Volume 7, Issue 11, November 2019 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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This research was aimed to analyze genetic relationship of Tilapia Nirwana strain (Oreochromis niloticus) cultured in Lumajang and Wanayasa using RAPD-PCR method. This research was conducted from July 2017- October 2018. Sample that was used in this research was Tilapia Nirwana strain which has been cultured in Lumajang and Wanayasa. The method used in this research was explorative with RAPD-PCR technique using primary OPA-03 and OPA-05 and analyzed by descriptive qualitative with NTSYS-PC. The result showed that using OPA-03 could show many DNA bands in samples of fish which cultured in Lumajang and Wanayasa compared to OPA-05. This showed that primary OPA-03 is more efficient than OPA-05 to analyze genetic trait of Tilapia Nirwana strain. The results of analysis with fenogram UPGMAM using primary OPA-03 indicated that the relationship is relatively high with value of 71%. Keywords: Tilapia Nirwana strain, Primer OPA-03, RAPD-PCR, Lumajang, Wanayasa, Genetic Relationship.


Our study makes it possible to understand the legal aspects within COMESA in the fields of transport and communications, to demonstrate how the Member States can cooperate with each other to facilitate the production, the exchange of goods by establishing regulations that facilitate trade, within the common market of Eastern and Southern Africa. We have elucidated some regulations in our study, but also certain difficulties (difficulty of language) and advantages that the members meet for the commercial, productive, infrastructural integration; as well as the movement of goods and people. We also list the various means of transportation such as road, marine, rail and air transport. For this integration to be effective, macroeconomic convergence is needed to facilitate multilateral fiscal surveillance in a monetary union. To achieve this, states must focus on issues of national policies and institutional reforms or harmonization of regulatory structures.

The Development and Validation of Mathematics Multiple Choice Test Items for Junior Secondary School Three (JSS 3) Students in Oyo State, Nigeria []

The basis for the study was to develop and validate a mathematics achievement test for junior secondary school three students (JSS 3) in Oyo State, Nigeria. The instrumentation research design was adopted for the study. Simple random sampling technique was used in selecting three private schools in Ibadan metropolis; from which a total sample of 90 students in JSS 3 was purposefully selected as the sample for the sample. The test instrument was face-validated by experienced secondary school mathematics teachers for clarity of words and plausibility of distractions. The MAT (mathematics achievement test) consisted of 100 multiple choice test items of four strata with Kudar-Richardson KR-20 reliability coefficient of 0.87 which was administered to students and the response of these students were used in determining students’ mastery ability in the subject. The findings of the study show that the MAT is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring achievements in mathematics tests for junior secondary school three students in Nigerian secondary schools. It is recommended that teachers, educational stakeholders and researchers included; should ascertain the reliability coefficient; difficulty and discrimination indices of test items they develop in measuring educational achievements so as to ensure that items are valid and relevant to the subject contents and objectives.

Impact of Taxation on Investment, Social and Economic Development in Nigeria []

The research work examined the impact of taxation on investment, social and economic development in Nigeria. The objective of the study was to examine how tax revenue affects investment, social and economic development in Nigeria. This Study is predicated on the social political theory of taxation, expectancy theory, benefits-received theory and ability to pay theory. Secondary data source was explored in presenting the facts of the situation. The secondary data were obtained from relevant literatures, Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and National Bureau of Statistics publications among other. Data were tested using the Ordinary Least Square Linear Regression model. From the Central Bank of Nigeria Statistical Bulletin and National Bureau of Statistics, information concerning Gross Domestic Product, Gross Fixed Capital Formation, Value Added Tax, Company Income Tax and Personal Income Tax in Nigeria were extracted. The findings show that all the coefficients of the explanatory variables in model 1 and 2 are all statistically significant to gross domestic product and Gross Fixed Capital Formation (GFCF) except company income tax. The study concluded that, tax revenues are tools of both capital formation and economic growth to enhance investment, social and economic development of the country. The study then recommends among others, that to ensure sustainable investment, social and economic development, generation of tax revenue must be sufficient, efficiently and judiciously utilized. The government should pay attention to encouraging her citizens to build trust in it by tax accountability, ensuring that the promises made to the citizens are delivered.

The Impact of Personal Selling on the Purchasing Behavior towards clothes among Business Administration Students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines []

This study works towards the effect of using personal selling as a method in relation to the purchasing behavior of students from the College of Business Administration at Polytechnic University of the Philippines. To achieve the objectives of the study, data were gathered, formulated, and tested on the sample from students of the college department, which comprises of 337 students through random sampling. The survey design questionnaire which comprises of thirty-two (32) questions was partitioned into five dimensions, four dimensions predicated on the personal qualities of salespersons and their display of goods, characteristics of clothing stores, promotion is done by salespersons in the sale of clothing, and the fifth focused on youth's clothes purchasing behavior. The results of the study that has been conducted were shown that the mean of the evaluated for the salesperson in buying behavior store were personal characters of salesperson play an important role in influencing buying behavior scored (4.2284) and salesperson in way of presenting that has an impact on buying behavior got (4.0326). By this, this shows the salespersons’ credibility, commitment to the promises, patience in dealing with customers and their appearance have a great impact on customer satisfaction (Ziad, 2010). By which, salespeople should be aware of how does the market behaves and how will the person selling will work towards particular factors that could affect both sides of dealing a communication and deal.

Factors Influencing Rural Farm Households Participation Decision on Irrigation In Illu Abba Bori Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia []

The overall objective of this study is to analyze factors affecting participation decision and effects of the variables on income of smallholder farmers in Illu Abba Bor Zone in five Woredas’. The study was based on cross-sectional data collected from a sample of 238 households using stratified random sampling technique. Both descriptive and inferential (econometric) analysis were followed in the study. The econometric analysis employed is Heckman two-step procedure to identify factors influencing rural farm households’ participation decision in small scale irrigation and to determine effect of factors on households’ income. The findings from the study showed that, distance from nearest water source to household home,non- farm & off-farm income were negatively and significantly related to participation in the scheme. However, household head education status, livestock holding, amount of production input used, total family size of household, access to extension services, availability of active labor force and land topography of the household head influence positively and significantly.


The most common material used for construction is concrete with its major constituent being cement. Cement production results in a lot of environmental pollution as CO2 gas is constantly emitted. Supplementary cementitious materials like saw dust ash, rice husk ash, egg shell powder, sugarcane bagasse ash etc. are finely ground solid materials that are used to replace a portion of the cement in a concrete mixture. The use of such by-products in concrete construction not only prevents these products from being land-filled and causing pollution but also enhances the properties of concrete in the fresh and hardened states. These supplementary cementitious materials by pozzolanic action react with hydration products to form calcium silicate hydrate(CSH) thus improving concrete quality and consequently reducing the cost of concrete production. One of such material is Corn Cob Ash (CCA). Research progress so far on the use of corn cob ash for cement replacement is presented in this paper. Review of literature was carried out to know the trend of its use in concrete, production methods and its effects on mechanical and durability properties of concrete.

Impact of Corporate Governance Mechanisms on Firm’s profit performance (In the Case of Ethiopian Micro Finance Institutions) []

This research examined the impact of corporate governance mechanisms on firm performance of Ethiopian Micro Finance Institutions. Data was collected from eight Micro Finance Institutions in the financial year 2013-2018 and multiple regression analysis was used to determine whether the existing corporate governance mechanisms influence the firm performance or not. The analysis was based on balanced panel data over a period. To achieve the objectives, variables Return on assets and Return on equity were employed as the key variables that measure the performance of firms. On the other hand board size, Board gender diversity, Frequency of Board Meetings, Board’s political affiliation, were used as independent variables and firm size and firm leverage used as control variable to measure the corporate governance. The independent variable of the study explained 50.52 percent of ROA. And there is statistically significant relationship between Board gender diversity, Board Members Political affiliation and firm profit performance (ROA) at 5 percent level of significance. Generally, the result is similar to earlier studies that corporate governance has an effect on firm performance.


Abstract : A field trail to examine the response of Glossy nightshade (Solanum americanum) to Poultry Manure Compost application in the Northern Guinea Savanna.Agroecological Zone of Nigeria was conducted in the Teaching and Research farm of Crop Science Department of the Taraba State college of Agriculture, Jalingo (Latitude 80 50”N and Longitude 11 50”E) during the 2017 and 2018 cropping seasons. The treatment evaluated consisted of five rates: O(Control), 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 t/ha of poultry manure compost. Each treatment were replicated four times and laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). Parameters measured included plant height, number of branches, leaf length and width, and leaves yield/ha. Parameters measured were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA) using Mini tab and means difference were separated using least significant difference (LSD) at P = 0.05. the result obtained indicated that poultry manure compose application improved the performance of glossy nightshade. The application of 8.0 t/ha gave a superior yield over the other treatments in both cropping seasons (2017 and 2018) with means of 49.600 and 49.925 t/ha respectively. Application of Poultry Manure at 8.0 t/ha could be adopted to enhance and maximize the productivity of Solanum americanum for yield benefit to farmers in the Northern Guinea Savanna Agroecological Zone of Nigeria. Key words: Glossy nightshade, Poultry Manure, Response and Northern Guinea Savanna.


The growth and spread of internet with an extraordinary pace over the last few decades has resulted in emergence of online purchasing of products and services. This study will focus on the impact of online shopping on consumer buying behaviour; A case study being Jumia. The study proposed four objectives which were to assess how perceived benefits, perceived risks, product awareness and website design influence online buying behaviour of Jumia customers. Theoretical framework that guided the study were Technological Acceptance Model (TAM) and Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) which are relevant to this study and is operationalized through a conceptual framework. The research design that was applied in this research was descriptive research design. The target population for the study was customers of Jumia based in Nairobi. Purposive random sampling was used to take a sample of 94 customers of Jumia online store products who could be found within Nairobi CBD. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25 and Microsoft excel package was used for data analysis and findings were presented in tables. Correlation analysis was done to test the relationship between the three independent variables that is; perceived benefits of online shopping, perceived risks of online shopping, product awareness and website design and the dependent variable online consumer buying behavior. The results showed that Perceived Risks of Online Shopping had a significant positive linear relationship with the customer buying behavior at 5% level of significance, r = 0.457; p= 0.003. Regression analysis was also conducted and the results indicated that the independent variables were found to explain 34.1% of the variation in the Customer buying behavior as indicated by a coefficient of determination (R2) value of 0.341.The study recommends that various risk-reducing strategies should be developed by online retailers in addition to putting mechanisms in place to guarantee the quality of their merchandise and create avenues of settling disputes. Another recommendation is that online vendors should give less priority to website design since consumers rarely focus on visual design, site content, ordering and transaction procedure in making purchase decision via the internet.


The managing and use of demolished aggregate in new construction had led the environment friendly that led the use of waste to utilize it in different fields including construction fields. The main aim is to do the construction which has the advantage of avoiding waste which are in large quantities at landfills and also to avoid the borrow construction material which are not available easily in some areas. The construction and demolished waste has very good impact on the construction works. The aim of the research is to find the technical viability of waste aggregate for Base course layers. For this purpose various tests are formed to check the result of using CDW (Construction and demolished aggregate) in construction of pavement composed of asphalt mix, concrete and ceramic waste aggregate. This was done by analyzing the recycled aggregate on actual road section. It was found that result of using a CDW in making base course for road surfacing was satisfactory.


Until 2015, the Brazilian civil airport Guarulhos (GRU), was the busiest airport in Latin America. From 2016 to date, Mexico City International Airport (MEX) is the busiest airport in passenger transportation in Latin America. This article investigated air passenger transportation in Latin America, to discuss the evolution of civil aviation in recent years. This research investigated the N=10 busiest airports in Latin America compared with the ten busiest airports worldwide, through a descriptive case study. Data were collected through archival research on a government database and analyzed through content analysis. Key findings pointed out an increasing activity of Mexico City International Airport (MEX) in the last four years. Discussion and future research compile the present work.


ABSTRACT Language is a complex and dynamic system which is used in various modes of thoughts and communication. Syntax is the grammatical rules used in determining acceptable, sequencing, combining and functional use of words in a sentence. Blake(1981) defined case markers as a system which depends on nouns for the type of relationship they bear to their heads. The different types of case markers are nominative, accusative, genitive, dative, instrumental, locative1, locative2. Majority of the language disorders are among the children with intellectual disability and hearing impairment. Mohan, Vishnu, Sreelakshmi, Kumaraswamy(2015) found out that as age increases the ability ton use correct case markers in was also improved. Owens(2010)found out that children with down syndrome may also be present with less mature syntax in association with the use of jargon, preservation and difficulties with pre-suppositions. Laws and bishop(2003) reported frequent omission of grammatical morphemes in down syndrome, but the precise nature and extent of these omissions has thus far not been clearly delineated. The present study aimed in reporting the usage of case markers by children with intellectual disability and hearing impairment by using quantitative methods to collect data primarily in the form of spoken language which includes observations and interviews with participants. Entire session was audio and video recorded. The samples were analyzed primarily focusing on case markers. The results revealed that the performance of case markers was found to be poor in both cases but children with intellectual disability was having better performances than hearing impaired children. Here we conclude that morpho- syntactical studies in Indian context would aid in assessment and help in establishing the base line to set goals for morphological intervention in children with intellectual disability and hearing impairment, hence there is a need of studying those for establishing intervention and management.


The paper examined the level of development of infrastructural facilities in Ado Ekiti. Data for the study were obtained from five (5) selected areas in Ado Ekiti using purposive sampling technique, which are: Odo-Ado Area; Ajilosun Area; Adebayo Area; Housing Area and Olorunda Area. The instrument used to collect the data was a structured questionnaire. The analyses of the data using a descriptive method of data analysis revealed that the level of development of infrastructural facilities in the study area is average and there are some people that have no access to infrastructaural facilities as they are located far away from them. The study concluded that there is still need to develop the available infrastructural facilities as well creating new ones in strategic places. Therefore the study recommended that government at all levels must make it a priority to invest in the development of infrastructures in their jurisdiction, there should be proper location and distribution of infrastructural facilities, there is also need to award infrastructural developmental projects to competent hands rather than quack among others.

The Break and Continuity of Myth in Heraclitus’s Philosophy []

The chief aim of the paper is to analyze critically and qualitatively analyze a continuity and break of mythological accounts in Heraclitus’ philosophy by using primary and secondary sources. The basic motive of the author is the contentious issue of the continuity and break of Greek mythology in the works of some Pre-Socratic philosophers. The author scrutinizes whether or not myth completely polished from early Greek philosophy by taking into account Heraclitus’s philosophy. This is the ample reason partially to deal with the break and continuity of mythology in early Greek philosophy.


Use of computing equipment together with telecommunication infrastructure brings novel capabilities in our global world. An expert system is a computer program that uses artificial intelligence technologies to simulate the judgment and behavior of a human or an organization that has expert knowledge and experience in a particular field. An expert system is made up of three primary components. These are the inference engine, the knowledge base, and the user interface. Agricultural production system has progressed in to a complex business that requires the incorporation of knowledge and information from many various sources. The modern often depends on advisors and agricultural specialists to obtain information for the purpose of decision making. This research work centers on expert system as an off shoot of artificial intelligence, branches of artificial intelligence such as video game, hybrid intelligent systems, intelligent agent, machine learning, robotics, expert system etc., the historical background of expert system, application of expert system in education, auditing, agriculture, smart computing, virtual reality etc. it further discusses software tools needed.

Reasons behind the Poor Performance of Preparatory Year Students' at Imam Saud University in Writing Skill []

This study aims to find the logical reasons for the Preparatory Year Program students’ poor performance in writing skills for the course that has been delivered by the PYP department during one semester of study at King Faisal University in Saudi Arabia. A controlled group approach was employed in a view that to enable the researcher to pin down where the problems lie within a short period. Instructors were given a questionnaire. It was used as a research instrument. The study sample consists of 15 instructors who teach the English language to PYP students at King Faisal University. SPSS was used to analyze the data obtained. The major findings include: One term is not enough to present and practice using the material. Instructors are not using suitable methodologies to improve writing skills as well as the preparatory year program at King Faisal University does not provide an effective plan to improve students writing skills. It emphasizes on doing practice for the writing skills. The researcher recommends that the Instructors must pay more attention to their pedagogical application. Keywords: reasons; poor performance; Preparatory Year Program


La sclérose tubéreuse de Bourneville ( STB) est une maladie génétique rare, transmise sur le mode autosomique dominant caractérisée par le développement de tumeurs bénignes au niveau des différents tissus : la peau, le rein, le cœur, le cerveau et e l’œil. La triade classique chez l’enfant comprend des taches cutanées, l’épilepsie et le retard mental. Méthode - Les auteurs rapportent une vignette clinique d’un nourrisson admis pour crises convulsives latéralisées, compliquées d’une hypertension artérielle maligne et dont le diagnostic étiologique d’une sclérose tubéreuse de bourneville a été posé dans un cadre du bilan étiologique d’une hypertension artérielle maligne compliquée d’encéphalopathie convulsivante. Résultat -A . O âgé de 36 mois, l’ainé d’une fratrie de 02, issu de parents non consanguins. Le développement psychomoteur était normal. Une notion d’épilepsie chez l’oncle maternel était rapportée, dans les antécédents familiaux. Le début de la symptomatologie remontait à l’âge de 07 mois par la survenue de convulsions type syndrome de WEST.02 jours avant son admission , un état de mal convulsif a motivé son transfert en réanimation. en mai 2014.A son admission : un coma stade IIa, une PA à160 /120mmHg, un placard cutané achromique de la région sacrée, et la face interne des cuisses. L’auscultation pulmonaire retrouvait quelques râles crépitants aux deux bases du champ pulmonaire. Un bilan d’exploration de l’HTA retrouvait : à l’echographie abdomino - pelvienne une néphromégalie gauche. Une scintigraphie rénale au DMSA a retrouvé un rein muet sur sténose de l’artère rénale droite.La créatinine sanguine , le dosage urinaire des VMA étaient sans particularité. Une IRM cérébrale a révélé des nodules sous-épendymaires le long des parois externes des ventricules latéraux. L’enfant a été néphréctomisé à droite .L’étude histologique de la pièce néphréctomisée a révélé de multiples angiomyolipomes au niveau de la corticale .L'enfant était mis sortant à j25, sous bithérapie antihypertensive et anticonvulsivant. Le décès de l'enfant est survenu à domicile, 05 mois après sa sortie du service , dans le cadre d'une encéphalopathie hypertensive convulsivante réfractaire au traitement. Conclusion -La STB est une affection autosomique dominante.Son diagnostic est clinico radiologique .La manifestation clinique est polymorphe. Le pronostic est étroitement lié aux manifestations neurologiques. Un traitement par du vigabantrin s’avère contrôler mieux les convulsions.Une approche multidisciplinaire permettrait d’améliorer la thérapie et la qualité de vie des patients atteints. Mots clés Nourrisson, Encéphalopathie convulsivante, hypertension artérielle maligne, taches achromiques, tubers corticaux, kystes rénaux,


ABSTRACT This research was carried out to study the behavior of fabric reinforced concrete, specifically compressive and flexural strength, by incorporating recycled 3 dimensional spacer fabric as fiber reinforcement in the concrete. Another aim of the research is to determine the maximum proportion of fibers to be added in the concrete. The specimens were tested for flexural strength, tensile strength, water absorption test and fire and chemical resistivity test. Laboratory test results based on short term investigation reveals that the compressive strength and flexural strength of fabric reinforced concrete are higher than of normal ordinary Portland cement concrete. Furthermore, the environmental sustainability of FRC was evaluated in comparison to conventional RC. The purpose of this study is also to produce a comparative study of irrigation canal lining by the use of fabric reinforced concrete canvas. This study reveals lining irrigation canals using concrete impregnated fabric reduce the construction and maintenance cost. Fabric reinforced specimens with dimension of 250×250 and 150×150 were cast with PVC bottom layering having three different thicknesses 5, 8 and 13 mm to measure their tensile, flexural and durability strength. Keywords: Fabric reinforced concrete canvas (FRCC), experimental methods, durability, sustainability, RC.

Effects of YouTube Marketing Communication on Converting Brand Liking Into Preference among Business Administration Students in Polytechnic University of the Philippines []

Today’s world has been revolving around technology. As marketers dive into new ways of marketing and selling their products, we can also see the drastic difference of consumer in their buying behavior and brand preference. This paper examines the effect of YouTube marketing communication on converting brand liking to the Business Administration students of Polytechnic University of the Philippines. A survey was conducted among the respondents and the hypotheses are evaluated. The result of this paper shows that YouTube marketing communication has a favorable connection to brand preference and brand liking, making YouTube a relevant tool for advertising and marketing. I


Social media platforms are the fastest way of communication; therefore messages can spread across all platforms with just a little bit of work. In today's era were technologies have emerged, social media platforms have been used to help businesses expand their strategies in penetrating the market through spreading their campaigns and promotions across all social networking sites. However, it will not be useful without the users, who have the power to share and spread the information about their customer experience. In the vast number of people who can access their social media accounts, product marketing through technologies has a large possibility of reaching out millions of possible customers. There have been studies conducted regarding ways of penetrating the market for the betterment of the company but there are only few studies about how consumer behaves based on their interest. Thereupon, researchers have adopted a study about how customers were being engaged through social media marketing to have a contribution in the existing literatures concerning about this topic. Here, the researchers have come up with the factors that may influence consumers’ intention in engaging with brands through social media platforms, particularly Facebook and Instagram. In gathering upon the data, the researchers used theories such as the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Uses and Gratification Theory (UGT) in order to identify the factors that influences an individual engagement with brands based on their social media behaviors. Using survey questionnaires as the medium used to gather relevant data. It consists of questions of how frequent they’ve using social medias and how they were being engaged in the advertisements on social media platforms. The conclusions were based on inputs from a survey with 337 respondents under the College of Business Administration in its four programs from the campus of Polytechnic University of the Philippines. Regardless of the limitations of the number of respondents, this research enlightens the user behavior on social media platforms that can be a relevant study for some businesses that strives hard to gain a competitive advantage. It is essential to understand the user behavior towards social media to know where to focus on a retailer’s development and how they will efficiently utilize these social media platforms as an extension of their marketing strategies to thrive in the competitive environment.

Impact of Brand Credibility on Customer Patronage of Table Water Firms:Evidence from Nigeria []

Abstract This study pragmatically investigated the influence of brand credibility in the configuration of customer patronage of table water firms in Rivers State of Nigeria. A causal design research and a mock-up were invented to take on board the two hypotheses of the study. The simple random technique was assumed and quantitative facts were engendered through a 5-point Likert-type scaled questionnaire. The study espoused descriptive statistics and simple regressions modus operandi to establish that brand credibility was functional in manipulating metrics of customer patronage. The results put forward that brand credibility has a very strong, significant and positive influences on store traffic flow; expertise has a strong, significant and positive influence on customer referrals. The study concludes that results of quantitative analysis depict that brand credibility programs espoused by the table water firms in Rivers State affect customer patronage. The implication for managers is that they will now strive to achieve complimentary reactions from consumers to launch and uphold credibility of their brands. The study recommends that Managers of table water firms’ meeting point should anchor on those areas of brand credibility that bring into being store traffic flow and customer referrals to their firms. More inquiries on brand credibility and customer patronage in the table water firms could take account of exclusively broad dimensions interconnected to the factors that influence customer patronage in order to put forward a more perceptive, appreciative and superior synopsis of customer patronage.

health system determinants and work performance of community health workers in decentralized services in Cameroon: an overview of Obala health district []

Introduction: This study investigated the health system determinants of community health workers performance in the decentralized services in Cameroon in order to develop a management framework that could be used to improve performance. Context: According to the 2006 World Health Organization (WHO) Report, the shortage of professional health workers is one of the key reasons in the growing crisis of providing health services, particularly in low income countries. In view of this shortage, community health (workers) workforce was adopted as a component of cost-effective strategies in addressing the health needs of rural communities at the lowest level of the health system. Objective: to identify the health system determinants of work performance of CHWs in the Obala Health District. Methodology: This study adopts a mixed research methodology and is descriptive. Pearson’s correlation and ANOVA test were used in bivariate analysis of quantitative data with the outcome variable being work performance of community health workers. Results: The study reveals that 59.3% of CHWs are supervised once a month by the Health Center Workers (41.9%) or MOH officials (38.4%). The provision of feedback is an important component of the CHWs strategy; unfortunately, over 65.1% of CHWs do not receive feedbacks from their supervisors to improve their work. Conclusion: CHW programs require regular and reliable support as well as supervision in order to obtain better results. However, supervision is often one of the weakest links in a CHW program consequently the quality of supervision needs improvement. Key words: Determinants, Performance, Community Health Workers, Obala Health District.

Book Review []

Book Review on Andreas Wimmer's book ; Ethnic Boundary Making: Institutions, Power, Networks. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013. vii + 293 pages.