Volume 8, Issue 9, September 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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The main objective of this study was to determine the influence of promotional strategies on marketing performance among institutions of higher learning. The study was conducted using descriptive research methodology to generate detailed data. Stratified sampling technique was adopted, the total study population was 20 colleges and universities in Machakos county Kenya. A total sample of 90 respondents was targeted. The selected samples was a representative for generalization of research findings. To undertake the collection of data a questionnaire was used as a guiding instrument in data collection. Descriptive data was analyzed using Statistical program for social sciences (SPSS).The study concluded that on advertising institutions consider cost and frequency and timing of adverts and level of technology of media used when marketing their products ,on public relations the study concludes that competitors should not define the institution’s choice and mode of publicity, on personal selling the study concludes that company personal selling activities builds customer relationship through sales contests hence affecting marketing performance and lastly on direct marketing the study concludes that institutions customer service activities should be continued since they lead to customer relations and retention, all this can be achieved through use of technology which enhances and simplifies use of promotional tools mix.

The Power of Informal Learning Revealed by Students’ Connectivity []

This paper investigated the extent to which students’ connectivity has revealed the power of informal learning by taking it to the next higher level. It studied how students became vulnerable to getting more input and producing better output. This study adopted a correlational study, which probed the impact of students’ connectivity on the betterment of their informal learning. It narrowed the scope by analyzing students’ learning behaviors in the English department at Moroccan universities. The analysis measured the frequency of using different internet platforms in either formal learning or informal learning and their impact on speaking and writing. It used different statistical tests of analysis to measure factor variables and independent variables. The study used stratified random sampling to guarantee a sample, which could be representative of the whole population. The results showed the inclination of students towards using the internet to learn informally and confirmed the impact on their achievement in speaking and writing. The findings came up with implications for teachers.

Facilities Management: Bridging the knowledge gap by Quantity Surveyors []

Abstract: The construction industry keeps evolving in response to the growing changes in the global economic and business climate. Expectedly, the roles of professionals in the industry are also changing. The role of the quantity surveyor (QS) is no exception. These changes offer both a challenge and an opportunity for the QS to seize in order to broaden his scope of services to other industries; what with the many big and complex buildings now requiring appropriate maintenance management? The QS has growing opportunities in facilities management to put these deteriorating buildings back in usable shape. This is very apt as organizations are now realizing the impact such facilities have in their overall organizational objectives. However, for the QS to successfully venture into this new vista, he must enhance his skill sets, knowledge base and competencies. This paper examines the competencies of quantity surveyors and facility managers and reports preliminary findings. The study used semi-structured interview technique to conduct the survey of some experienced quantity surveyors actively engaged in facility management consultancy. The study found several competencies gaps that must be bridged if quantity surveyors are to gainfully venture into facility management consultancy. Such gaps include, but are not limited, to: the knowledge and competence on property maintenance, support services and business organization.


Flexible pavement consists of admissible proportion of minerals fillers in the upper layer, which is the ongoing development in the asphalt concrete design. The filler used, contributes the mix cohesion, enhance serviceability and resistance to rutting. The role of mineral filler’s importance is well acknowledging in the properties of hot mix asphalt mixtures. The effects of fillers on the properties of hot mix asphalt is decisive to proper mix design of better performance of hot mix asphalt mixtures. This research presents a laboratory investigation into the effects of different fillers on some properties of HMA mixtures. Two filler types (silica fume, marble dust) were used to investigate the effect of filler / asphalt ratio on the characteristics of HMA mixtures. In this research two different percentages of marble dust and silica fume in combination were used and compared their properties with the conventional asphalt.


The study was conducted with the aim of understanding the extent of human-wildlife conflicts and coexistence scenario in Parsa National Park. A total of 1000 people belonging to different disciplines like local farmers, key informants, community forest user groups, herders etc. were selected randomly. People of different religions, caste and ethnic groups were found living in the area. Population occupational structure showed that agriculture, livestock farming and remittance were the main sources of income. Poor ethnic groups living nearby forests were found dependent on forest resources for livelihood. Elephants, Tiger and Leopard were found most violent species that cause most loss by property damage, crop depredation, livestock depredation, human fatalities and injury. A total of 31 serious wildlife attacks to humans with 11 deaths and 20 serious injuries were recorded between 2012 and 2018. More human deaths (73%) occurred by Elephant attack compared to Tiger. Carnivores (Tiger and Leopard) were the cause of more than 90% of recorded livestock depredation. According to the victim's family report, there were losses of NPR.17,67,000 from livestock depredation and NPR 49,82,100 from crop damage since the last two years. Increasing trend of retaliatory killings of wildlife was also recorded. It was reported that local people adopted locally available techniques to mitigate conflict. Almost all the respondents agreed that the wild animal’s population is increasing recently due to effective conservation measures but at the same time they were unhappy because of increasing conflict with wildlife making coexistence complicated. People complained that the procedure for compensation is also lengthy and time consuming and also the amount of compensation in comparison to damage was very low. Therefore, we concluded that coordinated and collaborative action plans are required to promote the communities from conflict to coexistence with wildlife.


The aim of this paper is to shed light on the constitutional protection and legislative safeguards for child rights. The Indian Constitution accords rights to children as citizens of country. The society has changed a lot in these last few decades and these dynamics has resulted into the change in laws in all spheres and especially in the case of child rights. The paper discusses about the Fundamental Rights1 and Directive Principles of State Policy2 providing specific child rights. The basis of the paper is not only to understand that what rights our constitution provides for a child but also to study that how much effective their practical implementation is. And also to understand that what genuine efforts have been put on to make a child feel safe and protective under this na- tion. There are several landmark judgements that lead to the change in the laws(amendments) and make them a little more specific for child.The most important among them has been the 86 Amendment Act, 20023. But what after that? This is the question that how much implementation has been done. This paper discusses about all the acts and rights given to a child apart from the Fundamental Rights and the Directive Principles of State Policy and also talks about their extent to which these laws are in effect. The Constitution of India recognised several rights to children because they are the weaker sec- tions of the society both socially and physically. They are not responsible for most of the cases and do not deserve to suffer. It has been rightly said in the 1924 declaration of rights of the child causes’’Mankind owes to the child the best it has to give’’.

The Review of Chronological Interpretation on Vadda Community in Sri Lanka []

The existence of an indigenous people in Sri Lanka called the Vedda has been recorded in the ancient palm leaf chronicle Mahavamsa. In Pali 'Viyaadha’ means: hunter with bow and arrow’ and it is considered to be the word from which the Sinhala term Vedda is derived. The people refer to themselves as Vanniyaletto which means; forest or nature dwellers. Vanniyaletto believe that their clan existed even before the era of Lord Buddha and they belong to a clan called 'Yakkha'. According to archaeological evidences, the Veddas in Sri Lanka have been regarded as the indigenous inhabitants of Sri Lanka who preserved a direct line of descent from the island’s original Neolithic Community titled 'The Balangoda Man' dating from before 16,000 BC. In relation to the anthropological view on the life style of the Veddas in Sri Lanka and 'Balangoda Man' could not have been too different. The genetic analysis and the anthropometric studies claimed that today’s Vedda is a hybrid of the 'Balangodese' and Sinhalese. According to these evidences show that the Veddas were living in most parts of the island before arrival of the Aryans in Sri Lanka. The aim of this paper is to review the chronological interpretation on Vadda community in Sri Lanka with reference to archaeological, historical and anthropological views.

Serum Heavy Metals and Lipid profile Analyses of Male Albino Rats Housed at Ugwuele Quarry site []

Background: An assay on the body mass, heavy metals and lipid profile of 60 male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) of 8 weeks old which weighed between 115.5 to 128.6g, housed at different activity areas of Ugwuele quarry site was carried out using standard methods. Objective: This work intended to evaluate the risks of heavy metal toxicity and cardiovascular disease in quarry workers, using male albino rats as animal models. Methods: The rats were placed in six (6) groups containing five (5) rats per group. Group 1, which is the control was housed at a distance of 7.0km from the quarry site. Group 2 was housed at the crusher location of the quarry site. Groups 3,4,5,6 were housed at the administration block, gate, plant house and drilling pit positions of the quarry site respectively. The study was carried out in both dry and wet seasons for 90 days in each season. Results: From the results obtained, the final body mass of the albino rats exposed to the quarry decreased significantly (p<0.05) from 113.40±0.09 (at the plant house) to 105.70±0.13g (at the crusher) in the wet season and 120.45±0.09 (from the drilling pit) to 110.10±0.09g (from the crusher) in dry season, compared to the control. Serum heavy metals (Co, Zn, Cd, Cr, As and Pb) concentrations of the quarry exposed albino rats increased significantly (p<0.05) compared to the control. Serum total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triacylglycerides (TG) values of the exposed albino rats were raised significantly (p<0.05) compared to the control while serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) values of the exposed rats decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared to the control. Conclusion: These results imply that the quarry workers at Ugwuele are at greater risks of cardiovascular disease and toxicity by heavy metals, and workers at the crusher section of the quarry site are at the highest risks.


Honey is one of the oldest traditional medicines considered as traditional remedy for microbial infections. It is also recognized as an efficacious topical antimicrobial agent in the treatment of burns and wounds. The aim of this study is to determine the antibacterial activity of honey against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus obtained from clinical specimen. Antibacterial activity of honey was determined using Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were determined following standard microbiological techniques. 75% honey concentration showed maximum zone of inhibition (12mm). The MIC and MBC also indicated that honey has potential antibacterial activity against MRSA. It is recommended that future studies should focus on the use of honey in combating antimicrobial resistance. Keywords; Antibacterial, honey, minimum bactericidal concentration, minimum inhibitory concentration


In this paper, we discuss about some applications of differential equations in physics. We look at lagrangian mechanics. Lagragian mechanics is widely used to solve mechanical problems in physics and when Newton’s formulation of classical mechanics is not convenient. Lagragian mechanics applies to the dynamics of particles, while fields are described using a Lagragian density. We also look at simple electric circuit problems. Finally we look at the application of differential equations in Modern and Nuclear physics. Nuclear fusion is a thermonuclear reaction in which two or more light nuclei collide together to form a larger nucleus, releasing a great amount of binding energy the in the process. Fusion and fission are natural processes that occur in stars. Fission is the process in which an unstable nucleus splits into two nuclei over a period of time or by induced fission of a neutron bombarding a radioactive atomic nucleus. In stars, it is understood that the fusionfission process provides a near constant source of energy from proton-proton chain reactions. We look at how the Grad-Shafranov equation plays a pivotale role in the operation of tokamak and stellar reactors.


This study aims to analyze the effect of auditor reputation, stock offering value, liquidity, rofitability, earning per share and financial leverage on initial returns with the underwriter's reputation as a moderating variable. The population in this study were all companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange and conducted IPO for the 2015-2019 period. The research sample was obtained through purposive sampling method and resulted in 76 companies. The analysis technique used to analyze the data is multiple regression analysis and Moderated Regression Analysis (MRA). The results showed that (1) underwriter's reputation had a significant effect on initial returns; (2) the value of the stock offering has no significant effect on the initial return; (3) liquidity has a significant effect on initial return; (4) profitability has a significant effect on initial return; (5) earning per share has a significant effect on initial return; (6) financial leverage has a significant effect on initial return; (7) underwriter's reputation successfully moderates the effect of auditor reputation, stock offering value, liquidity, profitability, earning per share, and financial leverage on initial return. The underwriter acts as an intermediary between companies conducting IPOs and investors in the primary market. A qualified underwriter will be more professional in their role as intermediary so that they can make the best offer for both parties.

Impact of Sensory Marketing on Consumers: Recreation industry in Muscat []

The present research investigates the sensorial marketing strategy in relation to the recreation sector. The research examines the current literature made on sensorial marketing. The primary research is based on both qualitative and quantitative research. Qualitative data are collected through observation and interviews. The researcher has observed various malls, recreation center, restaurants and other places including gaming zones, cafes etc and their current position in relation to sensorial marketing strategy. Interviews have been conducted among professionals of the strategy from the organizations to have a more practical approach of the method, the position of the market in relation to sensory strategy and perspectives for the field. Finally, quantitative data have been collected through a questionnaire among customers to evaluate their buying behavior in relation to the strategy. Results conclude that the observed brands are implementing a five-dimensional sensory strategy, even though it presents a great potential. The questionnaire concludes that customers are positively reacting as far as sensorial marketing strategies and sensory cues are concerned. Finally, according to the interviewees, the field is facing positive perspectives in the sector, with an increasing development among the recreation industry.

Introducing Logical Referencing-Citation Style and others Issues []

Introducing Logical Referencing-Citation Style and others Issues. Dessalegn Temesgen Leye (PhD) Corresponding author email publishdtl@yahoo.com Abstract Based on historical-social development, we are hypothesizing that with in a century; there will be a common culture and then language throughout the globe. For such assimilation, the scientific society will have historical responsibility. Scientists must be leaders to transfer/accelerate this century to an epoch, where all nations are going to obtain a worldwide tongue. However, we are in doubt that, why the most educated and organized part of the global society - the scientists do not have a common working language. In particular the scientific work publishers, instead of harmonizing their duties among each other, each of them is trying to be unique. For instance, when we reshape an article (“The merely Six Primary (Decisive) Exertions that can be implemented cheaply and swiftly, but efficiently against COVID-19’s battling practices”) into APA style, although, yet not fully corrected, it took us two days – a time that can be enough to prepare at least a quarter size of an article! Why on a similar issue we, the scientific researchers - the engine of positive development, should sound and act in different manners? Why we do not have a harmonized (standardized) rule for our works? For such question based problems we will have answers in our future article with a title “DTL system - standardize scientific writings; scaling up quality of graduating papers and declaring the research’s impact on the environment”. But in this work we are sharing one of the article’s fifth points: “novel and productive citing and referencing styles”. Key words: Languages, Culture, Civilization, Globalization, Science, Referencing, Citation


Heterocyclic keto- or methylene keto-oxime precursor’s was oriented towards the synthesis of solvato (media)-chromic N-bridge head heterocyclic cyanines & Self-assembly [ICT] functional & related zero-1[4],11(13) [4] methine, bis-zero-7,13[4(4)] methine & di-4[2(4)] methine cyanines. The new self-assembly [ICT] functional & their cyanines were identified by elemental & spectral analyses. The visible absorption spectra of some selected dyes were investigated in 95% ethanol, pure organic solvents & universal buffer solution for photophysical characteristics. The UV –Vis. spectral studies showed that the dyes are absorbed in the region of λmax (485-570) nm. Their electron cloud delocalization in HOMO/LUMO levels were studied by DFT using Gaussian 09 software. DFT results reveal that the dyes showed effective charge separation in its molecular orbitals levels, which reflected in its ICT behaviour. Time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) were applied to theoretically explored the first excitation energy (E0-0) of these dyes which in high Compatibility with experimental results with an accuracy of (0.1-0.3 eV). This approach has been successfully applied to describe the great effect of p-conjugation length and substituents of chromophore on the variations of maximum absorption and excitation energy of the dyes


Abstract Paracetamol was synthesized by nitrating phenol using sulfuric acid and sodium nitrate. The para-isomer was separated from the ortho-isomer by fractional distillation. The 4-nitrophenol was reduce to 4-aminophenol by a reducing agent. The 4-aminophenol was reacted with acetic anhydride and paracetamol was obtained. Percentage of active ingredients, spectrophotometric and their absorption bands at 257nm were analyzed on eight different brands of commercially compounded paracetamol. Six different brands were found to contain up to standard percentage of active ingredients of (90 to 100%) according to British pharmacopeia, while only two brands contain low percentage active ingredients ( ie. below 90%).


The trajectory of Indian legal framework has witnessed many crescendo and diminuendo in the early years of Independence, and rightly so, the dynamics of the Judicial, Legislative and Executive wings of governance have found a deeper and more profound stance in their duties: and the degree to which these elements of governance can be flexible in exercising power. It is rightly conferred by the higher minds in philosophy, the truth emerges only through struggles and therefore, it is natural to have a well established relationship amongst the three branches of the government.Law of the land gives power to the Judiciary to check and examine such provisions made by the Legislature and render them null and void with any speck of inconsistency to the law of the Land.

A review on potential antioxidant effects of Cumin (Cuminum cyminum), phytochemical Profile and its uses []

Spices are the structure squares of flavor in food. Their essential capacities are to give fragrance, surface what's more, shading to food. Moreover they likewise go about as additive, and give dietary, and medical advantages. Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) privately known as 'zeera' is a blooming plant in the family Apiaceae. It is generally utilized as a topping and seasoning in numerous eastern dishes. Cumin is known for its cell reinforcement properties. Despite the fact that the seeds of cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) are generally utilized as a flavor for their unmistakable smell, they are likewise regularly utilized in customary medication to treat an assortment of ailments. The writing presents plentiful proof for the biomedical exercises of cumin, which have for the most part been attributed to its bioactive constituents, for example, terpenes, phenols, and flavonoids. Various pre-clinical and clinical preliminaries have explored its adequacy utilizing the seed oil, basic oil, and its fundamental constituent thymoquinone (TQ). Different investigations made in the most recent decades approve its wellbeing useful impacts especially in diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, respiratory issues, fiery illnesses, and disease. These examinations uphold its utilization either autonomously or as an assistant alongside ordinary medications in respiratory issues, unfavorably susceptible rhinitis, dyspepsia, metabolic disorder, diabetes mellitus, provocative infections, and various kinds of human disease.


The way, how the natural world has adopted to the human needs is considered as the landuse. Kandyan landscape shaped by the people since 14 century to until today and created different types of land uses. Changing patterns of such land uses and sustainability of the city landscape is now questionable. Aim of this study is to assessing the landuse types in Kandy Municipal Council (KMC) area based on human perspectives in order to create sustainable city landscape. Data were gathered through questionnaires with multiple choice answers and in-depth interviews. The sample randomly selected and comprise with fifty numbers including city dwellers, local commuters in KMC area. Results reveal that, their perspectives are basically oriented to balance landscape which is consisting both nature and built up. They expect recreational land use type such as urban parks but undisturbed built environment. The assessment of land use types in an urban landscape based on human perspectives will be beneficial for the urban planners to implementing policies towards creating a sustainable eco-friendly city landscape.


Studies on Landscape mainly done in early history by using Carl O. Sauer's Morphological Approach to landscapes, but after that Kniffen's study on Louisiana housing types played a major role in empirical stud-ies on landscapes. These ideologies opened a new entrance to study Cultural landscape as a representation upon Natural landscape. However with the modern technology and resources, studies on landscape become more accurate and easier to for geographers to analyse and represent their findings. Therefore this study based on perceiving Nuwara Eliya Landscape by using field exercises to analyse its housing plan and struc-ture covering the most settlement dense areas. For that used spatial tools with data analysing tools such as Satellite Images, Google Earth pro, Arc GIS and Ms Excel. Also this is one of the most recent (2019 June) study of representing the modern cultural landscape and its evolution in Municipal Council Area of Nu-wara Eliya. Due to these reasons this study is important for decision making in urban planning and man-agement in Nuwara Eliya as a catalogue to distinguish and separate areal diversity in Urban Cultural Land-scape of Nuwara Eliya.

Information Communication and Technology Governance for Small Medium Enterprises []

ICT is one of the fastest industries in the globe, the emerging and technology trends provide opportunities for the company for business systems and application management together with the control and security measurement. The emerging trends can be online service and online application, social media, cloud computing, bring your own device (BYOD) and etc. The ICT for business systems and applica-tions management can be project management, software development, design, inte-gration, process and analysis, requirements for system scoping, testing and imple-mentation. The ICT services involve a company’s IT infrastructure, capacity man-agement, virtualization, networking, IT asset management, system design and devel-opment as well as communication together with the data and disaster recovery, backup contingency plans, redundancy and replication for resiliency and business continuity (GWA 2016). The ICT control for better use of information to work for more efficiently and meet its desired tempo. ICT security means for information and data protection from unauthorized access and prevents data leakage.

Cyber security threats and vulnerabilities in cloud computing and security measurements []

Cloud Computing is a way of computing, where the data is stored and retrieved online. The usage of cloud computing is increasing tremendously. Cloud Computing provides flexibility and proven delivery of IT services that benefits business and users. Today world with IoT spread widely, Cloud Computing is becoming a better way to run businesses. It has formed on conceptual and infrastructural basis for to-morrow’s computing. It has changed the way of computing and the concept of computing resources. These new innovative, technical and pricing opportunities bring changes in the way the people live and the business operated. Cloud Computing systems give organizations company-wide access to computer applications through the cloud platform without getting hardware and software or software licenses. It makes cost-effective when company budgeting their IT Capex and Opex. This report provides a review of the cloud computing concept and its solution to address relevant security vulnerabilities and threats issues in cloud computer service and model.


The focus of this study was on supervisor support, the independent variable and employee job satisfaction as the dependent variable. Its main objective was to assess the effects of supervisor support on employee job satisfaction by sampling employees of Kenya Power and Lighting Company, Mount Kenya region. The study was directed by the following primary objectives; to examine the effects social support has on employee satisfaction, to examine the effects of task assistance on employee job satisfaction, to investigate the effects of communication style on employee job satisfaction and to investigate the effect of worker recognition on employee job satisfaction. The researcher implemented a descriptive design to conduct the research. Close ended questionnaires were administered and interviews conducted to the research respondents in order collected primary data from a sample of 302 respondents from the population group of 1227 employees of the Kenya Power and Lighting Company (KPLC) Mount Kenya. The findings revealed that social support, task assistance, communication style and employee recognition jointly possess a considerably positive effect on employee job satisfaction. The research results from both correlation (r=0.794, p<0.001) and regression analysis (F= 2.392, p< 0.05) confirmed that supervisor support posses statistically significant effect on job satisfaction. The research add knowledge to the understating of the connection amid supervisor support and job satisfaction by confirming the findings of preceding researchers that a significant link exists amid supervisor support and job satisfaction (Qureshi & Hamid, 2017) and also filling the existing gap by establishing the effect that supervisor support on employee satisfaction. Focusing on these findings the researcher recommended the organization to focus on supervision support not only as a tool of managing the performance of employees but also as a supportive means of supporting its employees who are key asset and crucial in the pursuit of the organizational goals.

Importance of Living Diversity: A Way Towards a Less-expensive Aquaculture []

Aquaculture is a very progressing field of science. It solely accounts for development and welfare of a country and its people. The expenses on aquaculture are a hindering its progress. Prepared fish-meal or other feeds are not affordable for small scale farmers. Therefore, the dire need is to provide the farmers with less expensive, nutrient-rich and balanced diet for their farming practices. Live-feed is the best option in this regard. If live-feed organisms get their due importance in aquaculture farming, the expenses can be reduced to half of their recent values. There is a immense diversity of live-food organisms, which can be used. Due to their highly nutritious contents of fats and proteins, they can take place of high priced meals and ingredients. Copepods are considered best in this regard.

Eco-Friendly Banking An Overview []

Abstract At present, many countries of the world are giving priority to green economy strategy. This green economy is standing as an influential alternative model of the conventional economy in the need of time. Because the green economy eliminates inequality, reduces poverty and sponsors waste management. This study based on secondary data but primary data also used for purposive objectives. The study showed customer's deposits to ensure equality and justice in all kinds of economic activities through investment in the priority sectors and self-developed areas of the country, achieve balanced development, and manage its diversified investment activities for the socio-economic development of low-income people especially rural people. Farther more, the study showed some suggestion and recommendation to overcome those problems