Volume 7, Issue 3, March 2019 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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A review on concepts useful to the synthesis of superactivated carbon-magnetite nanocomposite and its application on the adsorption of Cd, Pb, Cr, Fe ions in aqueous solutions []

The synthesis of nanoparticles and nanocomposites proves to show potential on different fields. In the treatment of heavy metals such as cadmium, chromium, lead, and iron from aqueous environments specifically, there have been studies on the application of such nanoparticles. Researchers developed different methods for the synthesis of superactivated carbon, magnetite nanoparticles, and their nanocomposites with other particles. KOH activation has been commonly used to synthesize superactivated carbon. For the synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles, most researches cited used ferric chloride, with the addition of different reagents. For the synthesis of a Superactivated Carbon-Magnetite nanocomposite, different methods have been employed. SAC-Mag Nanocomposite has shown higher adsorptive capacity than naked Sb AC and Magnetite. Further impregnation of other material in the nanocomposite causes a decline in its adsorptive capacity. This review covers information useful for the synthesis of superactivated carbon-magnetite nanocomposite for the adsorption of Cd, Pb, Cr, Fe ions in aqueous solutions.


Food and feeding habits of fish are used in fish stock management as well as in fish feeding ecology as an im-portant means of investigating trophic relationships in aquatic communities. The food of Schilbe intermedius (size range: 9.7-26.6cm; total length: 17.9±3.2cm; wet weight: 43.0±24.3g; mean±SD) from Agbura landing site, Bayelsa State, Nigeria was studied for a period of three months (May-July 2018). A total of a hundred and fifty four (154) stomach of S. intermedius were examined, out of which 20 were empty and 134 of the stomachs were with food. The numerical and frequency of occurrence method as well as the index of food significance of the stomach content were employed. The results showed that the food of S. intermedius consist of 63.89% animal origin (e.g., fish, water snails, crustaceans, worms, copepods and insects), while the remaining 36.11 % was made up by others (e.g., pepper seed, rice, plant, sand/mud and unidentifiable items). Parts of crustacean showed the highest (24.44%) in terms of % number of food items in the stomach followed by parts of fish (19.44%), the least was water snail (0.19%). For % occurrence of food items, parts of fish recorded highest (27.61%) followed by parts of crustacean (26.12%), the least were rice grains and water snail at 0.75% each. As indicated by the % in-dex of food significance, the primary food items (i.e., IFS ≥3%) in deceasing order were parts of crustacean (39.47%) > parts of fish (33.19%) > parts of insect (14.93%) > parts of plant (4.31%) > pepper seed (3.33%). The secondary food items (i.e., IFS ≥ 0.1 to < 3 %) in descending order were worm (2.08%)> sand/mud (2.00%) > unidentified items (0.54%), while the remaining such as rice grains (0.09%), copepods (0.07%) and water snail (0.01%) were considered incidental (IFS ≤ 0.1%). In conclusion, S. intermedius is a predator but can readily ad-just its diet based on availability of food items.


Economic development is significantly impacted by how credit is extended to individuals and small businesses to boost and mobi-lize entrepreneurial activities. In the Philippines, structured financial institutions such as credit cooperatives provide varied financial services but due to the tedious processes and overlapping documentary requirements, debtors are discouraged, making them more vulnerable to loan sharks. The study focused on assessing the agreement level of borrowers to their borrowing experience with selected credit cooperatives in Metro Manila. Specifically, indicators such as terms of payment or interest rates, processing, collateral or co- maker, and default policies were assessed by the respondents to establish the acceptability of these credit terms. On the other hand, the mode of payment, the professionalism of cooperative staff and facilities were also evaluated by the prospective and existing debtors. Furthermore, an interview with the cooperatives’ management was conducted to validate the challenges being experienced by the borrowers.The study employed mixed methods necessary to provide founded information from respondents' assessment and interview of credit cooperatives. The research utilized both descriptive and inferential statistics as it test the significant differences among the variables being evaluated. The results showed varied responses and an overall satisfactory assessment on the borrowing experiences. However, some areas need further improvements such as limiting the tedious processes and documentary requirements which are needed to be relaxed to encourage borrowers and improve operational efficiency of credit cooperatives.

UIAM (Using Islamic-scriptures to Advance Modern-science) system []

This article discusses a new way to study science, a way never been adopted before. Science will make more progress when it starts to study non-physical phenomenon as per the beliefs of the great scientist Nikola Tesla. As he also said, ”The day science begins to study non-physical phenomena, it will make more progress in one decade than in all the previous centuries of its existence.” It uses Islamic scriptures in a new perspective, which is, to advance contemporary science at large effectively and efficiently.


Water from the Delimi River has been used for irrigation farming since the onset and development of the Jos metropolis. However there are concerns over the quality of the water for irrigation farming due to pollution resulting from anthropogenic activities. The objective of this study was to determine the suitability of water from Delimi River for irrigation purposes in the study area. Water sampling was carried out over a period of six months during the dry season when irrigation farming is usually practiced. The parameters analyzed included pH, Electrical conductivity, Magnesium, sodium, calcium, chloride, nitrate, sodium adsorption ratio and boron. The result of the water analysis shows that the mean pH values were within acceptable range in most cases for irrigation farming. Effect of water on sodicity, permeability and salinity were rated as slight to moderate. Similar rating was observed for nitrate. Calcium, magnesium, boron and chloride contents were within acceptable limits for irrigation.

A GIS Based Multi-Criteria Decision Making for Selecting Sites for Schools in Greater Cairo []

Education is one of the basic pillars of human civilization and progress, the school site selection are the most important components of the educational process, this paper concerns on using a GIS spatial analysis tools on school site selection. There are many problems surrounding schools Egypt, For example, some schools are surrounded by many pollutants such as garbage, workshops, factories and other sources of pollution, there are also some schools located on main roads, which endanger students' lives. The main problem of this paper that there are no clear criteria for school site selecting to provide maximum safety and provide a good atmosphere for the educational process, the study aims to solve this problem in determining the School site selection and using geographic information systems in selecting the most appropriate location for the establishment of new schools. The purpose of this study is to develop a public school site selection model using Graphical Information Systems (GIS), the study has used GIS based Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA) technology to improve the accuracy of school site selection model and also apply this model to El- Zaytoun district in Cairo governorate, how to implement this model, how to use it and produce a map showing the land's validity to establish new schools. Keywords: Geographic Information system (GIS), School site selection, Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA), Weighted Overlay Analysis (WOA).


The research is to analyze the impact of cashless banking on profitability in banking industry of Pakistan. For that purpose, five banks have selected from Pakistani banking sector who are offering cashless banking and have major market share. There are different means of cashless banking but for the study purpose, three major options were selected i.e. point of sales transactions, mobile banking transactions and internet banking transactions. In order to analyze the impact on the profitability, the data for six years (2013- 2018). The ratio analysis is a very authentic and reasonable tool, which is selected to analyze the profitability of the banks for the given period. The profitability ratios provide a real estimation about the increase or decrease in profitability of a firm within a financial year. The data is collected from secondary resources such as articles, online journals, text books and library resources. The results shows that cashless banking has a very significant on the profitability of the selected banks in banking industry of Pakistan. The banks are required to educate and create more and more awareness to the existing and prospect customers. This will be helpful to provide better customer support, reduce costs for banks and achieve more economies of scale that will eventually leads towards profitability of banks. The profitability of the banking sector due to cashless banking results in better economic activity and growth of Pakistan’s banking industry

Offshore Wind Energy Assessment and its Utilization in Comparison to Gas Turbine Operations []

This research is geared towards assessing the wind characteristics of three target locations within the Nigerian exclusive economic zone and the utilization of offshore wind energy in offshore operations in Nigeria. The three target areas are offshore locations within the boundaries of Lagos, Onne and Warri. Wind speed data was obtained from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) for this work. Weibull distribution function was used to analyze the wind data and standard deviation method was used to determine the scale and shape factor values. Comparative economic analysis was carried out where the net present value of setting up a 35.52 MW offshore wind turbine system was compared with a gas turbine system of same capacity. The results of the analysis show that Lagos has the highest annual mean wind speed followed by Onne and Warri. The annual mean wind speed in Lagos at measured height (2 m) and hub height (80 m) are 3.82 m/s and 8.63 m/s respectively; those at Onne and Warri are 2.60 m/s / 6.60 m/s and 1.85m/s /5.14m/s respectively. Lagos also has the highest annual mean wind power density and annual mean wind energy density of 1158.54 W/m2 and 834.15 kWh/m2 respectively, Onne has 640.45 W/m2 and 461.12 kWh/m2 respectively while Warri has 337.82 W/m2 and 243.228 kWh/m2 respectively. Using 3MW wind turbine selected for Lagos as a case study in the economic analysis, 28 wind turbine units are required to produce 35.52 WW of electricity with average capacity factor of 0.423. The net annual cash flow and the net present value of the wind turbine operation for a period of 20 years for 11 % interest rate are USD 14.78 million and USD -42.14 million respectively compared to USD 3.16 million and USD 2.78 million respectively for a gas turbine system.

Effect of incolum on biogas from cassava peels []

This research focuses on the effect of inoculum such as cow dung and poultry droppings on biogas produced from cassava peels. Six plastic digesters of 30 liters capacity were used for anaerobic digestion of these wastes. Cassava peels was used as the main substrate with cattle dungs and poultry droppings as inoculum which triggers a catalytic effect in the digestion process. Thermometers and pressure quages were installed on the top of each digester which contained the mixture of cassava peels and inoculum in varied proportions. Temperatures and Pressures were taken each day by 10:00 AM and 4:00 PM. It was discovered that pressures produced were relatively low and directly proportional to ratios of the digesters content. The biogas produced were functions of time variations and content concentrations. Further analysis revealed that the biogas produced were combustible after 91, 94 and 98 days for the three digesters that contained highest substrate and inoculum. Conclusively, the addition of inoculum will enhance maximum production of biogas in cassava peels and increase potentials for combustibility. Keywords: Cassava peels, inoculum, temperatures, pressures, digesters, substrate and concentrations.


This study aims to determine the problems of the potential of fisheries industry growth and development of the fishing industry that affect development in Cirebon Regency. The research began in September 2017 until January 2018. The research method was carried out using the literature survey data collected through survey decisions which were then analyzed quantitatively and presented descriptively (Rizal 2013). The research data consists of two types, namely primary data and secondary data. Data analysis carried out included Shift Share Analysis and Location Quotient (LQ) Analysis. The results of the analysis of the potential Fisheries Industry in Cirebon Regency are Freezing (LQ 1.48), Salting (LQ 1.69), Scanning (LQ 1.18), Fermentation (LQ 1.14) and other processing (LQ 1.09) is an industry which if developed can become a potential industry in Cirebon Regency. the growth of the fishing industry shows the net shift value of the Cirebon Regency fisheries industry production with an average of 2013-2017 amounting to -166,447.88. the fishing industry in Cirebon Regency shows PB value <0, meaning that the fishing industry in Cirebon Regency has a slow growth rate

Financial Empowerment of Women in Pakistan []

This study focuses on investigating the influence of family(F), spending decision making of own money(SD), spouse finance(SF), personal finance(PF), investment(IN) and belief about money (BAM) on financial empowerment of women in Pakistan. This study used criterion sampling with sample size of 173 males and females who were employed and married as well. Data was collected through administrating a questionnaire and analysis was done using Correlation and Regression analysis. It was identified that personal finances, spending decision of own money and spouse finance impact women’s financial empowerment negatively whereas investments, belief about money and family effect women’s empowerment positively.

Impact of Oil Price Fluctuations on Oman’s Employment Rate (1991-2017) []

As the Sultanate of Oman is categorized as a wholly oil dependent economy, its macroeconomic variables such as employment rate might be answerable to any changes in crude oil price. In accordance with the said issue, this study attempts to figure out whether there is long-run relationship between crude oil price fluctuations and Oman’s employment rate. By employing Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) approach that developed by Pesaran, Shin, and Smith (2001), the study investigates whether oil price fluctuations have an impact on Oman’s employment rate for the period from 1991 to 2017 (no data available before 1991) and whether there is a long run connection between the variables of interest. Time series data of 27 annual observations of the two variables helped this study not to reject the Null-Hypothesis that there is no long run relationship between the said variables (Since F-statistic is below the I1 Bound, the study cannot reject the Null hypothesis (No long-run relationships exists)). Though, the Sultanate of Oman needs to develop the quality of its human resources and to care truly about the diversification, industrialization and privatization. Key words Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL); Oil Price Fluctuations and Unemployment Rate


The reliability of any system is normally calculated in terms of reliability index. It will be wrong to estimate the reliability of any protection scheme based on its tripping rate, as such report will resort to nothing more than a more understatement, unjustified report and poor conclusion. A comprehensive analysis of the protection system can be achieved using statistical data and figures. The data collected and presented in this paper are true data/report on Guinness 33KV feeders as recorded on the daily fault report book in dispatch unit of Ikpoba Hill Business District of Benin Electricity Distribution Company, Benin Distribution Zone, between the period of December 2017 and November 2018.

Knowledge Level of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus and Associated Factors among Care Givers of Children Attending Diabetic Clinic in Public Hospitals of Addis Ababa City, Ethiopia, 2016 []

Background: Recently Diabetes mellitus is becoming an important clinical and public health problem throughout the world. Especially type 1 diabetes mellitus, which mostly affects children, is now increasing rapidly. In order to prevent and manage it properly, it is crucial to involve care givers who are supportive and knowledgeable about diabetes and can affect its outcome in a good way. Objective: To assess the knowledge level of type 1 diabetes mellitus and factors determining it among care givers of children attending diabetic clinic in public hospitals. Method: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from March to May 2016, by using systematic random sampling technique. The data was collected using structured interviewer administered questionnaire. Data was analyzed by multivariable logistic regression at P<0.05 with 95% CI considered statistically significant. Results: One hundred forty nine care givers were included in the study. Most of them (55%) had poor knowledge about type1 diabetes mellitus. Sex, level of education, residence, income, presence of parental psychological problem and attending diabetic education previously were the statistically significant variables associated with the level of knowledge of caregivers.. Conclusion: Majority of caregivers were less knowledgeable about T1DM which would in turn affect the care they render to their child. Socio demographic factors, presence of parental psychological problem and attending diabetic education previously had significant effect on the level of knowledge of care givers. Key words: Type 1 diabetes mellitus, Children, Care givers, Knowledge

Modelling & Simulation of Active Power Filters for Compensation of 3-ɸ System Harmonics []

Abstract: The present work describes the active filter operation characteristics and develops standard ratings that can be used for filtering different types of nonlinear loads. In addition, there are filters that do not filter any frequencies of a complex input signal, but just add a linear phase shift to each frequency component, thus contributing to a constant time delay. These are called all-pass filters. Active filters are circuits that use an operational amplifier (op amp) as the active device in combination with some resistors and capacitors to provide an LRC-like filter performance at low frequencies. This work focuses simulation & modeling of standard Active filters and tests it for different Non-linear Load Harmonics. Due to sensitivity of consumers on Power quality and advancement in Power Electronics, Active Power Filters (APF) continue to attract considerable attention. APF technology is the most efficient way to compensate reactive Power and cancel lower order harmonics generated by nonlinear loads. Key-words: Active Power Filters (APF), operational amplifier (op amp), Pulse Width Modulation (PWM),

An Empirical Analysis of Unemployment in Oman []

This study aims at analyzing the reasons behind the level of unemployment rate in the Sultanate of Oman. The relationship between unemployment rate and the Oman economic growth rate can be identified to either be cyclical or structural by using the Okun’s law, but it will not show the reasons behind the structural or how to find solutions for it. This study tries to investigate the fundamental component of the unemployment rate in Oman and analyze its causes concerning whether there is a relationship between the Annual GDPs and the Unemployment Rate to find out whether Okun’s law applies in Oman. The research paper investigates whether a relationship exists between the Unemployment rates and the Annual GDP of the Oman Sultanate from 2000 to 2017. The findings of this research concluded that there is no significant relationship exists between the Annual GDPs and the Unemployment Rates of Oman from 2000 to 2017.

Career Orientation Profile Of Academic Professionals with Reference to Academic Institutions in SNNPRS, Ethiopia []

Career orientation of professional has been studied by various authors in different setting. However individuals career orientation or their career self concept is a reflection of national culture. To this end, there is a need for studies which can address the issue within the context of specific culture. The current study in this regard was an attempt to investigate the career orientation of academic professionals in Ethiopia. The study made use of measurement instrument developed by Schein (1990) to assess the distribution of career anchor among these professional. An attempt was also made to relate career orientation with job setting, career satisfaction and important background variables. The findings of the research indicated that the dominant career orientation of academic professional is Service/ Dedication to a cause. The findings further indicate that there exists a dependence relationship between career orientation dimension and academic professionals plan to stay in the organization and the level of their satisfaction. The outcome of the research will be an important input for managers of academic institutions in helping them develop human resource strategy which takes in to account the diversity of career orientation of academic professionals. Keywords: Academic Professionals, Career, Career orientation, Career satisfaction.

New Dimensions to an Agrarian in Indian Context []

Mostly, the agriculture bodies concentrate on increasing the yield gain and neglect the depleting land available for farming.The paper suggests certain aspects to increase the yield and also to increase the cultivable land across INDIA.The paper gives a direction to inflation independent spheres of life.


A total of 375 Specimen of Oreochromis niloticus (Cichlidaea) with a total length ranging between 5.5cm and 19.9cm, and body weight between 10.5 and 135 grams were analyzed to determine the length-Weight relationship and condition factor of the fish under culture conditions. The fishes were obtained from experimental concrete ponds of Umuagwo, Imo State. The Length –Weight relationship and Condition factors were evaluated in five size classes, representing different stages of fish development and also sexes.


This paper discusses the transcendence of consumption within scholarly debate and literature in anthropology. The objective of this paper is to review unabated the distinctive relationship between commodities, consumption and normative social obligations that subsume human interactions within given societies. The paper argues that the “social” of consumption is primordial to the understanding of prescriptive social norms and cultural obligations attached to commodities. While discussing the commodities as shared objects of meaning, the paper contends that kinship relations cannot totally be dissuaded from the study of consumption. The paper concludes however on the premise that anthropology could play a key role in deconstructing the significance overriding the cultural production of meaning in consumption debate and presupposes the burgeoning developments that subsume the production and consumption of goods and services.

The Status of Women’s Land Rights after Land Rights Registration and Certification Program in Wonago District, Ethiopia []

Land is very critical asset for human life survival and the back bone for rural women livelihood. Unfortunately, in most developing countries like Ethiopia women were discriminated and marginalized from access and control of land for centuries through customary practices. With an effort to recognize women’s land rights, the government of Ethiopia both at federal and regional state level is implementing large land right registration and certification programs since 2003.This study, therefore, is aimed to assess the effect of land certification in securing women’s land rights by taking wonago district of SNNPR as a case study area. Survey research method was employed to generate both quantitative and qualitative data from the respondents selected by using both probability and non-probability sampling techniques. Finally the finding of this research revealed that the implementation of land certification program in the study area has been affecting rural women positively by advancing their land rights but still some women are challenged by unsolved landholding insecurity problems. The study recommends further that beside to land certification and registration programs, awareness creation on the equality of men and women should be given more emphasis so as to minimize biasness from the community and to ensure women’s equal rights on land.

Modeling of Melting Rate of an Hybrid fuel-fired Cupola Furnace []

The melt ratio of a hybrid (2.5 kg of Okaba coal + 0.5 kg of Erythrophleum Suaveolens charcoal) fuel-fired cupola furnace used in melting scraps of cast iron was 5.6:1. This work presents formulation of multiple linear regression model for the melting rate of a hybrid fuel-fired cupola furnace as a function of air blast pressure, melting time and fuel consumed. The model validation confirmed the existence of statistical relationships between the melting rate and air blast pressure, melting time and fuel consumed. Appling the experimental data, R 2 values of 99.9% was obtained. The coefficients b0Okc, b1Okc, b2Okc and b3Okc were determined as 35.204, -35.079, 0.931 and 1.796 respectively; and the results of the t- test indicated that regression coefficients b1Okc, b2Okc and b3Okc were statistically significant and not equal to zero (as given by hypothesis ii) at 0.025 level of significance and 11 degrees of freedom (table t-value=t0.025, 11 = 2.201). The variance inflation factor VIF of 1.004 indicated that multi co-linearity was not a problem in this application (i.e. VIF < 4), which clearly demonstrated that air pressure; melting time and fuel consumed were not significantly interacting factors. The developed model can be used to develop a computer software to predict the behavior of meting rate of an okaba coal and erythrophleum suaveolens charcoal blend-fired cupola furnace as a function of air blast pressure, melting time and fuel consumed for the purpose of reducing the energy consumption in iron melting.

The use of Space Technology in achieving a Sustainable Agricultural Production in Nigeria []

Since things are changing and agriculture has been seen as the major way out for Nigeria, there is the need for us to acquaint ourselves more and embrace the vast emerging space technologies in solving a number of agricultural challenges been faced by farmers today. In Nigeria and other developing countries today, the role of space technology cannot be over emphasized as it has a very long way to go in this pursuit. Climatic change and anthropogenic factors can lead to environmental resource depletion with a drastic impact on the agricultural production in a country. By addressing these issues through efficient use of space technologies it is possible for developing countries like Nigeria to ensure a sustainable path to poverty reduction through agricultural production, data was collected using a structured questionnaire administered in various agencies involved in Agriculture and Space technology, the analytical technique used for the study is descriptive statistics and likert type scale. This paper focuses on discussing the importance of space technology and its tools for decision making in sustaining agricultural production in Nigeria.


ABSTRACT. This study aims to examine efforts to empower fishermen communities affected by the planned development of Patimban Port in Subang Regency, West Java Province. This study used the survey method and analyzed in description. The unit of analysis is the fishing community that is thought to be affected by the planned development activities. Data is collected through interviews and in-depth group discussions with fishermen (focus groups discussion). The results of the study indicate that besides having an impact on the physical aspects of the environment, the planned development activities of Patimban Port have an impact on the socio-economic aspects of the community. The main issues that cause socio-economic impacts on fishing communities in general are 1) the shifting of land tenure status; 2) Loss of sources of livelihood; 3) Public unrest; 4) Open employment and business opportunities.Impact management is very necessary to reduce potential conflicts that may occur between the Government and fishing communities through efforts to empower fishing communities as follows: 1) Gillnet fishing equipment and fishing aids; 2) Catching training; 3) Alternative Livelihoods; and 4) Capture fleet assistance. Empowerment programs for processing fishing communities that can be suggested include: 1) Training in post-catch handling; 2) Help with simple fish coolers (cold storage); 3) Aid for fish processing equipment; 4) Marketing assistance for various fish processing production in the form of participation in various bazaar events, and expo; and 5) Training on marketing the results of fish processing through partnership with modern markets. Keywords: empowerment; fishermen; port; impact.

Tourism Economics in Oman: A Statistical Study for the Period 2000-2017 []

The tourism sector has been targeted by the Oman government as one of the industries to be included in the economic diversification plan. The trends that have emerged as a result of the developments in tourism include the creation of new jobs and the establishment of new business entities. The purpose of this study is to analyze data collected from official government sources in order to show the economic impact of tourism for the period 2000-2017. The results of the analysis indicate that Oman has been experiencing an increased number of tourist and increased tourism expenditure. Although the tourism share to GDP has increased in recent years, it was observed that an increased number of tourists do not necessarily mean an increased tourism share in the GDP. The study concludes by recommending the Oman government to concentrate on tactics to increase the tourism share to GDP in addition to increasing the number of tourists visiting Oman.


This research aims to analyze business feasibility in processing dried salted fish and boiled in Muara Angke, North Jakarta. The research was conducted in August to February 2019. This research word a case study. The data was analyzed used quantitative descriptive analyses. The sampling technique was purposive sampling. The results showed that the dried salted fish and boiled processing business were feasible. Based on the results of the analysis of financial parameters, the profit of dried salted fish and boiled per month are IDR. 53,410,000 and IDR. 63,175,000 respectively; Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR) of 1.53 and 1.58 respectively; Break Even Point (BEP) of dried salted fish production of 6,526 kg and BEP Price of IDR. 9,790 /kg; and Break Even Point (BEP) production of boiled salted fish 6,340 kg and BEP for prices of IDR 10,778 /kg; Payback Period (PP) of dried salted fish and boiled business which is 1.91 years and 1.73 years; The Cost of Production (HPP) for dried salted fish and boiled was IDR 9,659 / kg and 10,639 /kg. Keywords: Sardinella sp, dried salted fish, boiled salted fish, financial


This research was conducted at CV. Sakana Indo Prima Depok West Java from 2nd until 23rd January, 2019. This research aims to identify hazards and determine critical control points in the processing of tuna meatballs. This research is done by a case study method. The research procedures include an observation of the tuna meatball processing, potential hazard analysis, identification of critical control points, microbiological test and organoleptic test. The data obtained were analyzed descriptively. The possible hazards of the production process of tuna meatballs are biological, physical and chemical hazards. The results of the hazard analysis obtained by the critical control point are at the stage of the process of receiving raw materials and draining process. Microbiology test results of the tuna meatball final products is equal to 1.8 x 104. The organoleptic test results show that the tuna meatball products has good appearances, its surface is not hollow, compact and bright. The aroma of tuna meatballs has a spesific aroma of tuna. The taste produced of the tuna meatballs are savory and salted. The texture of the tuna meatballs is solid, compact and has good elasticity. Keywords: tuna meatballs, hazard analysis, critical control points, organoleptic, microbiology

How is Muslim Tension with Government Ominous? National Unity and Cohesion []

Abstract Since independence, Tanzania has physically witnessed of being a calm Nation. The Physical calm it’s proud of today is partial and unrealistic. The main characters of political sphere today resulted from the long transformation planned and practiced by National founders. The founders of nation theoretically recorganized the potential danger of religious disagreement. Therefore from the beginning, there was theoretically strong emphasize of equal access to education to all children in Tanzania and equal opportunities in employment matters, while in practical life no equality in education and in employment existed. The haze idea was to promote national unity, cohesions, and social harmony. All theories, programs, Policies, and strategies adopted to enhance national unity, cohesions, and social harmony were ironically successful, while in practical failed to internalize some sections of the population like Muslims. Global changes in social and political affairs have exposed critical problems existing in Tanzania. There are voices of dissatisfaction, blames and hatred from the Muslim to the Government. This paper is, therefore, an attempt to show where the problem lies and what to be done.


Background: Parents’ satisfaction and involvement are vital for the judgment of healthcare interventions. Parents were satisfied by participating in their child's health, thereby enhancing adherence to the therapeutic regimen and understanding medical information. Parents’ participation in their child's care is a new approach. An effective communication between parents and health professionals is vital for parent satisfaction and quality of care. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the level of parental satisfaction and involvement and its associated factors at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: Institution based cross-sectional study was conducted by using systematic random sampling technique. The data was collected through face to face interview using structured questionnaire. Bivariate and multiple logistic regressions were used to examine the association between independent and dependent variables. Results: Two hundred twenty four parents were included in this study. The overall parental satisfaction of child's care was 59.8%. Pediatrics wards at which the child is hospitalized [AOR: 0.21; 95% CI (0.080, 0.0569)], parents’ educational status [AOR: 0.22; 95% CI (0.073, 0.662)], parents’ occupation [AOR: 3.45; 95% CI (1.116, 10.649)], duration of hospital stay [AOR: 4.75; 95% CI (1.84, 12.265)], adequacy of care [AOR: 7.35; 95% CI (2.779, 19.41)] and adequacy of pain management [AOR: 3.89; 95% CI (1.413, 10.692)] were found significant predictors of overall parental satisfaction (p < 0.05). Conclusion: This study revealed an average level of parental satisfaction concerning their child’s care. Wards with better physical environment, short duration of hospital stay, provision of adequate care and adequate pain management were found to be the most important factors associated with parental satisfaction. It strongly suggested that there is a great need for establishment of clinical practices addressing those factors in order to optimize parental satisfaction concerning hospital care of ill children. Keywords: parent, parental satisfaction, parental involvement, hospitalized child, child care

Technologies For Removal Of Boron From Seawater []

The paper highlight the technologies that are in frequent use for the elimination of boron from aqueous solutions (seawater). Further the paper have enlightened some useful information about desalination plant which could help developing countries to save natural resource (water).


The reason for this study is to investigate variables which are affecting online behaviour of consumer when they approach to purchasers that may be a standout amongst the most vital issues of web-based business and advertising field. There is very little information about online shopping because here most of factors are involved in this case. One of the goals of this review is covering the weaknesses of past reviews that didn't analyse fundamental components that impact on web-based shopping behaviour. The model consists of the factor such as loyalty, perceived risk and satisfaction affecting online shopping behaviour of consumer. The survey was carried out by 200 questionnaires which were collected randomly from almost youth of Peshawar in universities and local areas. To test the hypothesis regression analysis were used.


Jatigede Reservoir is a reservoir located in Sumedang Regency, West Java Province. This reservoir is classified as a new puddle so it is necessary to do research on the condition of its waters. For this reason, this study was conducted with the aim of knowing the con-dition of water quality by looking at the content of nitrate, phosphate and chlorophyll-a as one of the indicators of the quality of water in the waters of the Jatigede Reservoir. The implementation of this study began from June 2018 to September 2018. Data collection was carried out at four stations with data collection six times. The sampling method used was purposive sampling. Collection of observation data using survey method sampling technique. The parameters of chlorophyll-a, nitrate and phosphate were analyzed in the laboratory using spectrophotometric methods. Other physical and chemical parameters such as temperature, DO, and pH are measured in situ. The parameters of the quality of water in the Jatigede Reservoir are chlorophyll-a concentrations ranging from 2.06 - 25.79 mg / m3. Nitrate concentrations ranged from 0.148 - 0.657 mg / l and phosphate concentrations were 0.160 - 0.188 mg / l. Temperatures ranging from 24.8 - 28.7 oC and DO are 2.3 - 7.3 mg / l and pH ranges from 6.7 - 8.4. Based on the concentration of chlorophyll-a, the Jatigede Reservoir is in mesotrophic-eutrophic conditions.


Jatigede reservoir is a reservoir in West Java Province located in Semedang District. This research aims to determine the relationship of zooplankton abundance with water quality, in order to support the management of the Jatigede Reservoir as sustainable capture fisheries area. This method used in this research was purposive sampling. Research was conducted in June - September 2018, sampling was carried out in four stations with six times repetitions. The result showed that zooplankton community in Jatigede Reservoir were 23 species consisted of 5 phylum. Zooplankton abundance ranges from 524 - 7,423 individuals / liter. Based on the abundance of zooplankton, Jatigede Reservoir is classified into waters which have moderate (mesotrophic) fertility levels with water quality parameters that fall into the class II and III categories that support zooplankton life. Diversity index (H ') is 1.54 which belong to the category of moderate diversity and evenness index (E) is 0.25 which belongs to the category of low evenness. Zooplankton correlation coefficient (R) is 0.733a with a coefficient of determination (R2) 53.8% indicating a strong relation between zooplankton abundance and water quality.

Correlation of Phytoplankton Abundance to Dissolved Oxygen in Jatigede Reservoir []

Research aims to find out the correlation of phytoplankton abundance to dissolved oxygen concentration in Jatigede Reservoir. Research was conducted six times in June- September 2018. The sampling station covers the entire area of Jatigede Reservoir. Based on the measurement results, the highest concentration of dissolved oxygen in Jatigede Reservoir was 7,3 mg/L. The results of the calculation of the highest phytoplankton abundance was at station 2, the 6th observation which was equal to 3,136,623 ind/L. While the lowest abundance was at station 4, the second observation is 191.259 ind/L. Species with highest abundance was Peridinium sp. and Ceratium sp. The abundance of phytoplankton is strongly related to the dissolved oxygen concentration, where the increase in phytoplankton abundance is also followed by an increase in dissolved oxygen concentration in the waters.

Factors Affecting the Education Quality among Nursing Students at private Hospital LAHORE []

Education is playing vital role in every work either it’s on clinical site or in educational site. Education is the fundamental need of nursing students and human beings as well. Education is the most effective and important for becoming a nurse to be competent and skillful. There are number of factors that affect the quality of education and performance of students METHODS: A quantitative cross sectional study design will be used to explore the factors affecting education quality among nursing student and data was analyzed by SPSS version 21. RESULTS: A total of 250 persons were recruited. CONCLUSIONS: Persons had good knowledge on aspects related to the Factors Affecting the Education Quality among Nursing Students at private Hospital LAHORE. KEYWORDS- Factors, Education, nursing student.

The Impact of Crude Oil Price Changes on Money Supply (M2) in Oman (1990-2016) []

Omani economy sustained its dynamic growth and retained its high growth profile up until the year 2014, as soon as oil price sustained to average over USD100 per barrel. On the other hand, with a drop in hydrocarbon prices primarily due to the oversupply, the petrodollars received by Oman have seen sharp decline which have eventually caused a drop in the whole financial position of the economy (Oman Strategy Report, 2017). Based on the aforementioned, the importance of assessing to what extent the Omani money supply responds positively or negatively to changing crude oil prices, emerged and became a hard topic of discussion among various policy makers and economists as well. This study focuses entirely on the nature of this link and tries to make sure whether this relationship exists through employing the approach of Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds test, covering a time period from 1990 to 2016. The outcome of the statistical analysis confirms the existence of long run connection between the variables of interest. Key Words: Crude Oil Price Changes, Money Supply (M2) and Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL)


The goal of every Microfinance Institution is to operate profitably so as to maintain its stability, outreach and sustainability. However, sev-eral factors among them, costs, have had a negative effect on the microfinance industry. The main costs that greatly contribute to the per-formance of the DTMFIs are; transactional costs and operating costs. This paper evaluates cost of banking services as a determinant of financial performance of Deposit–Taking Microfinance Institutions (DTMFI) in Kenya. The study made use of theoretical underpinnings (capital structure, portfolio theory and the economic theories) to evaluate if cost of banking determined the financial performance of DTMIs. The study used both qualitative and quantitative research design. A random sample of 51 out of the 138 DTMFIs in Kenya was taken. Questionnaires were used to collect data from purposively randomly sampled participants and additional data was sourced from published reports. Data analysis and interpretation was done using descriptive statistics and measures of dispersion as well as inferential statistics which included, regression analysis, Pearson correlation, factor analysis, ANOVA and Chi square. The study established a positive statistically significant relationship between cost of banking service and financial performance of DTMFIs as indicated by the correlation coefficient of 0.393 and a p-value (0.000) < 0. 05. The study recommends that DTMFIs regulator to enhance internal audit in all their de-partments to unearth other components of cost, managers to structure the organizations in such a way as to avoid duplication of tasks and engage experts in all areas for efficiency and high productivity of the staff. The study opens up the difficulties of operating as DTMFI to the management and regulator.


Biodegradation, which is a low cost, efficient technological, eco-friendly treatment capable of reducing or even eliminating plastic wastes is of great environmental interest. Non-biodegradable ‘High Density Polyethylene (HDPE)’ was formulated and investigated after blending known weight of polyethylene pellets with corresponding corn starch contents at 0, 2.50, 5.00, 7.50, 10.00, 12.50, and 15.00 wt. % by mass. The compatiblized blends were prepared by incorporating Maleic Anhydride-graft-Polyethylene (MA-g-PE) at 0.5 wt.% by mass of the corn-starch. The blends were injection moulded and extruded into sheets at the temperature of 250 0C. The extent of biodegradation were monitored for a period of 180 days under soil environment. The physical and mechanical properties of the blends were studied before soil burial. Percentage weight-loss, tensile strength, and elongation at break properties of the starch- blended polyethylene films were determined after the soil burial periods. The data obtained showed reduced properties for the blend films, as compared to the pure or zero-starch high density polyethylene sheets. These properties were observed to be improved by addition of the coupling agent.

Disaster Management and Recovery Plan []

Every year life and lively hoods of Pakistan severely hit by flood caused by over-flowing of rivers. Rajanpur is situated on the Indus river bank and faces destruction of flood every year. Status of Dams and Barrages on Indus River clearly show the hazardous situation of flood as years of sedimentation has reduced their water storage capacity. From the past experience, it is quite evident that there is lack of coordination in relief activities due to absence of a central coordination body. This paper presents an idea of establishing of a Central Disaster Fund Bank to help collect, manage and utilize the funds for disaster management and recovery plans most effectively and efficiently. This will also facilitate decision making bodies and stakeholders in allocating funds for recovery and management plans.

Population and Economies of scale in Tanzania []

Population growth has a substantial impact on economic development. There are two schools of thought regarding this issue. Some researchers maintain that the population hurts economic growth while others are convinced that the impact is positive. This paper provided additional evidence by employing the bounds test (Pesaran et al., 2001) to analyze a long-run relationship between population growth and economic development in Tanzania. The findings of this study indicate the existence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between population growth and economic development in Tanzania. Also, the results confirm that there exists a unidirectional causality from population growth to economic development in Tanzania. This means that population growth in Tanzania has a positive impact on the country's financial performance. These findings support the population-driven economic growth hypothesis which states that population growth promotes economic development


Mental health and HIV/AIDS have been closely interlinked. Some of the neurological or mental disorders that are commonly linked to HIV/AIDS globally are depression and anxiety and their comorbidity. This comorbidity which is more prevalent among women can consequently impact the relationship between a mother and her child especially with regards to the social-emotional development of the child which is linked to general well being and adaptive adjustment in adulthood. Unfortunately, studies looking into this relationship are scarce, hence this study addresses this gap. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study undertaken at the Kibra South clinic situated in Nairobi County in Kenya. The target population was HIV positive mothers with children between the age of 24 and 36 months. Systematic sampling was used to get 185 respondents. Instruments adopted for the study were: a researcher designed socio-demographic questionnaire, Becks Depression Inventory, Becks Anxiety Inventory, and Brief Infant and Toddler Social Emotional Assessment for 0 and 36months. Results: There was no association between comorbid depression and anxiety in HIV infected mothers and child’s emotional development problems at a P=0.672. However, there was a negative linear relationship between the competence deficit component of socio-emotional development and BDI scores (depression) {r = -.154, p =. 0.037}.Conclusion: Though the comorbidity in the mothers did not directly have an impact on children’s socio-emotional development, depression was found to increase the chances that a child would have competence delays or deficits.


The rising demand for electricity particularly in developing economies like Nigeria need real-time visibility of energy supply and demand to optimize service availability, reliability and cost to the power consumers. This research covers the proposed technology to be implemented for the Nigerian distribution system, the proposed implementation technique to be used comparable to the conventional distribution network available, the closed loop operation of the proposed network, the conventional layout of consumer connections to a feeder network, the proposed model of the implementation process and the test result of the transfer operation of the proposed network. The optimum goal of this research is ensuring optimal performance of distribution feeders through the use of a proposed distribution implementation technique liable to delivering better service to power consumers. The network and feeder reconfiguration in the proposed distribution system is realized by changing switches, which is usually done during load balancing, voltage loss minimization and voltage profile correction. The essence of reconfiguration is to improve the voltage, avoid imbalances and reduce voltage drop on a specific feeder. Also, it is to minimize the system power losses. It also contributes a technology for online remote and automatic switching of consumers to reduce unbalance to a minimal level at the low voltage side of the distribution network.

"Ending Africa Dependency on Developed Countries" Through Transport Technology Network for Freight and Distribution of Economic Activities and Resources" []

Abstract :- Throughout mankind, commerce has been the predominant factor influencing the rise and fall of nations, more than ever before a nation’s economic health is dependent upon it ability to trade world wide. Likewise, every commercial and industrial enterprise’s financial health is determined by its goods supply chain. Its financial performance are dependent upon an uninterrupted, continuous flow of funds and goods. It modes and its associated capacity building knowledge, skills and information available for its activities. Africa nations including Nigeria and South Africa are facing mounting risks as they seek to extend two decades of rapid economic growth. The performance of any economy is influenced by the quality of its transportation system. This research project investigated four issues as tools for ending Africa dependency on developed country. The research question that the research tries to address are:- to what extent are the policies, determinations, products / services development and export / transportation trade for economic growth could aid ending Africa dependency on developed nations. The paper gives an insight into national and continental rules and regulations, policies, wiliness and determinations of government and the people to adapt a developing, sustainable products, services, skills, professional export / transportation management allied services, in a total quality management (TQM ) application in all issues that will aid ending African dependency on developed nations. The findings do confirm that Africa’s political instability, corruption, poor security, lack of infrastructure and a scarcity of skilled labor as the biggest deterrents to Africa economic independent growth. Although tremendous progress has been made over the past 15 years. Africa and its Leader are poised at an inflection point, detracting from that are:- an Ebola virus outbreak in west Africa, Islamist militant insurgencies in Nigeria and Kenya. Political upheavals in countries such as the central Africa republic and South- Sudan. It concludes that the continent should realized it full potentials and cultural dynamics of managerial Leadership in Africa’s ability to adopt the traditional and modern practices that can improve the effectiveness of Leadership policy and management, export, transportation in economic growth in Nigeria and Africa. Keynote :- Policies, Determinations, Products development and Export trade for economic growth.


The banking industry has been passing through financial crisis in the past few years and this has affected its performance resulting in declining profitability and rising non-performing loans. These are due to poor strategic management and governance amongst others as studies have shown that strategic orientation may affect banks’ organizational performance. This study therefore examined the interaction between strategic orientation and organizational performance of selected deposit money banks in Lagos state, Nigeria.

Role model and Attitude towards entrepreneurship: Beyond the Classroom. []

This research work examined role model as a panacea for arousing positive attitude toward entrepreneurship. The research considered undergraduates of federal universities in South-West, Nigeria. The population of the study consisted of 24,282 students in their fourth year in federal universities in South-West Nigeria. A sample of 1673 students in their fourth year was used in the study. The study adopted stratified random sampling technique and a structured questionnaire with 6-point Likert scale was used for data collection. Result of the study showed that role model has a significant effect on attitudes towards entrepreneurship among students of federal universities in South-West, Nigeria. (R = 0.553; R2 = 0.306; β = 0.721; F (1/1671) = 736.375; p<0.05), The study recommends that government through the federal ministry of education should aid the federal universities in South-West Nigeria in establishing stronger linkages with role models and business organizations nationwide and connect them with their students in order to help the undergraduates to establish greater exposure to the real world of business. Furthermore, academia through the faculty members should systematically incorporate the role model phenomenon into the curriculum KEYWORDS: Role model, Attitude, Entrepreneurship, Economic growth.

Performance Management a Strategic Tool to Succession Planning Among Small and Medium Enterprises in Ghana []

Across the globe, Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) drive economic growth both in developed and developing economies. Sadly, most SMEs do not exist pass the first or second generation due to poor business succession management to ensure business continuity. In effect, there is the need to understand the issue of succession planning among SMEs so as to promote the effectiveness of SMEs. In effect, this study sought to examine succession planning among SMEs in Ghana. The study was hinged on the prag-matic research paradigm and the concurrent mixed methods approach was adopted. The cross-sectional survey was utilized to gather data from SMEs domiciled in five regions of Ghana. The survey precisely targeted middle level employees, management staff, head of Human Resource and Administration depart-ments, and CEOs. The study utilized 237 valid quantitative data for analysis. Also, seven respondents (i.e. CEOs, HR/Administration Managers) were purposively selected and interviewed on the subject matter. Using both quantitative and qualitative data analysis techniques, the result indicated that employee perfor-mance evaluation rating(s) is the most preferred indicator used in identifying potential business successors among the SMEs. In addition, it was found that job rotation is the most effective means of developing identified business successors among SMEs, and it is followed by coaching, mentoring, job enrichment and training. Further, the results hinted that succession planning is an issue of utmost importance to SMEs in Ghana, and that it positively impacts on their sustenance. Lastly, the results pointed that most business owners practice family oriented succession planning – where their wards take over the business in their ab-sence. The study recommends that SME owners and management should proactively invest and engage in effective succession planning so as to ensure their growth and survivability.


millions of patients visit healthcare facilities to seek treatment of various ailments. In other words, healthcare profes-sionals regularly hold in their hands the lives of others making it very delicate service and reason why healthcare ser-vices have been given the status as essential services. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2010) patient safety is defined as practices and processes or structures that reduce the probability of adverse events resulting from exposure to the health care system across a range of diseases and procedures. Objective: The main objective of the study was to assess risks and preparedness of Ghana Health Service(GHS) and Christian Health Association of Gha-na(CHAG) hospitals for policy intervention on Patient Safety(PS). Methods: A mixed but non-intervention approach was employed with qualitative and quantitative approaches. A Descriptive but comparative cross-sectional survey de-sign was used for the study. A Consensus-Based Assessment was used to rate the hospitals on WHO 12 Patient Safety Action Areas. Results: Comparatively, the Sunyani Regional Hospital(SRH) had an average overall score point of 3.7 whilst Wenchi Methodist Hospital(WMH) had 2.9 using the WHO 12 Action Areas but 11 of them were assessed. Con-clusion and Recommendations: The research has provided the impetus for understaning patient safety related issues in the two facilities as well as making the management aware of the need to prioritise and fund activities related to Patient Safety. It is recommended that the assessement tool should be adopted and scaled up for other hospitals na-tionwide


ABSTRACT This study focused on the determination of physical properties, nutritional and nutraceutical content of talyan tubers, it aimed to determine the physical properties in terms of Boiling point, color, density odor pH and solubility. In the nutritional content of talyan in terms of ash and moisture content, carbohydrates, protein and total fat. For the nutraceutical content in terms of alkaloid, flavonoid, phenolic compound, saponin, tannin and Vitamin C. This research is an experimental design. The research findings showed that talyan extract has a boiling point of 70℃, white in color, has a pleasant odor, with 1.0662 g/mL density, 3.22 pH which is moderately acidic and have a polar extract in solubility because it is miscible in water and ethanol, while immiscible in hexane. Moreover for nutritional content talyan tubers contained 7.0862 % Ash content which means high minerals such as calcium, potassium and sodium, 80.89% moisture content which implies more water and is important in our body, 3.06% protein a substance found in foods that is an important part of the human diet, 7.0738% Carbohydrates provide energy which is needed in our body and for the total fat is 1.89% which is also one of the substance needed in our body in a little ratio for balance diet. Furthermore the nutraceutical content showed that a talyan tuber has presence of alkaloid which responsible as analgesic and sedative which means it can reduce pain, flavonoid another nutraceutical which can be used as antioxidant and Vitamin C but negative in phenolic content, saponin and tannin. It is recommended that another study of Nutritional and Nutraceutical content be conducted in different samples used.

Optimized solution for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANET’s) Routing Data in Real Time Simulation []

Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) are special class of Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) formed by vehicles equipped with wireless devices. The communication in VANET occurs between Vehicle to Vehicle mode and Vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) i.e. road side unit (RSU) forming an intelligent transport system (ITS). In such case the routing plays an important role in forwarding the required data to the nodes or vehicles. In this research we will study the performance evaluation of reactive routing protocols, such as dynamic source routing (DSR) and AdHoc on Demand Distance Vector AODV and proactive routing protocols such as OLSR in an urban traffic scenario using the map of Google, that is, the simulation of SUMO in real time, if the resources are available to find an appropriate protocol by using the network parameters, such as the delivery rate, performance and the delay of the packages. From the simulations we observed that AODV behaved well with respect to other routing protocols in the VANET scenarios.

Review on Insecticide-Treated Bed-Nets for Malaria Mosquito Control []

Mosquito control through Insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs) lead to significant malaria control. Pyrethroidinsecticide used for treating bed net that helps to control malaria mosquitoes. Mosquitoes show very sensitive to ITNs due to use of insecticide. ITNs act as both repellent and destroyer of mosquito resulting in a great number of mosquitoes affected by it. When many people protected under ITNs, at that time the survival rate of mosquito reduced due to using of ITNs. ITNs have no adverse effect on human health as well as environment except insect. They also provide more protection for communities, especially children and pregnant women. The charge for retreating bed nets as well as funding of ITNs from different organization show greater efficiency resulting in the highest cost effective approach to progress. However, ITNs are the most effective, ecofriendly as well as a cost efficacious method for mosquito malaria control. The amount anti-malariaanti body levels of children could be reduced due to long time user of ITNs.The effectiveness of ITNs relies on different factors such as season, amount of mosquitoes, mosquito’s irritation, climate as well as types of bed nets.

A face for enhancing cane & sugar yield in Pakistan []

ABSTRACT Sugarcane Research Institute (SRI), Faisalabad is located in the almost center of the Punjab province in Pakistan. It is somewhat lying in the range of tropical atmosphere. However, the main objective of this prime institute of the province is to develop high yielding varieties under biotic and a-biotic stresses. Twenty four varieties of sugarcane crop have been evolved/developed by this remarkable institute for the economic development of not only sugarcane‘s farmers but sugar industries of the Punjab are also getting maximum advantages from these varieties being maximum sugar recoveries in the varieties. Around more than ninety percent area of sugarcane cultivation is come under the varieties released by this institute. Rajanpur area of the province is gaining 93 tons per hectare yield and it is more than the average of world average yield in sugarcane crop to promote the SRI, Faisalabad as enhancing cane & sugar yield in the motherland. KEY WORDS Sugarcane, Institute, yield, varieties, sunshine hours, staff members, rainfall, sugar recovery ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- * Assistant Botanist (Genetics,) Sugarcane Research Institute, Faisalabad ** Agri Economist, Economics Section, AARI, Faisalabad *** Assistant Research Officer, Economics Section, AARI, Faisalabad ** ** Director, SRI, Faisalabad ** * ** Director General Agri.(Research), Ayub Agricultural Research Institute, Faisalabad

Comparative study between entry and exit at the level of the lacustre "DAYET AOUA" Middle Atlas Morocco []

The objective of our study is the determination of the physico-chemical quality of the waters of the lake and for that we will be interested in the two important points it is the entry and the exit of this last one. Sampling was conducted bi-monthly during the 2015-2016 period. The parameters measured in situ (T °, pH, conductivity and dissolved oxygen) during this study the lake has basic waters (average values E = 9.06, S = 9.26), the water is very well oxygenated (average values E = 11.43 mg / l, S = 10.01mg / l), the conductivity varies from the input to the output, the average values are respectively 624.4 μs / cm and 441.8μs / cm and the water temperature varies according to the months, it generally follows the ambient temperature which prevails in the medium, average values recorded at the entry and at the exit are respectively (average values E = 16.67 ° C, S = 17, 6 ° C) In addition, the parameters measured in the laboratory are the nitrogen compounds (nitrates, ammonium and total nitrogen) and the phosphorus compounds (orthophosphate and total phosphorus) have shown that these nutrients are very weak or even trace. The physicochemical study of the annual cycle carried out at the lake level shows that the latter is in an unpolluted state of equilibrium and with an oligo-mesotrophic trophic state.


This study sought to examine the influence of performance appraisal management on employee productivity. The main objective of this study was to examine the ways in which performance appraisal has impacted employee’s performance, to know if Management by Objectives method of performance appraisal enhanced employee productivity in North South Power Company and to find out if feedback, as performance appraisal variable influence. From the findings, the study concluded that there a significant relationship between performance appraisal management and employee productivity. Additionally, feedback definitely has an impact positively on employee productivity. Performance appraisal management should be taken seriously by organizations because it yields good results that will take the company far.


This paper examines the institutions for the production of Aso Oke, the Yoruba end product of the weaving industry to explore the nexus between local knowledge and that of the wider world in a fusion of civilization attainments resultant from globalization developments. The wide fire effect of globalization has not been limited to the internal environment of the state, but has impacted local knowledge, implicated in the porosity of state and has taken local indigenous technological innovations into international dimensions never experienced prior to this new phenomenon. These impacts have not been limited to the area of production, designing (creativity), distribution and innovative resolutions in dimensions that has further modernized the aso oke industry, but has further impacted the use of computer in designing, embroidery applications and stoning (application of creative and decorative stones) amongst other new interventions, ensuring an increased acceptability and promoting the popularity of aso oke beyond the shores of Nigeria. The paper concludes that local knowledge, as explicit in the practice of indigenous institutions play an important role for sustaining a balanced and acceptable socio economic environment further impacted by globalization to promote industrialization and development in Nigeria.

Les Déchets d’Équipements Électroniques et Informatiques (DEEI) au Mali : Acteurs et organisation de la filière []

Résumé L’une des facettes de la technologie est la capacité de gestion des déchets issus de l’utilisation des équipements lorsqu’ils sont en fin de vie. A l’ère du tout numérique la gestion des déchets d’Équipements Électroniques et Informatiques (DEEI) constitue un immense défi pour les pays en développent en général et particulièrement pour le Mali. Leur quantité augmente rapidement et leur gestion informelle expose l’environnement et les acteurs aux risques liés à certaines substances toxiques qu’ils contiennent. L’étude vise à déterminer les caractéristiques des acteurs impliqués dans la gestion des DEEI et leur connaissance des dangers des composants ; à identifier les circuits et à proposer un schéma de gestion approprié. La méthodologie regroupe la revue de la littérature, des entretiens et des visites de terrains. Les résultats montrent que La répartition des utilisateurs professionnels enquêtés selon l’âge est intéressante : 41,25 % ont un âge compris entre 30 et 40 ans, alors que 27,20 % ont moins de 30 ans. Les importateurs sont 22,2% à avoir moins 20 ans, 30,3% à avoir un âge compris entre 31 et 40 ans, et 24,2% se situent entre 41 et 50 ans. Plus de la moitié (58,5 %) des récupérateurs sont âgés au plus de 36 ans, 23,5 % ayant un âge compris entre 36 et 59 ans et ceux de plus de 60 ans. Les distributeurs La classe d’âge la plus active est celle des personnes âgées de 18 à 36 ans, comportant 64,1 % des interviewés ; 65,9% des réparateurs sont âgés au plus de 36 ans. Les acteurs de sexe masculin sont 81,2% et 18,8 de sexe féminin les récupérateurs hommes à 93,4% masculin et 6,6% féminin des effectifs interviewés, seulement 5,5 % des distributeurs sont des femmes, contre 94,5 % de sexe masculin. Et respectivement, 83,1%; 54,7 %; 59,6% des utilisateurs professionnels des ménages et des importateurs, connaissent les dangers des e-déchets ; les distributeurs les Récycleurs, et les récupérateurs ne connaissent pas les risques associés aux composants toxiques des DEEI pour respectivement 62,9 % ; 57,7% ; 63,4%. La gestion informelle de ces déchets ne permet pas de tirer profit de tous leurs composants précieux et de créer des richesses et des emplois. L’étude propose des mécanismes adéquats de gestion et de valorisation des DEEI pour encadrer le développement durable, tirer un maximum de profits. Mots clés : gestion, déchets, équipements électroniques et informatiques, composants toxiques, environnement


The greatest potential for sustainable growth lies in the agricultural sector; this sector has suffered extremely low productivity due to over-reliance on food importation, oil and gas, etc. In the 60s and 70s, agriculture, produces abundant food for Nigerian citizenry, and formed the largest part of the country’s GDP. Various kinds of agricultural produce, food and cash crops were exported from Nigeria to other countries. Today, Nigeria now imports a significant amount of food to sustain her rapidly population growth. Agricultural imports in the country has reached an all-time high in the year 2016 compared to when Nigeria’s food imports bill rose to N 6.6 trillion Naira. The efforts of the present Government has shifted positive and encouraging attention to agriculture through the diversification of the economy from the oil and gas to agriculture and other resources. This research work seek to examine various ways of achieving more successes on food sufficiency, import substitution, economy diversification and job creation; as it translates to reduced poverty amidst rural populations and increasing the contribution of agriculture to the annual GDP. Some of the challenges identified in the cause of the study were: criminal neglect of the agricultural sector as a whole; rapid population growth, urban-rural migration, neglect of extension providers, defective agricultural policies, and poor execution. Conclusively, the study recommended among other things the fiscal and monetary policies: lower interest rate, import restriction on agricultural products which should be adopted by relevant authorities; alongside other measures that may improve local production content in other to meet both local and international demands, promote agricultural export, employment opportunities, incorporation of private-public partnership, strengthening of micro-finance institutions or other credit facilitators with single digit interest, provision of more lands for agricultural and industrial production; raising foreign exchange earnings etc. All these are expected to translate into sustainable economic growth and a permanent exit to the country’s economic downturn. Keywords: food importation, poverty alleviation, job creation, rural farming population, agricultural policies


Abstract The study was carried out in Abeokuta metropolis in Ogun state. Data were obtained from a random sample of 80 respondents in the study area by means of structured questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics and gross margin analysis to determine the profitability of the plantain farming. A two-stage sampling technique was adopted for this study. The socio-economic characteristics of the respondents revealed that, the modal age group of the farmers is between 41-50 years (47.50%). Majority (66.25%) of the respondents are male, 88.75% of them had at least one form of education; majority (78.75%) of the farmers were married. 35% of them had an average of 7years experience in plantain production and 65% of the respondents have about 4.5 hectares of farm size while 27.5% has less than 1 hectare. Most farmers (43.75%) sourced their capital through cooperative societies, 31.25% through personal savings, and 12.5% through money lenders, while only (4%) obtaining loans from commercial banks. The major constraint faced by the farmers in the study area were high cost of labour (37.50%), inadequate availability of land (25%), transportation challenges (18.75%), high cost of capital (12.50%), and less impacts of extension services (6.25%) respectively. Hence, for efficient production, these constraints must be reduced to the barest minimum. The Gross Margin (GM) was N586, 830.00 while the benefit/cost ratio was N4.21. These reveals that plantain farming is profitable in the study area and for every N1 invested there was a return of N4.21 kobo. The study recommended an accelerated improvement in scaling up of plantain enterprises if it is to make the desired contribution to the Gross Domestic Product and boosting of foreign exchange earnings. Keywords: economics, plantain farming, profitability, constraints, Abeokuta.


Research on the analysis of the level of welfare of households of koi fish farmers in Cisaat Subdistrict, Sukabumi District, was held in May 2018 until March 2019. This study aims to analyze income and welfare of koi fish farmers in Cisaat Subdistrict, Sukabumi District based on welfare criteria of the Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) 2015. The method used in this research is the case study methods. Information and data were collected from respondents through questionnaires. The sampling method carried out using purposive sampling processing method through descriptive analysis using income analysis and welfare level analysis. The result showed that the average monthly income per capita of koi fish farmers in Cisaat Subdistrict, Sukabumi District reached IDR 2,840,104 is greater than the District Minimum Wage of Sukabumi District which was IDR.2,376,558 /month. Based on BPS indicators, all respondents were in a high level of welfare, which can be proven by the average score of scores reaching 2.40 from BPS reference.


Cisaat sub-district is a potential area for the cultivation and marketing of koi fish in Sukabumi District. However, marketing agencies have not been entirely efficient because farmers have not innovated to market koi products by online and still sell offline to collector traders so that the profits of farmers are still considered less than the traders and wholesalers who have made online sales. This study aims to analyze the marketing channels of koi fish by online and offline in the Sukabumi area and analyze the level of efficiency of Koi fish marketing institutions by online and offline. The technique of taking respondents uses Snowball sampling, which is an approach to finding key informants who have a lot of information, while the number of respondents is 17 people. The analysis used is quantitative analysis by calculating marketing margins, Market Share, farmers share and BCR. The results show there are three marketing channels that do marketing online and offline, while the largest total marketing margin is obtained by offline marketing channels with a value of IDR. 60,000 per channel, the largest Market Share value is obtained by the collector at marketing channel III online with a value of 71.42%, and the largest BCR value is obtained by large traders on the marketing channel I online with a value of 13.2. Channeling channel III by using an online marketing system is the most efficient channel with the highest farmers share value of 40%.

Pelvic Floor training with Vaginal Cone on Urinary Tract symptoms among Women with Stress urinary incontinence. []

50 million men and women all over the world are distressed with urinary incontinence. Research studies proved that almost 10% of all women are suffering with incontinence issues. When a woman is having a urinary incontinence the results are worsened by misinterpretations such as UI is an inevitable because of aged or that once had UI the person must live throughout her lifetime Kang (2009) Gunnar (2005). Women troubled with UI develop tension and fear that they are not having control over their physical functions and that there is no cure Nygaard et al (2003). Aim: Evaluate the effectiveness of Pelvic Floor training with Vaginal cone on urinary tract symptoms (UTS) among women with stress urinary incontinence. Methodology: The research design adopted was Randomized control trial. The sample size was 250, 125 in each group. Results: During post-test II, 99(92%) of the women in the treatment group and 38 (37%) of women in the control group had mild level of UTS, 9 (8%) of the women in the treatment and 66 (63%) of women in the control group had moderate level of UTS. Comparison of pre and post-test II results reveals between treatment and control group, in the treatment group there was a 90.4% reduction of UTS when comparing to control group 33% which is statistically significant at P < .001 Conclusion: Pelvic floor muscle training with vaginal cone helps to reduce the urinary symptoms. Keywords: Urinary Incontinence, Stress Urinary Incontinence, Pelvic Floor Training Vaginal cone


This study was designed to evaluate the microbial quality, physiochemical and nutritional composition of fresh milk samples. Ninety (90) fresh milk samples were collected and analyzed to enumerate the number of aerobic and anaerobic mesophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria, physiochemical parameters and also the nutritional composition of fresh milk samples. The mean of the pH, turbidity and titratable acidity were found to be 6.69±0.89, 10.68±5.28 and 0.15±0.03 respectively.

Impact of Total Quality Management on Performance of Oil Servicing Companies in Port Harcourt []

The impact of Total Quality Management (TQM) on the performance of selected oil and gas servicing companies in Port Harcourt was investigated in this work. The population of the study was top management staff with roles related to quality improvement in the companies considered. Purposive sampling techniques were applied in the choice of sampled companies while random sampling was applied in respondent sampling within the companies. Questionnaire was the major instrument employed for data collection. Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance and Principal Component Regression (PCR) with XLSTAT statistical computer application were the methodologies employed for data analyses. The analyses of Kendall’s coefficient of concordance revealed that the pipeline and fabrication oil and gas servicing companies have a higher degree of agreement amongst the sampled workers on total quality management (57.75%) as against engineering procurement and construction (EPC) oil and gas servicing companies (35.5%). The developed models from PCR application were used to evaluate the effect of the identified key business performance indicators from two perspectives; Importance of total quality management on the indicators and the place of effective practice of total quality management on the identified indicators. The R2 value of the regression between TQM and the performance indicators was estimated at 0.51. The study revealed that lack of top management commitment and lack of resources are the major barriers to effective implementation of TQM initiatives. The study also revealed that commitment to quality policies by top management, increased awareness through training and employees involvement are among the factors responsible for effective implementation of TQM.

Antimicrobial Activity of Leaf Extract of Lawsonia inermis (Henna) Against Some Selected Bacteria []

ABSTRACT The emerging resistance of pathogenic microorganisms against the currently available antimicrobial agent in the market demands the exploration of a new antimicrobial agent. Lawsonia inermis (Henna) a very useful medicinal plant that has been adopted by many cultures in Africa, Asia, and Latin America as a source for certain illness, the leaves are very popular natural dye to color hand, finger, nails, and hair. However, the antimicrobial activity of leaf extract of Lawsonia inermis was investigated against some selected bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Corynebacterium species, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using a standard method of sample collection and analysis. However, Salmonella and Streptococcus pyogenes develop resistance against all concentrations of the extract. The extract showed the highest activity with Bacillus subtitlis with a zone of inhibition of 17mm; this is followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a zone of inhibition of 14mm. the lowest activity was observed in Corynebacterium with a zone of inhibition of 7mm at 300mg/ml respectively. The plant extract revealed the maximum effect on Bacillus subtilis with an inhibitory concentration of 150mg/ml and minimum effect in Staphylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium species with 300mg/ml and zone of inhibition of 7mm respectively. Several works including that of Sharma has shown similar results. The outcome of this analysis showed that L. inermis could be designed for treatment of some infectious agents.


This textual analysis of Shari'ah circuit court written decisions served as a tool in understanding the complexities of technical language used by the Shari’ah legal counsels. This study described the linguistics features limited to morphology and syntax; cohesive devices and the overall structure taken from 50 Shari'ah circuit court decisions from the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) and Region XII under the Philippine jurisdictional system. Through textual analysis, findings revealed that the decisions contained legal registers that are ambiguous terms. These legal texts embedded in the corpora were analyzed establishing comprehensibility through employing linguistics features (morphology, syntax, cohesive devices and overall structure). Examples were extracted from the analyzed decisions which served as material for the study. The particular samples were illustrated to explain each linguistic feature and to establish their pedagogical implications. Analysis was done and explained properly for thorough understanding of the Shari'ah circuit court decisions.