Volume 8, Issue 9, September 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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An Efficient and Reliable Method for Regional Analysis of Breast Thermographic Images []

Thermography is a promising screening technique for breast cancer diagnosis. It has many superiorities to make it a primary step towards early detection of breast cancer worldwide. Automated diagnosis of diseases become a vital tool in medicine. Segmentation is an essential step in classification and determination of region of interest (ROI) of thermographic images. The performance of deep machine learning networks has been making them an efficient end-to-end technique for computer vision applications. However, segmentation of images by the current deep neural networks suffers from a coarse segmentation boundary. In this work, a deep learning framework is proposed utilizing a novel multi-path Convolutional Neural Network combined with multi-band of breast thermographic images as inputs to attain an augmented segmentation performance and also to refine the segmentation boundary. The non-subsampled contourlet transform for breast thermographic images is applied as a pre-processing stage. The proposed technology allows for optimal local and global contextual determination. Assessment of the proposed technique is based on a public breast infrared thermographic image database. The proposed model achieved higher accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, BF Score, and Jaccard index, even with small number of images. Also, certain improvement regarding visual assessment is accomplished without any post-processing compared with previous works. Keywords

Relevance, Utilization, and impact of ed sayaw, a service-learning dance clinic for the Indigenous Tribes in the Province of Bukidnon []

Abstract: Ed sayaw means dancing, a Bukidnon term for an expression of man when at the height of happiness, love, enjoyment, and praise. During “kaamulan”, a festival, which is a gathering, introduction and showcasing of authentic culture among the seven indigenous tribes of the province through their rituals, dances, games, songs, and music and even food. It is in these activities where spectators can only identify the different tribes by merely looking at their appearance, their gesture in walking and/or any movements as a dance and production of music. But nobody knew if the group has shown correctly the steps and figures, colors, designs, and accessories, music and instruments really depict their tribe. Moreover, from the observations, experiences and documentation during the rituals and activities, the performers and members of the tribes did some movements and expressions, wore costumes and play music using different instruments, which as far as background knowledge of the researcher-extension leader is a concern, did not meet the ideals of originality. Therefore, this voluntary extension program played a vital role in bringing back the minds of these seven tribes to their authentic and correct culture. Through a qualitative method of documentation employing observations, interview and video evaluation of authentic steps and figures, costumes, movements and gestures, background music and instruments used, the extension comes up with dance literature and module for instruction. This is an extension project of the Bukidnon State University College of Education which was conceptualized from the book entitled Dances of the Bukidnon and Manobo indigenous tribes (Tan and Jimeno 2011) and on Musicality and instrumentations of Bukidnon and Manobo indigenous tribes (Tan 2018). Furthermore, this is an extension project served as bases for the on-going research on assessing the implementation of Free Prior Informed Consent for Culture and Arts: Basis for Policy enhancement. Keywords: Ed sayaw, Dance Clinic, Indigenous Tribes

How does millennial luxury expectation’s differ from Baby Boomers and what are the impacts on future strategies. []

Millennials have redefined the term luxury. Luxury no longer refers exclusively to expensive bags, shoes and watches. It now includes experiences like farm-to-table dining and “uber-luxe” travel. Millennials prefer experiences to things. Fashion brands are blurring the lines between luxury items and experiences. Luxury shopping is an experience, that’s the whole point. Digital platforms are creating new, interactive experiences every minute. This year, Instagram is taking the fashion world by storm. According to digital marketing research there has been a 400 percent increase from last year in the Instagram posts of fashion brands. Designers are focused on giving Instagram influencers special treatment and access to their shows and collections. They are trying to make them fall in love The study confirms people aspire to luxury fashion brands because they provide the thrill associated with the sense of belonging to a selected tribe while providing the unique opportunity to show off personal connoisseurship. However, in the more mature markets during the recent economic slowdown, customers have become increasingly price and quality conscious. They are willing to pay more if they are provided with better, customized, meaningful experiences and services while they approach, select and purchase a luxury product. Even customers in emerging markets are increasingly gaining ground, moving quickly up the Luxury Pyramid, from affordable and accessible logoed products to niche and exclusive goods. For brands that respond to the ongoing “millennialization” of the luxury industry, there is significant growth potential in the years ahead. But not every brand can win. Already, a clear polarization of performance is apparent. From 2014 to 2017, 65% of brands managed to grow revenue, but of that group, only 35% also managed to improve their profitability during the same period. Thus the need of the hour for the luxury industry is to identify what are the expectations of the millennial luxury consumer and how can brands strategies to fulfill those requirements while still staying true to their identity and brand value. Through this thesis the author wishes to deliver a comprehensive view on the subject as well as prove to a guide for brands trying to understand today’s consumer’s expectation. This would be helpful in aligning the strategies to the customer needs as well as for forecasting trends and planning marketing strategies.


This research was conducted to find out the kinds of flouting maxim are used in Batak Toba tradition before wedding ceremony “Marhata Sinamot” found on Youtube. Thus the object of this research was marhata sinamot taken from Youtube consist of 4 video publish on; on 29Th Jan, 2019, on 14Th Oct, 2019, on 25Th Oct, 2019, on 8Th Mar, 2020. Some theories related to pragmatics, context, the scope of pragmatics, Cooperative Principle, flouting maxim, Batak Toba tradition, marhata sinamot. The procedure to collecting the data included downloading, Watching, and transcribing their conversation by marking and taking the important data related to the data researched. The technique of the data analysis in this research was descriptive qualitative research. The kind of this research was content or document analysis In analyzing the data the researchers used Cutting’s theory. Through the finding of the data analysis, there were 25 utterances. The researchers found that all types of maxim are flouted, they are; flouting of quantity maxim consist of 9 data, flouting of quality maxim consist of 3 data, flouting of relation maxim consist of 7 data, and flouting of manner maxim consist of 6 data. The data shows the percentage of four kinds of flouting maxim. The kinds of flouting of quantity maxim is 36%, the kinds flouting of quality maxim is 12%, the kinds flouting of relation maxim is 28%, and the kinds flouting of manner maxim is 24%.

Disclosing Faults; correcting them; and revealing others Vital, but yet unnoticed Prevention based Prophylactic Measures for battling against COVID-19’s Pandemic. []

Disclosing Faults; correcting them; and revealing others Vital, but yet unnoticed Preventable Prophylactic Measures that must be implemented in battling against COVID-19’s Pandemic. Dessalegn Temesgen Leye (Ph.D) publishdtl@yahoo.com Abstract Every time, human being has responses against infectious diseases. These responses (measures) can work or miscarry out. A century ago Spanish flue, today within the two decades, we have three pathogen viruses: SARS; MERS; and SARS-CoV-2. Regarding to prevalence, today’s COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is the leader in disrupting social configurations. Within 4 months we have 1.5 million people infected, among which 80000 fatal. At this time, when civilization is at its the highest level, why we don’t implement the right prophylactic measures to stop this pandemic? Could this be because of business, or since corona is aggressive, stakeholders need time to understand its nature? The exact answer we may achieve after years (if not decades!). To our side, starting from the end of March, 2020, are attempting to fascinate world’s attention to the fact that this type of respiratory based infection disease can be easily terminated by not letting the pathogen to enter into mouth and nostrils! However, instead of arming nations with the mentioned simple principle through relevant experts, stakeholders are deliberately/innocently undertaking blunders - we are witnessed that not only business oriented scientists, but also even presidents of some countries are behaving as a virologist, and artistically lecturing to their public about SARS-CoV-2. Assigning this political oriented muddle to international organizations and or for their own society, in this mixed (experimental and field survey) research, we have the following findings: revealed decisive sanitation-hygiene (prevention based prophylaxis) faults: in “distancing”, “hand washing”, “face masking”, etc. prevention measures, which must be corrected as soon as possible; we unveil yet ignored ways of infection – the role of hairs’ factor and cold diets; outer garments role; and using a water bath as an alternative natural disinfectant; etc., that can help us in battling with this pandemic. Furthermore, due to the fact that this work more oriented to aware the public properly on how to implement measures for not to be infected and not to infect others, we have used pedagogical approach to address the above mentioned our results are accompanied with modified photographs and figures (to visualize the data) and for making the text part easily understandable for the community, unusually we used simplified terminologies. Key words: SARS-CoV-2, Sanitation-hygiene, Banknotes, Hair, Hot water-bath, Virology, Coronavirus

Nutritional assessment in School Going Children of 6 years old - A scenario of urban slums in Pakistan []

Study evaluated the difference between nutrition status and dietary habits of school going children. A cross sectional and desprective study of 344 students of three different primary school was done in slum areas of Faisalabad having both male and female of age 6 years old. Weight and height were measured with standard scales while assessment of nutritional status was done by using growth charts. Question was used to assess eating behavior and lifestyle. Boys had a significantly higher waist circumference (72.18±9) than girls (66.86±9.91) (p=0.004). Prevalence of overweight is 13.6 ans 6.7% are stunted. There were also differences between the two groups in terms of following a rhythm of meals: a statistically higher percentage of girls (43.3%) skip breakfast, while significant percentage of boys (63.8%) took a food package to school. A total of 25.8% of the boys and 29% of the girls stated that they eat while watching computer or TV. We found that boys are more prone to obesity as compare to girls. The family environment and education are very important and all our actions should be focused on continuous education about the nutritional status.

Banditry, Terrorism and Insurgency As a Political Warfare in Nigeria: A Psychic Enthronement of “Might is Right” Philosophy in Nigeria []

The destructive events playing out in Nigerian polity most recently underpin the existence of a failed nation. From the northern part of Nigeria, disturbing issues of terrorist activities and banditry are menacing human activities in the area. From the west to east and other parts of the country, records of criminal activities of kidnappers and political thuggery abound which are ceasing to be news as their occurrences are now usual. In studying this political condition and attempting to proffer remedial measures, this work identifies the psychological framework of might is right, as the operational mindset of both decision makers and political actors in Nigeria. Through the research method of qualitative analysis of reports, news and social reactions, the work scores this vicious psyche of might as the volcanic power that vibrates the Nigerian political structure, spilling out socio-political ills majorly trading in the form of banditry and terrorism. Thus, the work, submits that the remaking of Nigerians’ mindset on civic co-existence can be the proximate panacea to realizing a new Nigeria

Effects Of Cassava Mill Effluent On Physicochemical Properties Of Garden Soil – Eziobodo, Imo State, Nigeria. []

An assessment of the Effect of Cassava Effluent on Farmland Soil was made. Two soil samples were collected; one from a farmland polluted with cassava effluent and, another as an unpolluted sample – free from cassava effluent pollution. The physiochemical analyses were carried out to investigate the effects of the cassava effluent on soil properties. Results showed that unpolluted soil sample was normal, while the polluted soil sample showed elevated pH value 9.0 and other soil chemical properties Such as manganese (0.50mg/l), Lead (0.08mg/l) Cadmium 0.61mg/l), Nitrate (11mg/l), Sulphate (18.60mg/), Organic Matter (3.70%) and Conductivity (223 us/cm) with the presence of cyanide compared to the unpolluted sample. Enlightenment campaign, detoxifying cassava effluent in accordance with environmental safety Standard, appropriate method(s) of environmental friendly disposal of both solid and cassava wastewater are recommended for safe and healthy environment.


Topological properties on strongly B - convergent sequence space of Maddox were studied. The strongly B - convergent sequence space of Maddox and its Stone-Čech compactification, βγ were characterized as Oz, Quasi -Oz and Baire space. It is shown that βγ and Borel set G in βγ are Baire spaces. Finally, the Stone Čech compactification of linear strongly B- convergent sequence space of Maddox were characterized as A compactification by continuum hypothesis.

Economic Policies and Quality of Road Infrastructure in African Countries []

The relevance of infrastructure in national development cannot be over emphasized; they are facilitators and provided for the needed ease in encouraging and attracting investment both at home and abroad. Road investment which is one of them, road transport investments can be very large and transformative in their nature, leading to accompanying structural change (that is, the movement out of agriculture into industries and services). They may be needed to accompany the fast pace of urban growth currently occurring in Africa and Asia. In low- and middle-income countries alike, the current potential for transport policies to boost sustainable and inclusive growth appears to be large. This is especially the case given significant backlogs of transport infrastructure investment in both rural and urban areas, weak governance and inadequate regulations in the transport sector, and rising social costs in terms of congestion, pollution and accidents, especially in emerging large cities .This is why they author using secondary data, showed the importance of economic policy and its effects on quality of transport infrastructure in Africa and recommended policies or ways of improving road infrastructure in Africa. Along four areas, policies that makes roads as one of the instrument of poverty reduction, policies that makes road infrastructure investment as one of the instrument that facilitates economic growth, economic policies that makes road quality as instrument of regional development in a country on in the continent, economic policies of quality of road infrastructure that helps in regional integration.

Farmers Characteristics and Adoption of Recommended Practices By Dry Season Farmers in Mangu LGA of Plateau State []

The study examined dry season (Fadama) Irrigation farmers in Mangu L.G.A of Plateau Statewith emphasis on the relationship between farmers characteristics and adoption ofrecommended practices and technologies. Analysis of data obtained from a random sample of 80 respondents revealed that Fadama farming was dominated by males (62.5%) most of whomwere married (77.5%) and between the ages of 25 – 45 with reasonable level of education.Genders, educational and household characteristics of the respondents were significantdeterminants of respondents adoption of Irrigation – related technologies. High cost of waterpumps and spare parts, agro-chemicals such as fertilizers and insufficient funding were themajor challenges to respondents adoption of recommended technologies. Training andretraining of dry season farmers and organization of the farmers into cooperatives wererecommended among other recommendations.

Review on Pneumonic Pasteurollosis in Cattle []

SUMMARYBovine Pneumonic Pasteurellosis is one of the most economically important infectious diseases of cattle with wide prevalence throughout the continents. The condition is associated with Mannheimia haemolytica which is well established to be the major etiological agent of the disease, although Pasteurella multocida has also been incriminated in many acute outbreaks. Stress factors are responsible for the occurrence of the disease and the disease is typically seen in feeder calves from 7 to10 days after assembly in feedlot. Four main virulence factors are important for the pathogenesis of the disease and the disease is characterized by an acute febrile course with severe fibrinous or fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia. The confirmatory diagnosis is by microbial culture from lower respiratory tract by tracheal swabs, transtracheal swabs, or bronchoalveolar lavage. Treatment involves the use of broad-spectrum antimicrobials like oxytetracyclin, tilmicosin and florfenicol. Prevention includes management strategies and vaccination to reduce stressors. So, stress factors must be reduced and affected animal treated early. Key -Words: Morbidity, Pasteurella, Stress factors, Treatment, Virulence Corresponding Author E-mail: deraradejene@yahoo.com


Forest soil is the growth media used in raising seedlings in Nigeria. Poor growth media in tree nursery establishment has been reported as the major cause of poor seedling establishment in nurseries. This research evaluated the potential of forest soil and organic materials as potting media for seedlings establishment. The experiment was laid out in a completely randomized design with five treatments comprising of: Forest soil (Medium A); Sawdust with cattle manure in the ratio of 1:1 by weight (Medium B); Forest soil with cattle manure - sawdust mixture (1:1) in the ratio of 1:1 (Medium C); Forest soil with cattle manure - sawdust (1:1) mixture in the ratio of 1:2 (Medium D); and Forest soil with cattle manure - sawdust (1:1) mixture in ratio of 1:3 (Medium E). The treatments were replicated three times in research plots of 100 seedlings per treatment. Seedlings were allowed to grow for 24 weeks while growth parameters and nutrient concentration were monitored. Enrichment of Forest soil with Sawdust and Cattle manure at different ratios increased nutrient concentrations in the media and dry matter biomass compared to those with only forest soil. There is urgent need to develop strategies for mixing organic materials with forest soil which will improve the growth of tree seedlings. Key words: Growth Medium, Cattle manure, Forest soil, Sawdust, Tree seedlings, Nutrient uptake

Relationship of capital structure with profitability of Nepalese commercial Bank []

Abstract This study has been conducted to examine the relationship between the capital structure and profitability of the Nepalese Commercial Bank. Out of twenty seven commercial bank as on March 2020 ten commercial banks has been randomly selected for the study. The theoretical framework has been done by categorizing independent variable as capital structure and dependent variable as profitability of commercial banks in Nepal. To measure capital structure various variables like debt assets ratio, debt equity ratio and interest coverage ratio has been used. Similarly to measure profitability ratio return on assets, return on equity and net interest margin has been used. The study is based on 110 observations from ten commercial Banks of Nepal for 2009-2019. The data has been collected from Secondary sources like Bank individual annual reports, Nepal Rastra Bank(NRB) annual financial statistics and NRB supervision Report. The various descriptive statistics like minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviation has been use to analyse the data. Correlation has been done to measure the relationship between capital structure and profitability. Similarly the regression models are estimated to test the significance and effect of capital structure on profitability of commercial Banks. The results shows that there is negative relationship of banks profitability with debt assets ratio and debt equity ratio. The results also shows that there is positive relationship between profitability with interest coverage ratio. The regression results shows that there is negative significant relationship for debt asset ratio and debt equity ratio with bank profitability and positive significant relationship for interest coverage ratio and banks profitability. Keywords: Debt assets ratio, Debt equity ratio, Interest coverage ratio, Return on assets, Return on equity, net interest margin.

Margin to Mainstream: An analysis of anti-discriminative Pakistani legislation and of supportive role of TV drama and film to reinforce county’s transgender. []

It is impossible to deny the existence of divers third genders all over the world, although different eras, religion, culture have given them different names like Mukhannathun in Arab, Kinner or Murat in India, Khawaja Sira , Hijra, or khusra in Pakistan or transgender, Intersex in US etc. They were discriminated and degraded, physically and verbally because of their physical distinction globally. In most areas of Pakistan, they were treated as margin, jinx or creepy creatures. They faced insult and a status of ‘others’ but this dismay situation has been significantly changing for them since the marvelous supreme court order of 2009. The law gave them equal rights to choose self-identity in documents "including National Identification Cards, passports, driver's licenses and education certificates” like any other Pakistani. The endorsement carried the orders to provide education, health assistance, and protection from harassment like any other Pakistani. The Government assigned broad obligations to provide medical and psychological assistance, small business loans and vocational training, sensitivity training for police and helping professionals, separate prison facilities, and safe houses. After these amendments in law these people are making their appearance more visible in all sphere of life. They are becoming visible mainstream instead of alienated margin. They are not only supported by law but our electronic media, film and drama writers also trying to elevate their problems and reducing transphobia. The article intends to focus the positive changes in the lives of khawaja Sira community from 2009 to 2020. It also contains the evidence how Pakistani film and drama has changed its perspective of portraying transgender to eradicate transprejudice. It interrogate trans characters of two dramas Khuda Mera Bhi Hai , Alif Allah or Insaan and two films Bol, Rani; which tried to abridge the fissure between society and them reinforced image of them. Key words: discrimination, transgender rights law, transprejudice, transphobia, mainstream, Pakistani media, drama, film Introduction:

Control of quadrotor by designing Third-order Supertwisting SMC []

This paper studies the modeling and control of quadcopter. It models the quadcopter nonlinear dynamics using Lagrange formalism and design controller for attitude (pitch & roll), heading & altitude regulation of quadrotor. Mathematical modeling includes aerodynamic effects and gyroscopic moments. One Non-linear Control strategy, Third-Order SMC based on a super-twisting algorithm has been proposed. Third-Order SMC Controller is designed for regulation control problem with the four control variables. The Controller has been implemented on the quadrotor physical model using Matlab/Simulink software. Finally, the performance of the proposed controller was demonstrated in the simulation study. The simulation results show excellent modeling and control performance.


Health seeking behavior is associated with different types of determinants in the general population. In Iraq there are no studies that show the medical waste that is associated with manufacturing in highly susceptible to industrial accidents and infectious disease. The aim of this study is to analyze the patterns of health seeking behaviors and associated factors and to find out the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and these factors among medical waste cleaners in governmental hospital in Al-Najaf City. A questionnaire encompasses five part socio-demographic part, and four determinants of health seeking behavior (occupational safety, life style, physical activity, and health status which cause stress for workers). The results of the study assert that the overall health seeking behavior determinants regarding occupational safety, life style, and health status which cause stress (physical, psychological) are moderate were as the physical activity is poor. The study recommends that a continuous work shop that motivate medical waste cleaners towards care seeking behavior to be done, administrative staff must create an environment in which medical waste cleaners can involve in periodic investigation such as test for infectious disease, work place safety should be provided, training program to increase safety measures regarding waste handling practice, provide important personal protective equipment's ,and encourage medical waste cleaners to vaccinate and seek treatment when suffer from disease or injury.

Relationship between mother’s knowledge and nutritional status among preschool children. []

Background: Nutrition has be a major problem of health in several countries, if in developed countries or in developing countries likewise. The occurrence of nutritional problems to children can really be prevented if mother has a well knowledge grade on how to select and prepares diet of children with healthy nutrition. Objectives: To assess mothers' nutritional knowledge of preschool children, To assess nutritional status of preschool children, To find out relationship between mothers' knowledge of nutrition and nutritional status of preschool children. Material and methods: A descriptive a cross-sectional designed study has been carried out in Twelve kindergarten in AL –Najaf city, from November 21th, 2019 until August , 20th, 2020. A non-probability sampling technique, purposive sampling has been used and total of samples were (150) mothers and their children aged(3-5)years were selected from (12) kindergartens distributed in Northern and southern Districts of AL –Najaf AL-Ashraf city these kindergarten which selected from both high, moderate and low socio economic classes in AL –Najaf city. The data has been collected through the use of semi-constructed questionnaire. It includes three parts: The first part is the socio demographic data of mothers. The second part consist of two section (demographic data of child & anthropometric measures of child).The third part: is mothers` knowledge about nutrition of preschool children . The data were described statistical and analyzed through the use of the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis procedure . Results: the results of current study indicated assessment for mothers' knowledge about pre-school children nutrition is moderate. So, The majority of children lie within the normal weight according to BMI categories Conclusion and Recommendation : the study concludes that there is a high significant relationship between mothers' knowledge of nutrition and nutritional status of their preschool children. The study recommends that enhancing educational program for women become mothers and mothers to increase their knowledge about child nutrition (especially micronutrient),As well their education should be frequently renewed.


The speed of change in the 21st century global experience is such that the pressure of innovation transits development to sophistication of life. Life in the western clime has operationally, institutionally and aesthetically developed in terms of technology, freedom and responsibility. The human character of change streamlined in innovation and facilitated through the culture of futuristic leadership has enabled hybridization of life in the western world. In Africa, the speed of change is retrogressive. This paper studies the African development setback under the framework of leadership failure embedded in corruption. Through theoretical analysis the paper argues that corruption has become a phenomenon in Africa. It maintains that corruption has destroyed leadership system in African development, and thus identifies that the only viable solution is for scholars to see the urgency of mounting a Zionist campaign against corruption as an impediment towards African competitiveness in globalization. Key Words: Corruption, Leadership, Africa, Development and Globalization


Perception is the way how you think about or understand someone or something. Knowing how Junior High School Teachers perceived the roles and functions of guidance advocates was the aim of this study. A Qualitative-Case study was conducted to determine the perception of junior high school teachers on guidance advocates’ roles and functions during the School Year 2019-2020. This study selected the junior high school teachers of Imelda National High School as research participants. The results of the study revealed that the teacher’s perception on the guidance advocates are as follows: giving advice and appraisal for academic planning, student consultation, career development, counseling, giving intervention program and discipline implementation. Moreover, school guidance advocates should continue to pay close attention to how others perceive them. They should hold respect for the viewpoints of all staff members, especially teachers, in order to continue to progress in their mission of developing an effective guidance program. The study recommended that teachers should be informed with the actual roles and functions of the guidance advocates. Thus, avoiding and modifying the negative perception and misconceptions towards the guidance advocates’ roles and function.

The Role of guidance and counselling services in students’ career decision making in secondary schools (case study of five secondary schools in Kailahun district, Eastern Province of Sierra Leone) []

ABSTRACT The study investigated the role of guidance and counselling services in students’ career decision making in secondary schools. The research was done to assess the extent to which guidance and counselling services has on students’ career decision making in secondary schools in Sierra Leon. Guidance and counselling is a profession offered by a trained and qualified personnel who is knowledgeable and has the expertise to help pupils with their psychological and emotional problems. Decisions in career choice making have to be a skill that guidance counsellors must use to help students learn and understand how to make good career decisions. It involves a systematic procedures, processes and strategies which students can learn and make better use off by way of practice. This is the reason why the research tends to examine the services of guidance and counselling on career decision making of students in secondary schools. It also looked at the roles of guidance counsellors in students’ career decision making in secondary schools. The study did a case study of five secondary schools in the Kailahun district eastern part of Sierra Leone. The techniques used to select the schools were simple random sampling to ensure fairness and honesty. The target population for the study was 190 respondents, comprising of 125 students,25 from each of the schools,5 principals and 5 vice principals from the 5 schools 50 teachers ,10 from each school and 5 guidance counsellors from the five schools. Four sets of questionnaires were developed as follows, one set for principals and vice principals, one set for students, one set for teachers and one set for guidance counsellors. The other instruments used were group discussions, interviews and observation method. The data collected was analysed in descriptive form. The research proved that no guidance and counselling services that aided students in career decision making in all of the 5 selected secondary schools. It was eminent that the tools/ resources were not available or insufficient in all of the secondary schools. Finally summary, conclusion and recommendations were highlighted from the findings.

Evaluation of Hematology and Serum Biochemistry of Uda Rams Fed Graded levels of Two Forms of Kanwa []

The study evaluated the effects of natron (kanwa) on hematological and morphometric responses of Uda rams. Twenty Eight (28) Uda rams were allotted to seven Treatments; with Yar Zankowa and Mai Fatsi Fatsi at 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of the dites as Treatments 1, 2, 3 and 5, 6, 7 respectively while Treatment 4 with 0.0% as control in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The experiment lasted for 84 days (12 weeks). Data are collected for serum biochemical parameters and hematological parameters. The results revealed that there were significant (P<0.05) differences hematological indices except for Hb, RBC and MCV. Serum results showed significant (p<0.05) variation; treatment 1 had higher urea, creatinine, TP and globulin compared to other Treatments. It was concluded that kanwa supplementation did not affect serum and hematological profile of the animals.


Pepper is an important spice widely cultivated in the world for food vegetables, medicine and other purposes. Climate change has resulted in seasonal variation in the amount of rainfall which has impacted negatively on food production, especially pepper, in Nigeria. This work attempts to enhance the growths and yields of pepper by investigating the influence of Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus and Gigaspora spp) on the tolerance of pepper to drought stress. This research was conducted at the Botanical Garden, Federal College of Education, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria. The experiment was laid out in complete randomized block design with five replications. Parameters measured include: stem height, number of leaves, number of branches and fruits number. Data obtained were subjected to ANOVA while means were separated by Duncan multiple range test (DMRT). Results shows that water-stressed Glomus mosseae treated plants had higher stem height, number of leaves, number of branches and fruits number among the water-stressed mycorrhizal plants. Other species of AMF also produced higher growth and yield related characters when compared with non-mycorrhizal plants. Conclusively, the results of this work implied that AMF have the potentials in influencing tolerance of pepper to drought stress. Glomus mosseae is considered the best species with higher drought tolerance potential for pepper.

To Evaluate the Standard of Nurses’ Performance Related To Blood Pressure Measurement in a Tertiary Care Hospital, Lahore []

Abstract: Background: This study is done to evaluate the standard of nurses performance related to blood pressure measurement in Public Hospital, Lahore. Blood pressure properly maintains plasma supply and functions of the vital organs of human body. During anesthesia and critical care of patients, measurement of correct BP is therefore a main part. In clinical practice, monitoring of blood pressure is routine procedure for the examination of clients. In a hospital public room, it is difficult to measure the blood pressure of many patients in a short period of time. Method: A descriptive observational study was conducted to evaluate the standard of nurses’ performance related to blood pressure measurement. Data collection through observational checklist adopted to assess the practices of nurses during the monitoring of blood pressure. . The correct practices considered more than 50% (good) and less than 50% (poor) incorrect practices. Result: The results were found according to the set criteria, 48% nurses have good practices adhering to the standard of blood pressure measurement .while 52% nurses perform poor practices. 14.9 %( 30) participants belong to age group 20-30 years, 27.4 %( 55) belongs to age group of 31-40 years, 34.8% (70 ) belongs to age group 41-50 years, and 22.9 %( 46) belongs to age group 51-60 and 28.4 %( 57) belongs to General Nursing, 54.2 %( 109) belongs to Post RN and 17.0% (35) belongs to MSN. Conclusion: Insufficient BPM information leads to incorrect measurements and this can seriously affect the diagnosis and clinical management of this calm, common and potentially dangerous disease. Therefore, hospital staff of all classes should do their best to develop BPM techniques and, most importantly, training programs related to BPM should be developed and implemented as part of the CME, as demonstrated previously that it improves performance, for a better diagnosis of high blood pressure Keywords: Blood pressure , Descriptive , BP measurement techniques, Observational checklist