Volume 8, Issue 9, September 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Effects of Spacing on Yield of Mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) in Jile Timuga District, North-Eastern Ethiopia []

Maintaining optimum planting space is the most important agronomic practice for increasing growth and yield of mung bean. A field trial was conducted to determine the optimum intra and inter-row spacing of mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) at Alala kebele in Jile Timuga District, North-Eastern Ethiopia in 2016 main cropping season. Rasa mung bean variety (N-26) was used as a test crop. Factorial combinations of three intra row spacing (5, 10 and 15 cm) and four inter row spacing (25, 30, 35 and 40 cm) were laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The analysis of variance indicated that most phenological stage and growth parameters of the crop significantly influenced by main effect of intra and inter row spacing. Most yield and yield components parameters were significantly influenced by their interaction effect. Grain yield positively correlated with plant maturity (r=0.44**) and number of seeds per pod (r=0.48**) but negatively to straw yield (-0.57**). Mean separation and economical analysis results indicated that interaction of 10 cm intra row and 30 cm inter row spacing treatment was significantly increased crop seed yield and gave more profit (29375.95 Birr /ha net profit) as compared to the other treatments. Thus, using of 10 x 30 cm spacing is found optimum to improve mung bean production in Jile Timuga district. However, to reach comprehensive conclusion further investigations is required over seasons and locations.

Assessment of CSOs Programmes and Their Implication to Poverty Reduction in Zanzibar []

The aim of the research was to assess whether CSOs programmes were of good quality and had adequate coverage so as to be considered in poverty reduction efforts in Zanzibar. The in-depth comparative case studies approach was used as principal research method where four case study organisations (2 from FBOs and 2 from NGOs categories) were investigated using three data collection techniques: participant observation, semi-structured interviews and document review. The analysis was qualitative and comparatively done using thematic approach to arrive to the objective. The findings show that the case study organisations carry out programmes/projects of three nature - charity programmes, business programmes and mixed ones on the side of FBOs, and advocacy, capacity building and service delivery on the side of NGOs. FBOs have more, bigger and longer lasting programmes than NGOs. FBOs programmes designs are simpler and more flexible, indicating inefficiencies while NGOs projects designs are more thorough, indicating good use of their donors and efficiencies in programmes. There is inequality between poor and non-poor areas in the distribution of benefits, where the non-poor areas (urban areas) receive more benefits. Coverage of programmes is generally low, but lower among NGOs than FBOs. All of these may indicate limited impact of these programmes on poverty reduction at national level.

The Impact of COVID-19 on the Hospitality sector: Case study of a Hotel at Navi Mumbai []

The COVID-19 pandemic and the restrictions imposed on travel, individual movement and business activity are having an unparalleled impact on the industry and economy. The Indian hospitality sector has been hit hard and is experiencing an all-time low demand amid the COVID-19 outbreak with fewer future bookings. The imposition of Section 144 (prohibition against mass gatherings), suspension of visas, global travel advisories, India like most of the other countries was on a lockdown with unprecedented ramifications (HVS, 2020). In the current health crisis, the decline in hotel average daily rate and occupancy rate is being affected by an external factor, the COVID-19 pandemic which has led to a negative impact in the hotel values (HVS, 2020). When the future seems uncertain and investments risky and illiquid, the decision to invest at some point in time and the impact on the value of the subject property are the key issues. The research methodology used for this study comprises of primary and secondary research and the findings establish the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the value of Hotel ABC situated at Vashi, Navi Mumbai.

The Causes of the Civil War Of The Central African Republic (2011-2019) []

The Central African Republic is the heart of Africa filled with natural treasures. The country has been also the center of many civil wars over the years. the latest being the ongoing crisis between the Anti-Balaka and the Séléka that started in 2012-2013. The scientific goals of the project is to uncover the different factors that caused this conflict through a series of semi-formal interviews. The interviews were conducted with the direct actors of this war such as warlords to understand the real reasons for the instability of the countr

Antimicrobial Activity of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe) and Turmeric (Curcuma Louga) Extracts Against Propionibacterium Acnes Isolates from Human Pimples, Abuja, Nigeria []

Propionibacterium are known to cause outbreaks of a variety of skin infections like pimples, chronic blepharitis, inflammation, post-operative shoulder infections, etc., in both rural and urban settlers. This study therefore aimed to investigate the efficacy of ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe) and turmeric Curcuma louga) extracts against Propionibacterium acnes isolate from pimples on students of Veritas University, Abuja, with a view to suggesting ways of solving the skin disfiguring problems caused by pimples. Fresh ginger and turmeric were obtained from open market in Jos, they were air-dried in the laboratory, processed into powder and stored in airtight bottles to prevent evaporation of the active ingredients in them. Ethanolic extracts of the plants materials were obtain using standard laboratory procedures. Phytochemical analysis was carried out to determine their chemical composition. Result of phytochemical analysis of the ginger extract revealed the presence of Tannins, Saponins, Flavonoids, Terpenes, Steroids and Carbohydrates in Ginger while the Turmeric extract also revealed Saponins, Terpenes, Steroids and Carbohydrates. 100 individuals (50 males and 50 females), were used in this study. Pus samples from facial pimples were taken to the laboratory for further processing. Sensitivity test was carried out using 1ml of each of the extract at 10⎺ˡ, 10⎺², 10⎺³, 10⎺⁴ and 10⎺⁵ concentrations and at 1:1 mixture of the two. Result of the sensitivity test showed that only 10⎺ˡ and 10⎺² inhibited growth of Propionibacterium acnes in ginger while in turmeric only 10⎺ˡ concentration produced zone of growth inhibition. The mixed extract concentrations produced zones of growth inhibition in all concentration (10⎺ˡ, 10⎺², 10⎺³, 10⎺⁴, 10⎺⁵). The overall result showed that Zingiber officinale roscoe extract were more efficacious against the test organism than the Ccurcuma louga while the mixture of the two extracts produced the highest antibacterial activity at all concentrations compared to the extracts used singly. A control using commercial antibiotics (Amoxil, Ciprofloxacin, Ampiclox and Pefloxacin) showed low inhibitory effect against the test organism meaning they are less efficacious than the mixture of two extracts. In conclusion therefore, Zingiber officinale roscoe and Ccurcuma louga extracts both showed promise as antibacterial agents against Propionibacterium acnes compared with the commercial antibiotics and therefore have a good promise for treatment of Propionibacterium acnes infections. Keywords: Propionibacterium acnes, Zingiber officinale roscoe, Curcuma louga, Pimples, Ethanolic extracts, Veritas University.

English vs Shupamem relative clauses: a contrastive analysis []

This paper outlines the major structural differences between the English and Shupamem (an SVO Bantu language spoken in western part of Cameroon) relative clauses. It examines the structure of the relative morphemes, the relative clause types, and the relativization strategies in these two languages. In English, relative clauses are introduced by pronouns which indicate the position relativized and the syntactic/semantic role of the head noun (Comrie 1998). Also, English relative pronouns can be omitted in object relative clauses without affecting the sentence grammaticality and semantic interpretation. In Shupamem however, the relativizer is a dicontinuous morpheme which encircles the relative domain: the first item (jʉə́ for singular or ʃʉə́ for plural) introduces the relative clause while the second one (nə́) closes the relative domain. Unlike the English relative pronouns, none of these morphemes encodes the syntactic/semantic role of the antecedent. Similarly, the deletion of a relative morpheme in Shupamem renders the sentence ungrammatical.


The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of individual differences on students, academic performance. To appropriately carry out our research, the researchers had three objectives which were to verify if socio-economic status is a cause of individual differences and its effects on students, academic performance, to verify if the environment and heredity are causes of individual differences and if they have an effect on students, academic performances. We made use of primary data which was collected using questionnaires. These questionnaires were addressed to students of G.B.H.S Mendong and NESCAS selected from a population of 74 and using the random sampling technique we had a sample of 60 students from whom responses were obtained. The data was analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences(SPSS) 26 and the results of the effect analysis revealed that overall, individual differences positively affects students, academic performance and more specifically, socio-economic status, Environment and hereditary all have a positive effect on students, academic performance but with hereditary having a little or insignificant effect. Based on these results, the researcher humbly recommends that the teachers, school administrators, guidance counsellors and the government play their respective roles to ensuring that the goal of education which is increased performance be attained despite individual differences by student. Many short comings were encountered during this research work such as limited time, financial limitation and difficulties encountered when administering the questionnaires. The researcher suggested that further research should be carried out on this same topic since only two schools were researched on in the Mfoundi division of Yaounde IV and that other areas such as motivation and individual differences and its effects on students, academic performances.KEY WORDS: individual differences, hereditary, socio-economic status,

Evaluation of agronomic characters of finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L) Gaertn) as influenced by poultry manure in the Northern Guinea Savanna agroecology, Nigeria []

A field experiment was conducted at the Teaching and Research Farm, Taraba State College of Agriculture Jalingo in 2017 to evaluate the effect of poultry manure on agronomic parameters of finger millet. The treatments evaluated were poultry manure compost at 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 t/ha. The treatments were replicated three times and arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD). The results obtained showed that finger millet responded positively to poultry manure treatment in all agronomic parameters evaluated with the best values obtained at 8 t poultry manure/ha. Finger millet plants in this treatment were tallest (45.20cm), with the highest number of tillers/plant (7.90), highest LAI (52.19), as well as the lowest number of days to 50 % flowering (103.13), the highest number of spikes/plant (18.09), longest spikes (4.65cm) and highest grain yield (3.04t/ha). This performance trend indicates that the best agronomic parameters could be obtained for finger millet by applying 8 t poultry manure/ha or more in the study area.


This research is the evaluation of various sources of finance to terrorist activities and the application of forensic principles to mitigate the trend. Terrorism in recent times has reduced government stability and thereby impoverishing mostly the developing and underdeveloped countries. This poses a negative impact on the standard of living in poor countries. Since financing terror activities is a humongous project considering the cost of weaponry and logistics, it is in my opinion that, for such finances to manifest, it can only take the capability of the well-heeled to finance, and highly gullible individuals and sympathizers to perpetuate the terror act. Terrorist organizations vary widely, ranging from large, state-like organizations to small, decentralized groups and self-directed networks. Policymakers, judiciary officers, forensic auditors, blockchain forensic examiners, and palynologists are the few recommended approaches to reduce terror financing in Nigeria. These facts are known facts that will fashion the core of discussion of terrorist financing and the specific role that forensic application can play in Nigeria terror financing effort.


Message passing in the years might be an inborn segment in aspect of parallel computers but with PC configurations, each and every piece machine groups, running beginning with hand created to the absolute speediest rate of supercomputers on the planet, depending very well on the activities of the many individuals’ center points that they encompass. On workstations that are based for item servers, with approximated excess of one thousand centers require been spreading. Concerning representation those number of centers over a bundle expands, those quick improvement in the complexity of the correspondence subsystem making message passing deferments over the interconnected certified execution issue in the execution of parallel programs. Specific instruments may be utilized to picture and observe that execution from asserting message passing for PC gatherings. Before a far reaching workstation cluster is applied, a follow based test framework uses little sum about the center points will help foresee those execution for message passim investigating greater setups.

Case report: Sarcomatoid carcinoma, a rare gallbladder carcinoma. []

Background: Sarcomatoid carcinoma, a rare malignancy, is difficult to diagnose preoperatively, and often presents at a late stage with poor clinical outcome. The most common histology subtype of gallbladder (GB) carcinoma is adenocarcinoma which accounts for more than 70% of all GB tumors histologically. Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the gallbladder accounts for less than 1% of all subtypes, and there are only 109 cases reported worldwide. Case presentation: A 64 year old gentleman presented with right hypochondriac pain for 2 weeks, with a palpable mass clinically over the right hypochondriac region. Initial Imaging suggested gallbladder empyema, and was treated with antibiotics for a week, but pain was unresolved, and subsequently underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy, which turned out to be sarcomatoid carcinoma under histopathological examination. Conclusion: Sarcomatoid carcinoma can only be diagnosed via histopathology as there are no substantiate screening tools available for now.

Evaluation of Instructional Videos for Teaching and Learning Safety Precautions in Kano State Technical Colleges Workshops []

Instructional videos play a vital role towards effectiveness and efficiency in teaching and learning. The main objective of the study was to investigate the availability, effectiveness of the devices, teachers’ competencies on the uses of these devices and the students’ adherence towards safety rules in the schools’ workshops. Research questions were formulated based on the objective of the study. The research design adopted descriptive survey. All the teachers and students in the Technical Colleges in Kano State were the population of the study. The sample of the study was made up of 80 teachers and 346 students respectively. A Questionnaire (QEIVTLSP) for collecting the data was developed and validated. A reliability estimate of 0.87 was obtained using test-retest method for ensuring reliability of the instruments. Data was collected and analysed and the results were presented and discussed. Recommendations were made accordingly.


Chromolaena odorata is a tropical and subtropical specie of flowering shrub in the sunflower family, Asteraceae. The young leaves can be crushed, and the resulting liquid are used to treat skin wounds. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp.) and subsequently determine the susceptibility of these organisms to extract (ethanolic and aqueous) of C. odorata. Fifty (50) clinical samples (urine) were collected from different categories of individuals visiting General Hospital Wukari for investigation using standard microbiological techniques. The results showed that the ethanolic extracts were more effective against Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus spp. than the aqueous extract of the plant. The higher the concentration of the extracts the higher the effectiveness. The aqueous extract inhibited the growth of S. aureus at a concentration of 45g/90ml while the ethanolic extract inhibited the growth at a concentration of 40g/80ml. The aqueous extract had no bactericidal effects on S. aureus while the ethanolic extract had bactericidal effects on S. aureus at 50g/100ml concentration. On Streptococcus spp., the aqueous extract inhibited the growth at a concentration of 40g/80ml while the ethanolic extract inhibited the growth at a concentration of 35g/70ml. Both the aqueous and ethanolic extracts had bactericidal effects; the aqueous extract at 50g/100ml and the ethanolic at 45g/90ml. This study shows that the leaves of Chromolaena odorata have immense antibacterial potential.


Antibacterial activity of some selected medicated soaps such as Dettol, Tura, Sanitol, Safeguard and Tetmosol was determined on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from wound infections. Twenty (20) wound samples were swabbed aseptically from residents of Wukari local government area using sterile swab sticks. It was inoculated and sub-cultured and the test organism which is Staphylococcus aureus was isolated. Identification of the isolate was done by standard microbiological techniques. Zones of inhibition were examined and Tura soap had the highest antibacterial activity 20.00mm (100%), followed by Sanitol 15.00mm (75%), Safeguard 14.00mm (70%), Dettol 12.00mm (60%) and Tetmosol 10.00mm (50%) against Staphylococcus aureus. Hence medicated soap can be used to prevent skin infection, transmission of skin and wound pathogens. Also, it is recommended that prolonged usage should be discouraged as it kills both the pathogenic microorganisms and the normal flora.


Abstract The study aims at assessing the practice of continuous assessment in Maichew Poly Technique College and checking the importance of continuous assessment in improving manufacturing Students’ performance; the study was conducted taking the case of Maichew Poly Technique College students especially Manufacturing students in the first and the second semesters of the year. In this study, I use descriptive research design because it is the most appropriate one to describe the case of the practice of continuous assessment. The study describes the current situation of continuous assessment in Maichew Poly Technique College; I utilize qualitative and quantitative approaches then I used questionnaire for collecting data which were administered for students and teachers. All data obtained from the questionnaire were analyzed, interpreted and represented in form of tables and narrated through words. In conclusion, I present some findings of the study; one of them is that teachers of Maichew Poly Technique College use different types of continuous assessment strategies such as group and individual assignments class works, oral and written tests which are commonly used while projects are sometimes used. Also, the study reveals that tests and home assignments are the most strategies used by teachers to assess students’ performance and their progress. Based on the findings; the following recommendations were provided: teachers should update themselves on the different strategies of continuous assessments, they should apply different assessment strategies in their classroom, continuous trainings should be given for teachers about different continuous assessment strategies and their application in a classroom.


Since the informal finance got into the financial system in Sierra Leone, small and medium business organizations and individuals have been seeking ways and means of introducing it to promote financial deepening and efficiency. This study was set to investigate the role of informal financial sectors in domestic fund mobilization in the eastern region of Sierra Leone, comprising three districts; Kenema, Kailahun and Kono. The study targeted market women. The data was gathered through the use of questionnaire and face-to face interviews. The analysis was done through the special package for social sciences (SPSS) that culminated into frequency tables and graphs. According to the findings, majority of the women are engaged in single collector type of Osusu clubs. They got their startup capital from owned savings and gifts from relatives and financed their lump sum expenditure through these clubs although some have savings at the bank. Their day-to-day expenditures are financed through the profit from the business. The study revealed that the collectors are not regulated and do not pay taxes on their earnings. To a large extent the existence of large informal financial sectors is due to repressive financial systems, where high interest rate ceilings are set and credit allocated only to those who have the collateral requested. Such an endeavor has resulted to a large proportion of the populace being excluded from utilizing formal credit services. Therefore it was recommended that a system be put in place by government for regulatory purposes for the collectors not to engage in defrauding the market women and pay taxes on their earnings as finance without regulation ends up with fraud. Also the banks should relax policies for access of loan to medium and small businesses including market women.


The September 11, 2001 terrorist attack birth the idea of biometric measures, when the traditional methods of identification were concluded to be prone to leakage of personal information, identity theft, fraud, etc., and there are great security risks in identity recognition. Biometrics is a device used to identify and reliably confirm a person’s individuality using the physiological or behavioral characteristics. This term paper examined some of the gray areas surrounding biometric technology and informs the public about the growing number of ethical concerns associated with the use. The idea came up as a result of the rising popularity of bio-metric systems and their application in mainstream society which led to many ethical concerns, where bio-metric sensors and scanners are being implemented with no consideration for unintended negative consequences. A systematic review of related literature was adopted and used to examine the relevant ethical issues. The identified ethical issues paved way for the recommendation of 7 points guidelines, which when adopted will alleviate the fear associated with bio-metric technology.

Bridging the Gap: Practice and Academics in Quantity Surveying in Nigeria []

A gaping gap exists between the academics of quantity surveying and its application in practice. But of even greater concern are two wider and more dangerous gaps – between our actual academic scene and what it should have been, and also between our actual practice scene and what it should have been. Until we take care of these two gaps, we cannot genuinely plug the gap between professional practice and the academy. In other words, we must first revamp both our education and practice, before going ahead to define the real gap between the two, and try to discern the actual need to bridge the actual gap. To begin with, the gap between the profession and the academy is not entirely unhealthy – it has some natural, unavoidable and even desirable differences. They should therefore function as complementary to each other. The academy, ideally, should have two clear goals: (i) preparing students for doing good justice to the profession, and (ii) suggesting and seeking improvements, turnarounds and new horizons for this exalted profession. Unfortunately, the academy currently fumbles even at the first goal, due to various reasons, and hardly even thinks of achieving the second goal. Our universities and polytechnics are supposed to be centers of learning 'of high thought and pioneering philosophy' which, imbibed in our students, should ultimately guide and mould the profession. There is ample doubt if this idea is clear to all in the academy, which explains why our institutions today operate without philosophy other than to just graduate. As a result, they are vague regarding the focus and goal of teaching. Several factors are responsible for this scenario. This research set out to identify these factors and proffer useful suggestions for bridging the gap. A survey approach was adopted, and questionnaire was used to collect data from quantity surveyors in the academics and practice in Lagos-Nigeria, which has a good concentration of quantity surveying practitioners and academics like no other in the country. 'More theoretical knowledge than practical', 'slow adoption to innovations', 'inadequate school curriculum' and 'inadequate training' emerged as major causes of the gap that needs bridging. The research identified possible solutions which included: 'be more receptive/open to new innovations', 'organize frequent workshops, seminars, lectures, conferences', 'find equilibrium between theoretical and practical knowledge', 'encourage learning on-the-job', and 'embrace new IT innovations', among others. Future research on this subject will help expand the horizon for further discussions.

Earthquake force modeling on vertical and crump weirs []

ABSTRACT By and large in geotechnical earthquake engineering the phenomena of earthquake and its effects are described as such as the site-specific amplification, soil liquefaction, and seismic slope stability are the important aspects of earthquake to be dealt on in earthquake engineering. And; these aspects must be adequately addressed in the development of sound earthquake-resistant designs when the effect of earthquake force on the structural stability of engineering works while concerned and hydraulic structures like diversion weirs and dams when required to be designed . Thus the study has actually focused on diversion weir designs and the modeling of earthquake force basically dealt on these specific structures for convenience . Although there are various methods for modeling of the magnitude of earthquake force on these structures in this articles consents however the result of this study has been required to introduce new modeling approach of earthquake force on vertical and crump weirs as compared with the known pseudo static method in science. Hence, in this study approach the effects of the vertical and horizontal inertial acceleration of seismic activity plus the peak ground motion generated inducing force when anticipated in the head work location to be occurred at various intensity of occurrence ideally the study has tried to quantify the magnitude based on computational fluid dynamic elite using new modeling scheme and formulae for earthquake force modeling in which have derived by the study while the stability of the structures analyzed . In this regard the methods has found possible to model the magnitude of earthquake force by this study regressively in correlation with the input data given for local hydraulic behavior of the flow system hypothetically when presupposed for particular sample design and then the required weir dimensions for stability analysis of the designed weirs . Ultimately, the results generated with respect for the observed samples deemed to be quite appropriate one have evaluated to have correlated with the local hydraulic input data used for modeling the weirs basically and the designed sample weirs geometries while operated optimally. In this case as the new notions by designating the flow behaviors on the weir and the energy profiles observed over the weir crest through dimensionless numerical model parameters known as alphas values consequently the magnitude of the required earthquake force have computed being optimized for each samples reggeressively and have compared each other . ultimately the study has found that the magnitude being linearly fitted with the models used for the computation as such having resulted coefficient of determination for the reduced linear models of 100% or R2 = 1 signifying that there is the strongly and inverse correlation of the magnitude of earthquake force and slope of the downstream weir glacis when observed on vertical and crump weirs and in wide band analysis of the force system based on the defined input local hydraulics and geometry of the weirs as well as for the predictors and variables used for modeling . also in all cases the results has confirmed numerically that the determined magnitude for samples regressively coincides with or same as of the magnitudes when observed based on the pseudo static method for particular samples for justification . Key words : Optimization, Peak ground motion and inertial acceleration, regressive modeling

Effect of Learning And Growth Perspective (LGP) in Performance Appraisal using Balanced Scorecard of Objective (BSCO) As An Alternative To Staff Performance Appraisal and Development (SPADEV) Reporting System in the Civil Service of Lagos State, Nigeria []

Abstract Evaluation of performance from the Learning and Growth Perspective (LGP) is not only the engine of organizational growth but the bedrock of institutional Research and Development (R&D). The LGP is responsible for repositioning employees into valuable resources for attaining organizational vision, departmental key performance indicators (KPIs) and individual key performance deliverables (KPDs). The disregard for LGP in performance appraisal mechanisms contributed to the inadequacy of the Annual Performance Evaluation Report (APER) system previously used and the Staff Performance Appraisal and Development (SPADEV) Reporting System currently used in the Civil Service of Lagos State, Nigeria and also constitutes a threat to the effectiveness, efficiency and self-sustainability of the administrative organization. This comparative study examined the effect of Learning and Growth (L&G) on Performance Appraisal using The Balanced Scorecard of Objective (BSCO) Method or The Staff Performance Appraisal and Development (SPADEV) Reporting Method in the Civil Service of Lagos State, Nigeria. The study examined the viability of BSCO appraisal system as an alternative to the SPADEV appraisal system. Descriptive survey design was adopted for this study with Key Informant Interviews (KII). The population comprised fourteen Ministries, the Civil Service Commission (CSC), and the Office of Transformation, Creativity and Innovation (OTCI) with total staff strength of 7,555 in the Lagos State Civil Service. Utilizing Taro Yamane’s sampling technique, a sample size of 380 participants was arrived at, with a thirty percent (30%) addition (to enhance the confidence level and response rate). A self-developed structured questionnaire was used to collect information about variables that formed the basis for assessing the appraisal instruments, BSCO and SPADEV; from the perspective of the level of appropriateness (App). The questionnaire was validated, yielding a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.830. A total of 494 copies of the questionnaire documents were distributed, with a response rate of about 75%. In addition, two Commissioners and a Director General were interviewed, using interview-guide. Data from the questionnaire were analyzed using descriptive and inferential analyses (p=0.05) while data from the interview were content-analyzed. Findings revealed that there was significant difference (p<0.003) between BSCO (LGP: x̅ = 7.16) and SPADEV (LGP: x̅ =2.78) for criterion variables assessing the appraisal instruments. Furthermore, analysis of KII revealed BSCO appraisal method to be superior to SPADEV method of appraisal. The study concluded that BSCO is more viable than SPADEV with consistently significant difference for all variables used in assessing the appraisal instruments. It is therefore clear from the study that BSCO appraisal method is an alternative instrument to SPADEV. It therefore recommended that BSCO should be used as an alternative performance appraisal instrument in the Lagos State Civil Service. Keywords: Learning and Growth Perspective (L&GP), Balanced Scorecard (BSC), Balanced Scorecard of Objective (BSCO), Staff Performance Appraisal and Development (SPADEV) Reporting System; Key Performance Deliverable (KPD), Key Performance Indicator (KPI), Performance Appraisal (PA), Performance Management (PM)


This research is an application of sociolinguistic approach that related about bilingualistics especially code-mixing and code-switching found in photo caption Instagram of Indonesian celebrities. The objectives of this research are to find out the types of code-mixing and code-switching found in photo caption Instagram of Indonesian celebrities and to find out the most dominant typeboth of code-mixing and code-switching found in photo caption Instagram of Indonesian celebrities. The researchers used Muysken’s theory (2000) for types of code-mixing and Poplack’s theory (1980) for types of code-switching. This research was conducted from 1st March until 31st May 2020.This research used qualitative research. The method was used in this research was document or content analysis. In this research used the data triangulation as a technique of checking the validation of the data.The result showed that the total of analysis was 50 data of photo caption Instgram.There were 3 types of code-mixing, they are Insertion 13 data (52%), alternation 6 data (24%) and congruent lexicalization 6 data (24%). The most dominant type of code-mixing is insertion. Meanwhile, the type of code-switching are tag-switching consists of 2 data (8%), inter-sentential switching consists of 15 data (60%)and intra-sentential switching consists of 8 data (32%).The most dominant type of code-switching is inter-sentential switching


This research is about an analysis of deixis used in the song lyrics of Ed Sheeran “Divide” album. This research analyzed the types of deixis found on the song lyrics of Ed Sheeran “Divide” album and found the most dominant deixis used on the song lyrics. In conducting this research, the researchers used qualitative design with content analysis because the data were collected from document, in form of words and analysis of the written text or song lyrics. In using content analysis by qualitative research, the researchers analyzed the presence, meaning and relationship of such certain words, themes or concepts. The researchers used four songs from Ed Sheeran “Divide” album to be analyzed based on the some types of deixis stated according to Buhler’s theory (2011). In this research, there are some steps in collecting the data such as searching, reading the song lyrics, selecting or collecting the data, and then printing them all. After collecting the data, the research done some steps in analyzing the research such as underlying deixis that found on those song lyrics, classifying the deixis into each types of deixis, counting the types of deixis that found on the song lyrics, tabulating the frequency of each types of deixis, and then explaining the finding of the research. This research finding showed that there were types of deixis found on the song lyrics. There are three types of deixis, namely person deixis, temporal deixis and spatial deixis. The researchers calculated types of deixis found on each of lyrics. There are 148 person deixis (75.52%), 24 spatial deixis (12.24%), and 24 temporal deixis (12.24%). Thus, the most dominant of deixis found on the song lyrics is person deixis (75.52%).

An investigation of an unsteady thermal-diffusion and diffusion-thermal effects between two long cylinders []

we investigated S◦rıt and Duf◦r influence in tω◦ squeezing cylinders. Constitutive equations of continuity, motion, mass-transport and energy are utilize as a tool for modeling. Similarity transformation is applied to changed PDE´s into ODE´s system and produced various non-dimensional parameters like, magnetic, squeez ing, prandle, schmith, soret and dufour number are studied vividly. For analytical and numerical discussion HAM and Bvp4c pakage is used. The result is also tallied with aim of table and graph.

Antimicrobial Activity of Mahonia aquifolium Leaves Extract on Human pathogenic organisms []

Abstract The persistent resistance of micro-organisms necessitates the need to intensify studies on the use of possible strategies for proper control of pathogens using extracts from natural products. The organic extract of Mahonia aquifolium was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against some commonly known pathogenic forms of bacteria viz., Epidermophyton floccosum, Staphylococcus pyogenes, Baccilus subtilis, Staphylococccus aureus, Candida albicans, Staphylococcus epidermilis, Corynebacterium parvum. The research was investigated using standard microbiological procedures. The antimicrobial activity was performed by agar disc diffusion method. The methanolic extract of the plant proved to be considerably more active when compared to other solvents' extract. Bacillus subtilis, was the most resistant bacterial strain against the methanolic extract followed by Streptococcus pyogenes and Epidermophyton floccosum. Key words: Antimicrobial activity, disc diffusion, pathogen, Resistance, Organic Extract.

(Re)defining Ethiopian Literature: A Quest For Identity in the age of Globalization []

Ethiopian literature, Ethiopian identity and globalization, the three broad and often polemical issues were brought together in this paper in the view of addressing the need to instigate (re instigate)scholarly discussion on how Ethiopian literature should be written, read and studied while maintaining its Ethiopian identity in the present era of globalization. In the course of achieving this broad objective, the paper attempted to disclose main philosophical and literary issues that should characterize modern Ethiopian literature. Data were collected through document analysis and analyzed in a historical analysis method. The finding indicated that globalization have been affecting the aesthetic as well as thematic features of modern Ethiopian literature both positively and negatively since its emergence. In the early periods of its development, globalization was an opportunity for modern Ethiopian literature, for it enables writers to adapt western styles of storytelling, whereas it has become a trait for it starting from the third phase of its historical development, which is well known as post-revolution period. This dynamic effect of globalization does not only affect literary characteristics of modern Ethiopian literature but also has a significant effect on defining it. Based on the discussions held in the analysis, this study, therefore, attempts to concluded by vigilantly forwarding the possible Ethiopian definition for Ethiopian literature.

Impact of 4IR (The Fourth Industrial Revolution) by applying 3D printing Technology at Khoula hospital []

The purpose of this research is to analyze the impact of 4IR (The fourth industrial revolution) by applying 3D printing technology at Khoula Hospital. The relevance of 4IR is focused on the boundaries between digital, biological, and physical worlds. Moreover, 4IR is focused on the advance in 3D printing, artificial intelligence, quantum computing, robotics, and IoT, etc. Oman has better health in terms of the industrial revolution with the support of advanced technology. The study is mainly focused on the advantages of 4IR 3D printing technology, challenges face by Khoula Hospital in terms of implement 3D printing technology, determination of new technology requirements, and implementation of 3D printing technology in Khoula Hospital. Primary data collected from the process of interview and survey questionnaire by focusing the employees working in Khoula Hospital. The interview and survey questionnaire consists of questions related to the topic of 3D printing technology. The interview was face to face interviews by focused on the employees in Khoula Hospital and two companies working in the same field.The survey was an online survey by focusing on the employees working in Khoula Hospital. The population of the questionnaire was 30 and 26 participants have participated in the questionnaire. Three participants were selected as samples and checked the validity of the information through a pilot study. For doing the interview, the researcher selected the head section of the prosthetic department and companies managers.Secondary data collected through the support of books, articles, journals, and online sites. PSPP software is used for the data analysis purpose and charts and tables are used in this study to specify the response of the participants in this study. Mean has been applied to determine the average of the questionnaire data. The overall intention of this research is to review the literature around 3D printing in the health sector and showcase how 3D printing will benefit the patients and medical staff in Khoula Hospital (prosthetic department) compared to manual measurement and fitting. There were many problems faced by Khoula Hospital due to the lack of advanced technology in their workplace like the usage of present running technology leads to wasting of time, material, money, and efficiency of a product. The study has resulted that 3D printing technology will benefit the hospital by reducing costs and enhance the quality of work. The study concluded that 3D printing will help them to produce the prosthetic in a shorter time with less price and high quality. It is highly recommended that Khoula Hospital must utilize the benefits of 3D printing technology to enhance its working efficiency and make the patients highly satisfied. More research also needs to be done on the connection between artificial intelligence systems and the new devices to help in the manufacture of prosthetics.Keywords: 3D printing, Technology, Khoula hospital, and Prosthetics, etc.