Volume 10, Issue 7, July 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

[1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]  [6]  [7]

Dominance of Denials & Practice Management []

One day in April 2017, Mansoor Ahmed was sitting in his Illinois office thinking about the best way to reduce high denial rates and enhance practice management for all of the company's doctors. As a result of the company's inexperienced staff, physicians and the company's revenue were negatively impacted. Since the PRG troubles were damaging the company's reputation in the U.S. and Pakistan, Mansoor A. Ahmed decided to travel to Pakistan and acquire more experienced people from other companies to remedy the current situation.

Cultivation of Kappaphycus Seaweed and its Factors []

Seaweed cultivation is highly dependent on proper cultivation techniques and with appropriate cultivation methods. The selected cultivation method should be able to provide good growth, easy to apply and the raw materials used are cheap and easy to obtain. Seaweed business development opportunities include the development of seaweed products, namely in addition to being produced in dry form, seaweed can also be used as SRC (Semi Refined Carrageenan) and RC (Refined Carrageenan) whose selling price is tens of times compared to only produced in the form of dried seaweed (raw materials). Barriers that arise in seaweed cultivation include the quality of population resources coastal areas as grass farmers are still relatively low, resulting in seaweed of poor quality. The poor quality is due to the mixing of seaweed production with other objects such as salt, nails, and iron and the inappropriate application of the cultivation period. Based on the background above, the formulation of the problem can be drawn as follows: How is the cultivation technique of Kappaphycus alvarezii seaweed. This paper discussed the cultivation of red alga (Kappaphycus) and the factors which may give impact during its cultivation, such as: Site selection criteria, bottom type, water movement, sunlight, water temperature, water depth, and water pollution.


Automation is a necessity and very essential to make work easier and faster. Through this, using automated payroll system in an organization was productive and beneficial for the employees. Thus, this study developed a Customized Payroll System for Bago City College that eliminates the redundancy in preparing the payroll, avoid miscalculation of employee’s salaries, make retrieval of payroll records faster, provide data security and generate employees’ pay slips easily. The study also determined the benefits that an organization can gain in implementation of the automated payroll system. The researcher used Rational Unified Process (RUP) in achieving the finished and well-functioned system that is reliable and effective in Bago City College.


This study aims to determine the Leadership Styles of the School Heads and Teachers’ performance. Specifically, it sought to offer data on respondents’ perceptions of the leadership styles of their school heads in terms of leadership styles: Autocratic, Delegative, Democratic, Servant, and Transformational; Teachers’ Performance and; and significant difference between the leader-ship styles of school heads and teachers’ performance. The respondents were the Public Elementary School Teachers of East I District, Division of Cagayan de Oro City, School Year, 2021-2021. Statistical tools like frequency, mean, percentage, standard deviation, and t-test were used to check the statistical significance of the data. The instrument was adopted from the study of Juntahan (2020) and Oco (2022) on leadership style and the IPCRF School Year 2020-2021 of the respondents. Overall, the topmost rated leadership style was the Democratic Leadership Style, while the remaining four (4) leadership styles were at a high adherence lev-el. Significant differences were registered between all five (5) leadership styles and school performance. In the final analysis, it was concluded that the democratic leadership style is the dominant style in managing teachers and students in school. Continuous development trainings and programs must be implemented, especially for novice teachers, to ensure good performance beneficial for the learners. Finally, handling school requires an effective leadership style to address challenges adequately.


The primary objective of the study is to assess the teachers' perspectives, gaps, opportunities, and level of modular distant learning implementation at Selected Elementary Schools of Talakag, Bukidnon, Philippines. The study used a correlational research design, using a modified checklist questionnaire to generate the necessary data. Furthermore, mean, standard deviation and Pearson R-Correlation were employed in the study. The findings demonstrate that teacher-respondents are favorable in modular distance learning. They have several difficulties, the most significant of which are getting in touch with the parents of their pupils and the handwriting of pupils. In addition, the difficulties in evaluating the pupils' performance. Modular Distance Learning adoption has the potential to improve instructors' teaching and educational materials, according to the respondents. On a modular distance, education level respondents were pleased with the structure and deployment, and fetching of modules and relevant stakeholders are engaging with the implementation. The Correlation evaluation between perceptions of the educators and perceived opportunities has a significant relationship on the level of implementation of modular distant learning. However, the gaps experienced by the teachers have no significant relationship with modular distance learning implementation.


The definition of marriage varies not only between cultures or religions, but also within them throughout their histories, evolving to both expand and contract in what is encompassed. But typically it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships, usually sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity.


According to Statistics Sierra Leone Survey (2014), Wide spread illiteracy, low levels of education and lack of training and business education and experience can limit the capacity of rural women entrepreneurs to consolidate sustainable enterprises. In Bangladesh for example, 76.3% of rural women entrepreneurs have no formal education, and 17% cannot read or write and use mainly manual skills in their businesses. Underdeveloped rural infrastructure and services for transport, electricity, and clean water further limit women’s access to resources, markets and public services such as healthcare, and lengthen the time needed for household, reproductive health care work.

Intercropping of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) with Grewia tenax as Winter Forage Production in Saline soils of Khartoum State of Sudan []

Barley (Hordeum vulgare) was intercropped with Grewia tenax under irrigation regimes in saline soils of dry land in Sudan. That aimed to find out suitable agroforestry system to suit saline soil in Khartoum State as well as to investigate effect of tree spacing on barley yield production as winter forage crop. Thus G.tenax tree species was spaced at 4x4m besides barley crop that sown at 2 levels at 1m (GS1) and 1.5m (GS2) apart from tree trunks in two seasons of 2018 and 2019. Parameters that measured for G.tenax its growth and fruit yield per tree. While for barley crop were; plant height, number of plant and forage yield as fresh and air dry per ha as well as land equivalent ratio. Besides soil chemical properties under intercropped plots, sole G.tenax trees and open areas as control at 0-30 cm and 30-60 cm depths. The results revealed that trees growth did not differ in first season 2018. Whereas significant differences were recorded in 2019; Thus G.tenax height when compared GS2 with GS1 and control. Likewise for tree collar and crown diameters under GS2. Barley plant height was higher under sole cropping in 2018. Likewise for barley biomass dry weight under intercropping and G.tenax fruit under sole trees. Land equivalent ratio (LER) was higher under GS2.Soil fertility in terms of NPK and Mg was higher under intercropped plots at upper layer 0-30 cm. whereas OC was higher at lower layer (30-60 cm) for intercropped plots. Soluble Cations were higher under lower at 30-30 cm depth for Ca and Na , similarly for pH, CaCo3, EC, SAR and C/N .Therefore, intercropping of barley crop as winter forage with G.tenax is feasible to maintain food security, halts desertification and sink carbon in dry lands.


Ahmad Raza, M Haroon, M Sufyan wrote this teaching note as an aid to instructors in the classroom use of the case Management Information Systems in Master Textile Mills Limited. This teaching note should not be used in any way that would prejudice the future use of the case. This publication may not be transmitted, photocopied, digitalized or otherwise reproduced in any form or by any means without the permission of the copyright holder. Reproduction of this material is not covered under authorization by any reproduction rights organization. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, contact Superior University, Lahore.


UN Security Council Resolution 1973 authorized intervention in Libya in line with the Responsibility to protect (R2P) norm. However, this norm and the principles it enshrines has caused much controversy among policy and academic circles. This article analyzes the core principles embedded within the norm in view of liberalism and realism and then critically evaluate whether the NATO interventions were justified or not and the implication this has had on the Syrian case. The article concludes by highlighting the lessons we can draw from the norm.


In the past few years, Africa has been the object of interest from new emerging powers such as China, India, and Turkey besides the ‘return’ of its traditional partners to the continent within the context of a ‘global scramble’ for African resources such as oil as new discoveries are made recently. African countries themselves have been engrossed with the substantial and potential new revenue streams upon discoveries made of these resources. This paper, using China as an example, reflects upon a common approach to external foreign investment in Africa’s natural resources the continent should adopt in the face of competing interest from its partners with regard to potential oil deals; levels of accountability; potential challenges, benefits of an oil deal; and the strategic documents and treaties that should guide the drafting of a deal document. Besides, the paper discusses how regional communities can be mobilized in this endeavour. Attention has been paid to the characteristics of contracts, the ‘relative bargaining strength’ – between the main actors in the negotiating processes prior to the signing of contracts, because as one researcher noted, it sheds new light on petroleum politics on the continent as compared to the old framework upon which contracts were arrived at.

The Role of NGOs in enforcing Social Protection Policy in Nigeria []

In Nigeria, Social Protection emerged as a direct and recent response to the high number of Nigerians notwithstanding its strong economic growth, living in poverty. Research has shown that because of this high percentile living poverty, it has forced the government and its development partners to develop social protection instruments as a mechanism to tackle such high rates of poverty and vulnerability in the country (Hagen-Zanker, 2012). These efforts had also been directed at both the economic and the social spheres as a policy objective to achieving greater social protection in the country. This paper adopts Hagen-Zanker’s definition of social protection as “the public actions taken in response to levels of vulnerability, risk and deprivation which are deemed socially unacceptable within a given polity or society”. It has been established by research that income poverty or inequality is one dimension of poverty in Nigeria and either of the two leads to vulnerabilities, which in turn, are influenced by social and other factors, such as geography, ethnicity, age, and gender inequality. This study aims to give a synthesis of Nigeria’s social protection with respect to the role, policies, capacity, and challenges of govt., and NGOs within the overall conceptual framework of social protection. In short, the central objective of this paper is to examine the role, capacities and challenges NGOs stakeholders in social protection in Nigeria with a view to drawing conclusions and recommendations on how NGOs can bring about the much needed changes that Nigerians want.


The availability of artificial feed that is sufficient in both quality and quantity is one of the conditions needed to enable the best possible growth of fish. Feed plays a crucial part in those operations because it makes up between 40 and 60 percent of the cost of fish farming operations. In order to support the goals of aquaculture development, increasing the efficiency of the aquaculture industry must be done largely to raise the purchasing power of the domestic population. Attempts are being made to find alternatives to the aforementioned artificial feed, one of which entails using the world around us as a source of raw materials. Vegetable waste, for instance, has the potential to be processed to produce en-vironmentally friendly alternative feed. Vegetable waste is a type of waste material that is derived from agricultural residues (crop residue), harvesting residues, and market residues. Because this remaining has a high moisture content, fish can utilize it for its nutritional value. One of the approaches to obtain a cost-effective alternative feed is this waste treatment. This study is antici-pated to teach fish producers on how to produce fish at a reasonable price as grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) using agricul-tural trash. The outcomes can then be used to develop fish feed that is both inexpensive and produces the best output.

Heart disease prediction approach using machine learning and Multi-Criteria Decision Making methods. []

Cardiovascular diseases are considered one of the most difficult diseases to treat and many people suffer from this disease in the world including related death due to heart diseases. Prediction of heart diseases is one of the main challenges in the area of medical data investigation. Machine learning has been interesting technology in the healthcare industry as been used to analyze medical datasets and predict diseases. Most researchers in the present era are using Machine Learning techniques to predict heart disease by selecting only one or two ML models for prediction accuracy and comparison. In this paper, we propose the use of the Multi-Criteria decision-making (MCDM) method to select the best machine learning algorithm. In MCDM, we use the TOPSIS method one of the best MCDM techniques which combine both hard and soft technologies for selecting the best algorithm. The number of machine learning algorithms such as support vector regression, k-nearest neighbor (KNN), Random Forest, Decision Trees, and Logistic Regression are tested with the dataset. We have used the cardiovascular disease dataset from the Cleveland University of California Irvine (UCI) Repository which consists of 14 different attributes related to heart disease. The experimental results show that using the MCDM method, the Random Forest algorithm is the best with a performance value of 79.7% compare to the other four algorithms.

Effect of solid-wastes disposal on microbial population and heavy metals elevation in dumpsites []

Background Solid waste management is a challenge to sustainable development in Calabar metropolis and Nigeria at large. Wastes are discharged into the environment with little or no treatment. Due to activities of microbes, some of these waste undergo degradation releasing toxins into the environment. Objective The present study evaluated the solid wastes disposal as a major factor to heavy metals and microbial increase in dumpsites Methods Soil samples for heavy metals and microbial loads were collected from six different dumpsites, 2.5g of the soil was weighed, air-dried and sieved in a 2mm sieve. 5 ml of concentrated nitric acid, 2ml of hydrochloric acid and 1ml of hydrofluoric acid were added. The vessels were then capped and heated in microwave unit at 800W to a temperature of 210oC for 20 minutes with pressure of 40 bars using atomic absorption spectrophotometer method for heavy. Data collected were subjected to a two-way analysis of variance (2-way ANOVA) in completely randomized design. Results The result showed that heavy metals, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe and Ni ranged from 0.19-2.883mg/kg, 0.08-0.183mg/kg, 0.440-1.200mg/g, 0.57-1.07mg/kg and 0.011-0.014mg/kg respectively. The heavy metals are in order of Cd>Fe>Mn>Zn>Cu>Cr>Pb>Ni, while microbial load shows that the total heterotrophic bacteria and fungi ranged from 1.66-2.29CFU/g and 1.22-1.85CFU/g respectively. The following microbial species where identified; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus species, E.coli, P. vulgaris, Penicillium specie, Aspergillius sp, Mucor and Rhizopus sp. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences (P<0.05) in microbial loads and heavy metals. Conclusions The level of contaminations in the dumpsite indicates that the continuous and precarious dumping of solid waste areas in Calabar metropolis should be discourage due to their associated negative health impacts.

Web Based Archiving System with SMS Support []

ABSTRACT : This study aimed to develop Web Based Archiving System with SMS Support that would help the students, admin or whoever is in need to easily access this system. In order to reduce the cost and management and make it convenient for the user, this system included some of the detailed information regarding the students in their school. The researcher use Scanner for scanning the documents. This study designed and developed a Web Based Archiving System with SMS Support it specifically examined the quality of the develop software based on McCall’s software quality Model. It also determined the level of system acceptability based on the required functionality, to provide fast and easy way to find the documents for students need. Develop a system which easily handle and monitor the transactions of students who needs the specific documents and generate reports. The research process from conducting preliminary survey of initial design until the develop system underwent evaluations, reviews and updates. Findings reveal that the developed system has passed all the criteria based on the McCall’s software quality model. It is concluded that the system is highly acceptable by end- users and provides fast and easy way to archive documents.


A numerical investigation on the study of MHD unsteady flow past a semi-infinite vertical plate with heat and mass transfer in the presence of transversely applied magnetic field and chemical reaction is carried out. The heat due to viscous dissipation and induced magnetic field are assumed to be negligible. The dimensionless governing equations are solved using the implicit finite difference scheme of Crank-Nicolson type. The effects of governing parameters on the velocity flow, temperature and concentration profiles of heat and mass transfer characteristics are presented graphically and discussed for various flow parameters.


The study investigated possible protective role of L-theanine on toxicity caused by aluminum and ethanol. Thirty two (32) wistar rats were grouped into 4; with each group containing 8 rats. Group A which is the control group was administered distilled water. Group B was administered 0.4ml ethanol in 100g of rat and 0.25ml aluminum sulphate in 100g of rat; group C were administered 0.4ml ethanol in 100g of rat, 0.25ml aluminum sulphate in 100g of rat and 0.15ml of L-theanine in 100g of rat; group D was administered 0.4ml of ethanol in 100g of rat, 0.25ml of aluminum sulphate in 100g of rat and 0.2ml of L-theanine in 100g of rat and the administration lasted for 14 days. Growth rates were monitored and antioxidant content in the liver as well as liver histology was assayed. Results obtained show that theanine caused enhancement of growth while ethanol and aluminum caused growth depression from 8 days of the experiment compared to the control. Ethanol and aluminum caused significant reduction in liver (Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Glutathione (GSH), Glutathione Peroxidase (GPX ), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Lipid Peroxidation (LPO) and Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2); and also caused a significant alteration in antioxidants activities compared with the control. Treatment of rats with theanine caused appreciable ameliorative effect on the induced liver damaged. It can be concluded that ethanol and aluminum caused significant damage to the liver through oxidative stress mechanisms; treatment with theanine has a mild protective effect on ethanol and aluminum induced toxicity.Keyword: Antioxidant, Aluminum Sulphate, Ethanol, L-Theanine, Liver