Volume 8, Issue 9, September 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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PASTORALISTS’ ADAPTATION AND MITIGATION TO THE EFFECTS OF DROUGHT IN KAJIADO COUNTY []


Dry season and starvation are perceived as qualities of parched and semi-dry locales when all is said in done, and the Horn of Africa peaceful zones specifically. Dry season has been the subject of a few logical examinations by researchers from different foundations and fields, as a characteristic risk. Peaceful practices just as encounters of outer specialists in alleviating dry spells have not been enough explored and archived. Along these lines, a top to bottom investigation is expected to improve and reestablish suitable alleviation measures for dryness and post-dry spell recuperation systems. This mindfulness is exceptionally valuable in foreseeing food emergency for different partners working in peaceful territories, including nearby networks, and furthermore in proposing viable activities to relieve the emergency. This is the reason for the commencement of this investigation to consider the variation and relief of pastoralists with the impacts of dry spell in Kajiado County. The examination plans to; i.Determine the social networks and capacity building used by pastoralists in Kajiado County to improve the resilience. ii.To analyze the technological innovations used by pastoralists in mitigating the effects of draught; iii.To identify the technologies used by livestock management to create pastoralist resilience to drought in Kajiado County. iv.To determine how scientists, disseminate adaptation and coping strategies to pastoralists; The report would use the research method for a descriptive survey. Specifically, it will target Kajiado County since the county 's population is predominantly dependent on pastoral nomad-ism as the main source of living. For the research the target population was 384 pastoral households. Stratified sampling will ensure all Kajiado County administrative units and NGO’s have a chance to be included in the sample. The primary data will be analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.


Hepatitis Diagnosis By Artificial Neural Network []


Due to the complexities of hepatitis diseases spreading increasingly all over the world, it became necessary to develop a system that helps diagnose the disease using modern technologies. Artificial intelligence is one of the main pillars of the technology industry in the current era. Many studies have been conducted to discover effective methods for the medical diagnosis of many diseases, including hepatitis. This paper reviews the methodologies and classification accuracy in diagnosing hepatitis and also reviews an approach to diagnosing hepatitis through the use of an artificial neural network.


Employment Growth in Tikrit City A Shift-Share Analysis (1987-2011) []


In order to make economic development policy recommendations, it is important to understand the regional economy, its markets and who the essential actors are. Describe the working mechanism of a local/regional economy. While shift-share analysis is a relative straight forward method of analyzing changes in economic performance by comparing economic change in a study city to that of a larger reference region. The aim of this paper is to examine the changes in employment with the help of the shift-share analysis. First part of the paper will present the literature background on the Shift-share method . Later on, we try to identify the driving forces of employment growth in the Tikrit city compared with Salah al-Din governorate. In addition, the last part of the paper will summarize the results obtained in our analysis. Data on employment from 1987-2011 across sectors were used in this study. Between 1987 and 2011, formal employment grew by 27.8 % in Tikrit City. Hence, the main objective of this paper was to analyze which sector contributed the most to such growth through a shift-share analysis of employment.


Economic Determinants of Household Consumption Expenditures in West Africa: A Case Study of Nigeria and Ghana []


Abstract This paper examined the economic determinants of household consumption expenditures in the West African sub-region with special emphasis on Nigeria and Ghana. Data for the study were obtained from the World Bank database for the period 1999 to 2018. The study employed the Fixed Effects Least Squares Dummy Variable Panel Regression Analysis. Based on the analysis, it was observed that gross national income and inflation rate exerted a positive and significant effect on household consumption expenditure, while interest rate and savings exerted a negative and significant effect on household consumption expenditure. The positive and significant effect of income on consumption expenditure supports the Keynesian position while the negative effect of interest rate on consumption upheld the intertemporal substitution effect. The paper recommended that concerted efforts should be geared towards improving the income base of households. Also, efforts towards balancing savings with investment should be developed and promoted. Keywords: Consumption, Income, Panel Regression, Intertemporal Substitution Effect, Africa


Impact of Brain drain in Otorhinolaryngology practice in Nigeria []


Background: Brain drain simply refers to migration of workers. In the health sector, it refers to the movement of health personnel in search of an improved or better standard of living and quality of life, higher wages access to advanced technology and a more stable political climate Aim: The aim is to assess the impact of brain drain in Otorhinolaryngology practice in Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional questionnaire based study. Questionnaire was distributed to participants of the ORLSON EKO 2019 Conference that held at Sheraton Hotel, Ikeja, Lagos State in November, 2019. Data generated was analysed using SPSS 20 version. Results: Males were 57.5% and 42.5% females. Half (50%) of the participants are Consultants, 21.3% senior registrars, 26.3% Registrars. Majority of the participants agreed that there is an increase in brain drain in ENT, decrease in the number of well-trained ENT Surgeons and this had contributed to an increase in medical tourism, morbidity and mortality. Conclusion: Brain drain exists in ENT and has its subsequent effect on the health sector at large, the surgeon and the patient. Keywords: Brain drain, Health sector, ORL practice, advanced technology.


EXPLORING PRINCIPALS’ CAPACITY BUILDING AND SCHOOL EFFECTIVENESS IN NIGER, NIGERIA []


Principals’ capacity building and school effectiveness are outlined by examining empirical studies in the past two decades. This paper adopts a qualitative study (focus group) approach to seek stakeholders’ perceptions on principal capacity building and school effectiveness. A total of 9 respondents were systematically analysed and common themes were identified. This paper finds that the amalgam model of the conceptualization of principals’ capacity building and school effectiveness has been neglected in Niger, Nigeria. Principals’ capacity building and school effectiveness performed more indirect than direct leadership behaviour. A gap exists between the ideal principals’ capacity building and school effectiveness with the truth. The development of the formal theory of principals’ capacity building and school effectiveness is expected as various substantive theories and more data are accumulated. Preferred consequence of knowledge hastening, the direction of research efforts across scholars and organizations is a necessity. The findings suggest less effort spent by principals’ on the teachers. Yet with principals’ capacity building and school effectiveness, as well as cooperative and team learning in recent years, principals’ capacity building and school effectiveness are expected to rise in terms of ensuring frequent capacity building and school effectiveness quality. This paper tends to accumulate knowledge about principals’ capacity building and school effectiveness in Niger, Nigeria. It is a contribution to the survey of indigenous viewpoints, practices and the empathetic and building principals’ capacity building and school effectiveness in Niger, Nigeria


Impact of Social Media on Consumer Buying Behavior in Oman: An Exploratory Study []


This paper aims to investigate and discuss the impact of social media on the online buying behavior of consumers in Oman. Social media marketing has become one of the most influential tools used by companies seeking to reach out to their forecasted customer base. Stores are gradually becoming more reliant on social media to achieve their promotion and branding objectives. Replacing more traditional marketing methods, social media provides new opportunities for global companies to engage with buyers through online social interactions. To investigate the impact of social media on consumer buying behavior in Oman, we collected data using a two-part questionnaire focusing on attributes of social media platforms which might influence purchasing decisions. The findings of the study suggested that social media use has a positive impact on consumer buying behavior in Oman. In addition, the outcomes suggested that celebrity endorsements and recommendations from friends also have a positive impact on consumer buying behavior


Effect of Caffeine on Diazepam - Induced Sedation and Hypnosis in Wister Rat []


Introduction/aim: Diazepam is commonly used in clinical setting in treatment and management of several conditions such as convulsion, insomnia, anxiety disorder and sleep disorder. Caffeine is widely and regularly consumed for different purposes. It is a central nervous system stimulant that affects the body in numerous ways. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of caffeine on diazepam– induced in rat. Method: A total of thirty (30) wister rats of 120–210 g of either sex were divided into five groups of six mice per group. Rats in all group received diazepam (4 mg/Kg), while group 2, 3, 4 and 5 received concurrent dose of caffeine (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 mg/Kg) intraperitoneally respectively. After 2 minutes of administration of the drugs, sedative and hypnotic study were carried out. Result: There was significant (P<0.05) dose dependent decreased in the time taken for rat in all groups to return the widely parted hind limb to their normal position when compare to the control. There was also significant (P<0.05) dose dependent increased in sleep latency and decreased in duration of sleep in all group administered caffeine. Group 5 rats did not have sleep latency and duration of sleep throughout the 90 minutes period of observation. Conclusion: result from the study showed that caffeine significantly reduced CNS effect of diazepam induced rats which suggests that dose adjustment should be considered to patients on diazepam who may have been exposed to caffeine. Keyword: diazepam, caffeine, rats, sedative, hypnotic


ANALYSIS OF SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF HEALTH CARE FACILITIES IN AKKO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, GOMBE STATE []


Abstract The knowledge about population, location, concentration, and distribution of resources using geospatial techniques has become an important and interesting area of studying present and future demand of resources; this is because of the increasing population growth and demand of resources among people especially in rural areas. Hence, this research provides a spatial analysis of healthcare facilities in the Akko Local Government Area. The study investigates types, location, and concentration of health care facilities in Akko Local Government Area. A survey of all health care facilities was conducted. GPS and Google Earth Maps were used to get data in the field. Percentages, location quotient formula, and GIS were used to analyze data obtained from the field. Results inferred that Pindiga Emirate Council is more favoured in allocation and distribution of health care facilities than Akko Emirate Council which is deficient in allocation and distribution of health care facilities and Gona Emirate council which is lacking in secondary health care facilities and services in Akko L.G.A. Hence, this study recommends the provision of more primary health care facilities in Akko Emirate Council and secondary health care facility in Gona Emirate council, Political influences on allocation of resources should be minimized, Population experts should be considered in allocation of resources. Key Words: HealthCare Facilities, Location, Concentration, Distribution, And Geospatial Techniques.


Factor Affecting Customer Satisfaction in Telecommunication Industry []


The main purpose of this research is to analyze the price war between the two companies. As I have selected three companies Mobilink and Zong .Researchers have filed lawsuit against the telecommrdunications industry, selected companies are Mobilink andZong . I have collected data from 200 students of Hamdard University who use services of other telecommunications companies. The main users are Mobilink and Zong .Overall research has done with customer satisfaction degree and four dependent variables, which is a dependent variable, i.e. the currency range, focuses on service stability, value added service, global use. This study focuses on four major hypotheses. H1: The degree of currency has a positive influence on customer satisfaction. H2: indicates that the VAS product adversely affects customer satisfaction. H3: all usage has a positive impact on customer service. H4: indicates that service reliability has a positive influence on customer satisfaction. The main problem of answering this question relates to the reliability of services, customer satisfaction, overall use, the range of calls to specific communication services derived from the availability of value-added services and research. Such that independent variable is customer satisfication. The value of all variables will be less than the value that explains the null hypothesis accepted and EOC, the overall use will affect the reliability of the service and the impact on the customer satisfaction of the VAS product. In the study we used primary sources of data collection to know the perception of the people about the Zong and Mobilink and Ufone. For Primary Data collection, closed ended questionnaire will be used which will be distributed among the students of Hamdard University main Campus. Manually filled sample has mainly collected from university students, and working class, who uses their packages or other product. Online filled was collected via Google docs by inviting participants to fill out the form. The data was analyzed quantitatively through SPSS. The records will be analyzing qualitatively with the help of comparing the 4Ps or 7Ps of both the organizations, which will help us to drive the possible outcomes and will enable me to recommend the Zong to implement the few of the strategies to grow their market share.


Assessment of Mother's Knowledge Regarding Insulin injection of Children with Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 []


Diabetes is one of the main health problems in the world. it's one of the main causes of illness and death. It's complication leads to the rise in disability, reduced life anticipate and many health care expenses to the community. A Descriptive cross-sectional design is used through the present study in order to : assess the mother's knowledge regarding the insulin injection of their children with diabetes mellitus type 1 .and to determine the relationship between the mothers' knowledge and their socio- demographic characteristics. The period of the study is from 20th September 2018 until August 20th , 2019. A non-probability ( purposive sample) of the study consisted of ( 100 ) mothers with their diabetic children. Those who visit Al- Sadder Medical city / Al- Najaf Center for Diabetes and Endocrine, are included in the study sample. The data are collected through using a well-designed questionnaire that consist of (2) parts: Part I consists of socio demographic Characteristics of diabetic children containing (4) items. In addition to Part I consists of socio-demographic characteristics of mothers; it contains (7) items. Part 2 consists of Information about the mothers knowledge regarding Insulin injection containing (19) items . Reliability of the questionnaire is determined by using the Alpha Cronbach’s technique, and the validity through (23) experts from different specialties (Face Validity) for reviewing the study instrument. The data was analyzed through using of the descriptive and inferential statistical analysis approaches. The findings of the present study indicate that the Overall assessment for Mothers’ Knowledge about the management of diabetes mellitus are Fair. Also there is a highly significant association between the Mothers’ Knowledge concerning management of diabetic children and their (Number Of Children, Father’s Occupation, Father’s Education, and Mother’s Education). While there is a non-significant relationship with remaining demographic and clinical data. The study concludes The study concludes most mothers have insufficient knowledge about management their children with diabetes mellitus type 1 and that is a strong effect of educational levels of mothers on management of diabetic children. The study recommends that An educational program should be designed and implemented to increase mothers information about insulin injection of their children with TIDM in order to reduce or prevent complications, and Make new unit within the diabetes center to develop the association between mothers and center to training mothers of diabetic on management and insulin injection. KEY WORDS: Assessment, Mother's, Knowledge, insulin, Children with Diabetes, Type 1 diabetes.


COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF COMPANY VALUES BEFORE AND AFTER THE APPLICATION OF E-COMMERCE IN COMPANIES LISTED ON THE INDONESIA STOCK EXCHANGE []


This research aims to analyze the differences in the company’s value that is measured through Price Earnings Ratio (PER), Tobin's Q, Price to Book Value (PBV) and Market Value of Assets to Book Value of Assets (MVA/BVA) before and after implementing e-commerce in the company registered on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. This type of research is an event study research. The population in this research is all companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The sampling technique uses purposive sampling method; therefore, the number of sample companies are 31 companies. The analysis technique used is the paired sample t-test statistical test, but if the data are not normal, then the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test will be used for testing. The result from the Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test shows that there is no difference in company value measured by Price Earnings Ratio (PER), Tobin's Q before, and after the implementation of the e-commerce system. Meanwhile, there are differences in the company's value before and after implementing the e-commerce system as measured by PBV and MVA/BVA. These findings indicate the ones that are consistent with the theory are Price to Book Value (PBV) and Market Value of Assets to Book Value of Assets (MVA/BVA). Meanwhile, what is inconsistent is Price Earnings Ratio (PER), Tobin's Q. Thus, the investors should look at PBV and MVA/BVA to determine the company's value. Besides, being able to pay attention to various aspects not only in terms of the compa-ny's value but also considering other factors such as dividends, capital gains, or short sell, market risk.


SYNTHESIS AND AB INITIO STUDY OF CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY OF A NOVEL MIXED VALENCE CUBICAL STRUCTURE OF Na24Bi4Cs8 Cl26 VIA POWDER XRD METHOD []


Sodium bismuth cesium chloride salt Na24Bi4Cs8 Cl26 has been synthesized as polycrystalline powder by solid state reaction with followed stoichiometric chemistry. The structure has been determined by X-ray diffraction powder pattern ab initio method at room temperature. The title material is mixing in agate mortar and pastel in homogised form and was taking poder diffraction data in the cubical crystal system having space group F m -3 m (225) with the unit cell parameters: a= b=c 10.839 Å V= 273.41Å3 and Z=2. The two tools of crystal structure validation, Bond Valence Sum (BVS) and Charge distribution (CHARDI) methods, have confirmed the crystal structure model. The anionic framework is built of layers of corner sharing NaBi/Cl and CsCl3 polyhedral structure. The sodium atoms are located in the interlayer space. Quantitative analysis using ICP-MS is used to confirm the elemental composition of the polycrystalline powder.. The electrical properties of the title compound have been characterized by impedance spectroscopy in the 240°C-360°C temperature range. At 240 °C, the conductivity value of the sample with relative density of 85% is 4 10-6 Scm-1 and the activation energy was Ea=0.76 eV. The calculated conductivity corrected for porosity is σd (240°C) = 1.78 10-5 Scm-1. The Na+ transport pathway in the interlayer space was simulated using the Band Valence Site Energy (BVSE) model. The BVSE model was also used to explain the effect of the Cl/Cs on the electrical properties of the title compound


EVALUATION OF OPTIMAL DESIGN SOLUTION FOR INTERSECTION THROUGH TRAFFIC ASSESSMENT DATA: A CASE STUDY []


Satisfaction of the commuters on the road depends upon the traffic conditions of the road. If the built-in road facility is accomplishing the travel needs, it means that road facility has maintained its supply demand equilibrium. However, if the demands of the road are more than it can bear, the existing facility fails in providing the acceptable level of service to the commuter and as result it instigate all traffic problems. Kula Dher intersection is located at Mardan-Charsadda/Ghani Khan Road. In its current condition, it is failing to pro-vide the acceptable level of service. Commuters use the said intersection while reaching 4 major districts that is Peshawar, Mardan, Charsadda and Swat. In its peak hour, the intersection becomes un-serviceable due to immense traffic causing traffic delays, congestion, and pollution. This study evaluates the current traffic condition of Kula Dher intersection by collecting traffic data by direct field survey. The traffic data was then analyzed with 20 years projection. An effort has been made to provide a methodology framework in choosing the optimal solution for traffic congestion at intersection through traffic assessment study


A Python Environment for Numerical Continuation Methods []


Developing computer models is a natural part of scientific computing. These models typically combine components of mature scientific software of varying levels of complexity. Using low-level software libraries leads to a better performance when running the computer model, but slows down and distracts from model development because of the need to deal with software related technical details. High-level interactive programming environments such as Python simplify and speed up the development of computer models but the speed of the numerical solution of the model may be unacceptable for many research problems. One way to solve such problems is to write Software wrappers and make classical low-level sources available in a Python environment.


TO INVESTIGATE VARIATION ORDER EFFECTS ON BUILDING CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS -REVIEW []


Throughout the world, in construction industry due to complex nature of projects various are common. Moreover, in construction project most frequently occurring issues which faced by contractors are various orders. Variations are known to impact various aspects of construction projects. Therefore, it is necessary to study about the various order impacts on construction projects to minimize the wastage of resources in construction industry. The main focus of this research is to investigate variation orders effects on Construction projects. In order to achieve our study objective, this study is limited to public buildings. After studding the literature review, as a result 15 numbers of variation orders effects the public buildings are identified. In addition, different tools are used (Questionnaire Survey, desk study and Interview) to determine the effects of variation orders on public buildings. Five numbers of public buildings were selected for desk study and variation orders effects on those buildings are determined. For conducting interviews public building project experience respondents with expert opinions are selected. Questionnaire survey form were given to relevant project parties for obtaining their responses. After receiving responses on the basses of survey forms, relative index method (RI) was used for analysis purpose. In order to find more accurate data from the findings, in this study triangulation method were used on the desk study, survey and the literatures. Based on results it was concluded that main variation orders effects on public buildings were, delay in work schedule, project cost increased, Contactor additional payments, effect on progress, and overhead expenses increase.


Phytoconstituents, Antioxidants and Antimicrobials Activity of Leave, Stem Bark and Roots of Boswellia dalzielii on Selected Bacterial Isolates []


Introduction; Boswellia dalzielii is a very unique medicinal plant that is part of the Burseraceae family. It has been regarded as a wonder plant in northern part of Nigeria and is called commonly as “ararrabi or hanu” by the hausa speaking communities or frankincense tree in English. All parts of the plant have been reported to have varying medicinal significance. The fresh bark is used to treat giddiness and palpitations Aims; The present study is carried out to evaluate the phytoconstituents, antioxidant potential as well as the efficacy(antimicrobials) of the ethanolic extracts of leaves, stem bark and roots of Boswellia dalzielii on certain important microbes. Methodology; ethanol was used as ectraction solvent in this study, total Phenolic content was determine using the famous Folin-Ciocalteu, the antioxidant activity was tested by DPPH (2,2- diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl) free radical scavenging method. The agar well diffusion method was used to determine the antibacterial activity of the plant extracts. The MIC of the extracts was determined using broth dilution technique. The results recorded was anaylasis using one-way ANOVA Results; Qualitative phytoconstituents profile shows the presence for alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, cardiac glycoside, anthraquinone, carbohydrates, steroids and triterpens. Quantitative phytochemical determination of different parts of Boswellia dalzielii shows that the total phenolic contents were 433.0 mg of GAE/g, 391.0 mg of GAE/g and 416.0 mg of GAE/g for leave, stem bark and root respectively. The total tannin and Alkaloid contents were 127.7 mg of GAE/g, 117.3 mg of GAE/g, 145.3 mg of GAE/g and 27.2 mg of AE/g, 33.40 mg of AE/g, 42.00 mg of AE/g for leave, stem bark and Root respectively. The result showed that higher zone of inhibition was demonstrated by Shigella (23 mm) at concentration of 200 mg/ml for leaves extracts. Lower MIC was recorded in stem bark and was observed in E.coli, Klebsiella pneumonia and Shigella with 12.5mg/ml each while S.typhi shows the highest with 50mg/ml, 100mg/ml was recorded on leaves extracts for both E.coli and Shigella, while 50mg/ml was recorded for Klebsiella pneumoniae and S.typhi. in the root extracts, 12.5mg/ml was recorded for E.coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Shigella as lowest while S.typhi shows the highest with 25mg/ml. Keywords; Boswellia dalzielii, Ethanol, E.coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella specias