm. Split plots were used following the Randomized Complete Block Design (RBCD), and replication was done three times. Three plots were treated with Compost, D.A.P., and the remaining acted as control plots. The plots were named H1, H2, and H3, respectively. The plots measured (3 M by 4M), and the plot was divided into three portions, each measuring (1M by 1M ) and one pathway measuring (0.5 M ). Data was randomly collected by measuring the leaf size and stem heights after intervals of seven days from the day of planting. Findings indicate that compost farming enhances the maximum growth of African Night Shade. Therefore, when Compost with high nitrogen content is used, it leads to a successive increase in leave sizes and the stem growth of Managu. Education and awareness creation is important to impart knowledge to farmers regarding making and using Compost for subsistence farming. Application of organic farming will result to achieving the sustainable goal number four, of Zero hunger.


Because of its quick development, effective use of natural feed, propensity to take a variety of supplemental feeds, herbivorous nature, re-sistance to infection and handling, ease of reproduction, and excellent tolerance for environmental conditions, tilapia is a top priority in tropical aquaculture. Depending on the size of the fish, the amount of natural feed available, and other elements like the quality of the protein and energy levels, different fish have different nutritional needs. Feed plays a crucial role as a source of energy for an organism's survival, growth, and reproduction. Due to Indonesia's continued reliance on imports for the supply of raw materials like fish meal and soybean meal, the cost of feed must be high. The selling price of fish, which has increased very little, is inverse-ly linked to the price of feed, which continues to rise sharply. On the other hand, a variety of leftovers and waste products from human activity upset the environment greatly and have the potential to damage it. Waste from conventional markets is one that can be used as fish feed. This restaurant waste may take the form of vegetables (such as pakcoy, water spinach, lettuce, and spin-ach), fruits, or other materials. Through the use of suitable vegetable waste, this study aims to identify alternate source materials for fish feed. When maintained for 10 weeks, some Tilapia showed good absolute growth, gaining 83.24 grams. Additionally, feed-ing fish vegetable waste yields almost the same values for feed conversion, specifically between 20.92 and 26.01.


The Leather industry in Uganda is of economic importance in terms of providing employment opportunities and revenue. However, leather manufacturing is a water intensive process and generates a significant volume of wastewater mainly characterized by high salinity, high organic loading and pollutants. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to assess the existing wastewater management practices in the leather industry of Uganda focusing on two different tanneries so as to determine their efficiency and effectiveness in addressing potential pollution incidents. The uncontrolled release of tannery effluents to natural water bodies increases health risks for human beings and environmental pollution. Effluents from raw hide processing tanneries, which produce wet blue, crust leather or finished leather contain compounds of trivalent chromium (Cr) and sulphides in most cases, organic and other ingredients are responsible for high BOD and COD values and represent an immense pollution load, causing technical problems, sophisticated technologies and high costs in concern with effluent treatment. chemicals such as inorganic salts and polymeric organic coagulants are used for primary coagulation, as coagulant aids and for sludge dewatering; lime Ca(OH)2 and soda ash(Na2CO3) are necessary for pH correction and water stabilization; caustic soda (NaOH) is used for pH adjustment, powdered activated carbon (PAC) can remove taste and odour compounds and micro pollutants such as atrazine, bentonite aid's coagulation, and ammonium hydroxide is used in chloramination.

Conflict Management Styles and Teachers’ Performance in Elementary Schools of Opol District []

The study aimed to determine the conflict management styles of school heads and teachers’ performance in Opol District in the Division of Misamis Oriental for the School Year 2020-2021. Specifically, the study sought to find out the extent of conflict management styles of the school head in terms of accommodating, avoiding, ccollaborating, competing; and compromising, the level of teachers’ performance for School Year 2020-2021, and the significant relationship between the extent of conflict management styles and teachers’ performance. The study utilized the descriptive correlational research design with questionnaire checklist as the main tool in gathering the necessary data from the 120 elementary school teachers in the select Elementary schools. The statistical tools used in the study were the mean and standard deviation to determine the extent of conflict management styles and the teaching performance of the teachers. Pearson Coefficient of Correlation was employed to find out the significant relationship between the conflict management styles and the performance of the teachers. The accommodating style is the most preferred style of the administrators. On the contrary, the avoiding style is least practiced by the school heads. The teachers have an outstanding performance, and the five conflict management styles of the principals have no significant relationship on the performance of the teachers. It is highly recommended that the school administrators may employ the accommodating style of managing conflict in the organization, as it was found out more effect. More so, they may continue to exercise their responsibilities in managing conflicts for the teachers to perform to an outstanding level. Keywords: conflict, management, administrators, teaching, performance


This study was conducted to determine the relationship between job satisfaction and work engagement among the non-teaching employees of Southern Philippines College, School Year 2021-2022. Specifically, it sought to: identify the level of job satisfaction in terms of pay, promotion, and benefits; determine the level of work engagement in terms of vigor, dedication and absorption and find the significant relationship in the respondents’ level of job satisfaction when grouped according to work engagement dimensions. The respondents were the non-teaching employees (n=50) of Southern Philippines College. The questionnaires were patterned from the studies of Saliring (2022) and Torillo (2022). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics like frequency, mean, percentage, standard deviation, and Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient. The study shows that job satisfaction of the respondents on pay, promotion, and rewards was Fairly Satisfactory while work engagements, namely: vigor, dedication, and absorption, were at Most of the Time. Moreover, the data revealed a significant relationship between job satisfaction and work engagement; thus, the null hypothesis is rejected. It is recommended that employees be sent to seminars and trainings for professional advancement. In addition, work breaks be given to sustain work energy and mental resilience to persist when faced with work-related challenges. Thus a balanced level of job satisfaction and work engagement ensures better performance among non-teaching employees.