Volume 8, Issue 9, September 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

[1]   [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]  [6]  [7]

Impact and diagnosis on the health of fluoride water : In special reference of Rajasthan []

Impact and diagnosis on the health of fluoride water : In special reference of Rajasthan Impact of fluoride water on various parts of body: Nervous system, Bones, Sperm, Teeth, digestive system etc. Highly show effect on Pregnant women, youth, & children, measures to prevent side effects of fluoride containing water ( Home remedies, balance diet traditional and modern techniques.) .


This study aims to explore the process of revealing the truth in relation to the psychological healing of survivors of the Aceh conflict. Psychological healing helps the welfare of conflict survivors and supports the implementation of reconciliation. This study used a quali-tative-exploratory method with 80 subjects consisting of Aceh conflicts survivors who had and had not been taken statements from by using purposive sampling techniques. The data collection process in this study was carried out by the focus group discussion method. Conflict survivors need an opportunity to share experiences and feelings regarding the conflict. The results indicated that the process of revealing the truth can be a psychological healing tool in the form of social catharsis, providing psychological support, and as a means to realize the hope of justice for survivors.


Abstract Dichlorvos is an organophosphate used commercially for the treatment of pests. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of dichlorvos on Clarias gariepinus juveniles using hematological parameters. Fish were exposed to two sublethal concentrations-2.14 and 4.28mg/l corresponding to 1/10 and 1/5th of 96LC50(21.391mg/l)of the pesticide. Blood was sampled on day1, day 5,day 10 and day 15 to estimate the hematological parameters such as white blood cells(WBC), packed cell volumes (PVC), red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), mean cellular hemoglobin (MCH), mean cellular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and mean cellular volume (MCV). Results showed concentration and time dependent values across the concentration. There was a significant decrease(p<0.05) in PCV, RBC, Hb, MCH and MCV and MCHC when compared with the control. Meanwhile, a marked significant increase (p< 0.05) was observed in the values of White Blood Cells(WBC) when compared with the control. Hepatosomatic index and condition factor showed a significant difference when compared with the control. The present study revealed that dichlorvos elicits toxic stress even at sublethal concentrations resulting in aberration in the studied parameters which is very evident in the blood, serum and muscle samples. Keywords: Toxicity, Dichlorvos, Fish, Hematology


In all over the world, in construction industry success is mainly depend upon the time and cost performance. Moreover, anywhere in world, the construction industry is facing a lot of problems related to cost and time effectiveness. Thus, majority of projects related to construction faces schedule and cost overturn. Therefore, this paper mainly focused on investigation of cost and schedule overturns, assessing influencing factors and its effect on client needs. For achieving the objectives of this study existing articles and survey form utilized. The survey form consisting two sections i.e. General information, affecting factors on cost and schedule overturns collected from existing literatures. Total of 100 survey forms distributed among various construction professionals related to construction industry for time of two weeks. 70% respondent filled the form and returned back. Based on this filled form the data processed and analyzed. For ranking of affecting factors relative importance index method used. It is concluded that due to delay of time 92% of projects are failed while only 8% of project are completed within stipulated period of time as response given by respondents. The amount of time overrun was 10% as agreed by respondents. While in case of cost it is concluded that 89% of projects completed beyond allocated budget while only 11% of project completed within budget limitations as agreed in contract documents. Moreover, it is also concluded that problems related design and documentation caused major contribution to both time and cost performance followed by management of financial resource management, and project management and contract administration. Thus, it is strongly recommended to plan activities properly as per their cost and duration before implementation. In addition, proper monitoring and client need must be ensured during construction projects.

Corporate Governance and the Timeliness of Financial Reporting: A Comparative Study of Developing and Developed Economies []

Timeliness of financial reporting is one of the attributes of good corporate governance because shareholders and other stakeholders need information while it is still fresh and the more time that passes between yearend and disclosure, the more stale the information becomes and the less value it has. This study therefore is a Comparative study of developing and developed economies of corporate governance on timeliness of financial reporting of companies. Descriptive statistics show the sample size, range, median, mean, and p-value for both samples. Developing economy’s companies took an average of 97.1 days after year-end to report financial results, while developed economy’s companies took an average of 65.8 days after year-end to report financial results. The medians for developing and the developed economies were 82 and 53 days, respectively. Using the median data, it appears that the average developing company takes about 29 days longer to report financial results. A Wilcoxon test found the differences in time delay to be significant at the 1 percent level (p- <=2.077e–27). The study recommends that financial reporting quality should be a priority of the managers and policy makers to allow investors to make timely informed decisions on economic resources allocation. Corporate governance mechanisms to be put in place should be supportive of this endeavour. Awareness should also be created amongst the academia, practitioners and policymakers on the significance of timely financial reports. Keywords: Developing economy, Developed economy. Financial Reporting

“ El Burda” the poem of the scarf as phonetically adopted in Kendsa, Algeria []

Abstract : our research paper presents a version of “the poem of the scarf” ,” El Burda” , phonetically adopted in a region of the Algerian south, Bechar , where the religious festivities are still celebrated in a special way, one of these festivities “ El Mawlid Enabaoui” , the prophets birthday, in which the inhabitant , mainly men, read this poem in a phonetically adopted version to the local dialect, this version is adopted even by well structured people in Classical Arabic, because this poem is now a part of their heritage and traditions more than being an Arabic poetry.


E. coli andK. pneumoniae cancause serious infections thatmay often be fatal among hospital acquired infections. Main objective of this research is to study the prevalence of ESBL and MBL producing E.coli and K. pneumoniae in hospital patient.For the detection of ESBL and MBL producing E. coli andK. pneumoniae blood, urine, pus,bloodetc. were taken as samples. Samples were processed using standard microbiological procedure followed by AST by Kirby Bauer method and results were interpreted using CLSI guidelines. ESBL and MBL were confirmed by combined disc test (CDT).Out of 1125 clinical specimens 354 showed significant growth. In this study, 286 (80.79%) E. coli and 68 (19.21%) K. pneumoniae were isolated from various clinical specimens. The percentages of the isolated organisms were comparatively higher in female (72.88%) than male (27.22%). During the screening 39.51% of E. coliand 29.41% of K. pneumonia were found to be ESBL producer whereas 0.69% E.coli and 10.29% of K. pneumonia were found to be MBL producer.The isolates showed higher resistance to Ampicillin, Cefotaxime followed by, and Ceftazidime. The effective drugs were found to be Amikacin and Imipenamin case of ESBL. Of 354 isolates, 193 (54.51%) were MDR positive and among them most of the cases were observed in female than male. Out of 286 Escherichia coli and 68K.pneumoniae, MDR was seen in 165 (57.51%) and 28 (41.17%) isolates respectively. The study showed increasing trend of MDR and ESBL production in E. coli and K. pneumoniae, so constant survey of antibiotic sensitivity should be done to control and manage spread of these isolates in different units of health institutions. Key words: Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, MDR, ESBL, MBL and CDT.

Does Innovative Technology Stimulate Innovative Social Work Practices (E-Social Work)? []

The paper reviewed the social work and the digital age, specifically focusing on the benefits and constraints of incorporating Information Communication and Technology (ICT) into social work practice. The comprehensive literature searches are made from extensive collections from international journals, conference reports, organizations’ websites, reports, and related documents which were then classified. A total number of 32 (78%) articles were incorporated for review. The review shows that the innovative technologies positively stimulate the innovative social work practice (E-Social Work) and credit an application of ICT to enrich social workers and practitioners with practical skills to carry out their work more effectively using several ICTs tools and online services like video and telephone therapy, e-counseling, e-therapy, email, and social networking sites. On the other hand, the review reveals that unsatisfactory ICT competencies and literacy among Tanzania’s social workers and practitioners occasioned by limited training and readiness to embrace the new technology applications; some degree of evidence associated to the practices use of ICT and tools appeared to be a key resistance stagnant the integration of ICTs into practice. Further, the researcher suggests that social workers and practitioners’ e-readiness accept new processes, procedures, structures, policies, and standards that leverage the capability of familiarizing themselves with technological transformation and new standards for the use of technology. Furthermore, as regards the future research area more empirical evidence as well as e-readiness awareness and capacity building is required.

Major parasitic causes of organs condemnation in cattle and their financial implication in Ambo municipal abattoir []

ABSTRACTA cross sectional study was conducted from November 2013 to March 2014 to identify the major parasitic causes of organs condemnation and to estimate the direct financial implication or economic losses due to condemnations of these organs of cattle that were slaughtered at Ambo municipal abattoir. Standard antemortem and postmortem inspections procedures were followed throughout this study period. From the total of 384 cattle examined during standard antemortem inspection, different types of abnormalities were observed on 76 (20.9%) of male and 7 (33.3%) of female out of 363 male and 21 female cattle under gone ante mortem examination. Postmortem inspections of this study revealed that 83 (21.6%) livers, 43 (11.2%) lungs, 12 (3.1%) hearts, 9 (2.3%) tongues, 2 (0.5%) kidneys, 5 (1.3%) masseter muscles (carcass) and 11 (2.9%) spleen were condemned based on the principle meat inspection procedures for developing countries as a result of various causes of major parasitic diseases/lesions including, fasciolosis, hydatidosis and cysticercus bovis. Among parasitic diseases/lesions encountered during present study 16.9% of fasciolosis as the major causes of liver condemnation; 21.1% of hydatidosis from (liver, lung, heart, spleen and kidney) condemnations; 4.9% of bovine cysticercosis as the causes of (tongue, heart and carcass/masseter muscle) condemnation. As observed from postmortem inspection results liver was the most commonly condemned organ (21.6%) due to fasciolosis and hydatidosis followed by lung condemnation (11.2%) hydatidosis as major cause. In this study, organs condemnation rates did not show significant difference (P>0.05) among age, sex and body condition groups. The average annual economic losses due to rejection of liver, lung, heart, tongue and kidney was estimated to be 29810.16 ETB. In this study, higher economic losses were encountered from liver condemnation 20741.60 ETB, and followed by economic losses from lung condemnation 7259.56 ETB. In general, the economic losses encountered as a result of organs condemnation leads to the drawback of livestock industry and national economy of the country. Therefore, attention should be paid for strategic zoonotic diseases (parasitic diseases) control programs and to minimize economic losses at different abattoirs in the country.Key words: Ambo, Abattoir, Cattle, Organs, Condemnation, Economic loss, Causes, Ante mortem examination, postmortem inspection


The energy is the ability of a body to do the work .The work done is the measure of the kinetic energy of the body .The kinetic energy of a body is the energy possessed by the body by virtue of its motion .The work is said to be done by a force acting on a body such that the body is displaced actually in any direction except in a direction perpendicular to the direction of force . Work done = Force * Displacement = Energy When a mass of wood burns at that time the fire is created .That fire is the combination of heat energy and light .This implies that energy comes from a mass of matter. Light is the property of heat , because heat exhibits light at a fixed temperature of the matter. When the heat exhibits light from a mass of matter at that stage that mass is converted to energy . So the velocity of light is used for the calculation of energy . Rotation is motion and vice versa .Every point of a wheel moves simultaneously in a vertical curved path as well as a horizontal straight line path in a rotation . If a force is applied on a wheel and that force simultaneously converts to the centripetal force as well as the centrifugal force then the wheel moves forward. So everybody moves vertically in a curved path to cover horizontally on a straight line path. The following laws are derived from the above fact as follows , LAW OF MOTION ----------------------- Nrusingh’s 1st law (a) INERTIA OF REST : A body is at rest, until the applied force on it , converts to the centripetal force as well as the centrifugal force . (b) INERTIA OF MOTION : A body is at motion, as long as the applied force on it , converts to the centripetal force as well as the centrifugal force . The following law is derived from Nrusingh’s 1st law “THE FORCE OF ACTION IS ALWAYS EQUAL TO THE SUM OF OPPOSITE REACTION AND ABSORPTION” ---------------- Nrusingh’s 2nd law This implies that “14 PARTS ACTION = 11 PARTS REACTION + 3 PARTS ABSORPTION “ LAW : THE ACCELERATION OF A BODY IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE RESULTANT FORCE AND INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO ITS MASS . The following law is derived from Nrusingh’s 2nd law Force = (11/14) mass * acceleration -------- Nrusingh’s 3rd law where (11/14) is the constant of proportionality But Work done = Force * Displacement = Energy So the energy equation is derived from Nrusingh’s 3rd law of force as follows ENERGY = ( 11/14 ) MASS * ( VELOCITY OF LIGHT )² As 1 part action = (11/14) part reaction + (3/14) part absorption , So 1 part of energy formation = (11/14) part of energy generation + (3/14) part of energy absorption in the surrounding .This implies that , (11/14) part of energy is generated out of 1 part of energy formation when the rest (3/14) part of energy is absorbed in the surrounding .

Soil Moisture Retrieval Using SAR []

This paper presents the spatial distribution of soil moisture in the Qinghai Lake catchment area using Dubois and water cloud model.The theoretical basis of soil moisture inversion is determined. The basic situation of the research area Qinghai Lake catchment is introduced. The software used in the research is then introduced, as SNAP, Envi Sarscape 5.1 and ArcGIS. Then, the ground measurement is also introduced. The volumetric soil water content at a depth of 5 cm was measured using TDR instrument. Soil roughness was also measured by manual profiler method. The accurate measurement position is determined by using GPS. In addition, the Radarsat-2 SAR satellite data are obtained synchronously.The water cloud model was used to remove the influence of vegetation. Then, a combination of the water cloud model and Dubois model as well as the vegetation parameters were used to determine the parameters of water cloud model in HH and VV polarization. Subsequently, the water cloud model and the Dubois model were used to compute for the soil moisture in the Qinghai Lake catchment. Finally, the correlation coefficient between observed and retrieved soil moisture was 0.79, which proves the validity of the method.

Assessment of fuelwood utilization and it's implications on rural livelihoods in Mikang LGA of Plateau State []

ABSTRACT Access to clean sources of energy for cooking and heating has been considered as a panacea for achieving the Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 1 and 3 of eradicating poverty and ensuring enjoyment of a better quality of life. It is however pertinent to note that fuel wood has continued to play a key part in the livelihood of households in rural areas. A purposive random sampling survey employed in the study area (Mikang LGA), revealed that women and children are the ones mostly engaged in the collection and supplies of firewood for their households. The major source of firewood in the locality is identified to be self collection from the bush accounting for about 50% of the total sources of firewood. The search for firewood involves women and children trekking several kilometers in order to gather enough firewood for their families. About 81% of these women and children trek up to 1km to 4km in search of firewood. Financial constraint is the key factor responsible for the heavy reliance on firewood. In essence, this has prevented household’s access to other cleaner sources of energy (kerosene, gas and electricity). There is also ignorance on the part of residents in the locality on the dangers associated with heavy dependence of firewood as a chief source of energy. About 10% of the sampled population was believed to be suffering from health challenges associated with smoke and open fires (asthma, lungs problem, eye problems and tuberculosis). A change in the physical environment has been recorded mainly in the form of increased heat than usual. This is perhaps due to the increase build-up of carbon dioxide in the area as a result of firewood combustion. Certain species of plants and animals were noticed to have gone extinct possibly due to the destruction of their natural habitats in the quest for firewood. It is therefore important to note that fuel wood utilization plays a key role in the livelihood of residents in rural areas of developing countries because their economy is biomass-based and virtually all their activities and means of livelihood involve the use of fuel wood. Activities such as; cooking, heating, local brewing, crafts work, meat smoking for preservation, meat roasting for ready consumption and blacksmithing. Unless efforts are made to make access to clean sources of energy for rural households such as provision of improved stoves to rural households in developing countries (United Nations Foundation, 2010), achieving the Sustainable Development Goals of eradicating poverty and improved quality of life (better health) is still a dream yet to be achieved or it is several miles away from being a reality. Keywords: Fuel wood, Households Livelihood and Implications.

Developing an online NYSC Orientation Camp Information System []

The National Youth Service Corps (NYSC) is an organization set-up by the Nigerian government to involve the country’s graduate yearly in the development of the country. The one year service period has three weeks orientation period when the corps members are trained in paramilitary training. During this period, the corps members uses the manual approach to supply their personal information. The manual method of information system used by the corps members is very tedious, time consuming, prone to errors, and information modification and retrieval are practically impossible. To solve these problems, an online NYSC orientation camp information system is proposed. The proposed system is analyzed, designed and developed using Entity-Relationship Model (ERM) with entity relationship diagram as a defector. The architecture model is implemented using PHP and MySQL programming languages. The results showed that the researchers have developed an interactive online NYSC orientation camp information that can handle updates and modification of data more efficiently and can be accessed anywhere and anytime than the manual methods of information system. The researchers hereby recommended the developed software to the National Youth Services Corps headquarters for efficient database analysis of the corps members’ information system. Keywords: Corps members, NYSC Scheme, NYSC Orientation Course, NYSC Orientation Camp, Information System

An Assessment of the effectiveness of Familiar local Languages in Primary School Colleges of Zambia. A Case of Colleges of Education in Central Province of Zambia []

Abstract The recent revision to the Zambian national curriculum mandates that pupils in grades 1-4 learn in a familiar local language while English is introduced as a subject in the second grade. This study sought to investigate the effectiveness of teacher training colleges in the teaching of Zambian languages. The study revealed that most of the teachers who are deployed to these primary schools lack communicative competency in local familiar languages, as a result, they resort to teaching in English. This study revealed that teacher training institutions do not prepare these teachers adequately in the communicative competencies in local languages. A survey was carried out in five colleges of education in Central Province and ten primary schools in the same province of Zambia. The study made a number of recommendations to both ministry of education and teacher training institutions so as to consider teaching pre-service teachers communicative competencies in familiar local languages.

Fuzzy Logic Based Proportional Integral Control of Frequency for Small Hydropower Plant. []

Small hydropower is one of the most cost effective and reliable energy technologies to be considered for providing clean electricity. Any mismatch between generation and demand causes the system frequency to deviate from its nominal value. Thus high frequency deviation may lead to system collapse. This necessitates a very fast and accurate controller to maintain the system frequency. The frequencies of the existing small hydropower plants are controlled by mechanical governors. However, these governors are costive, complex and not fast in response. In this paper simple, less cost and fast response fuzzy logic based proportional integral (PI) controller of frequency for small hydropower plant is modeled, designed and simulated by Matlab/Simulink. The frequency controller controls the flow rate of water by acting on stepper motor and keeps the frequency of the small hydropower system nearly constant. Finally the simulation results of conventional PI controller is compared with fuzzy PI controller and proved that Fuzzy PI controller yields better control performance.


Abstract Different kinds of methods have been designed and used to determine the level of concentration of chromium in the wastewater and many techniques have been designed, recommended and used to reduce the concentration level of chromium in the tannery effluents. The chromium through tannery effluents has become a global concern. Tanneries must thoroughly check and monitor their waste stream regularly to obey regulatory standards set out. This work is likely a take part to this global concern; by this work, the level of chromium concentration of Bahir Dar tannery was determined by using FAAS and UV-visible spectrophotometric methods; the methods have been compared for their precisions, and the efficiency of the wastewater treatment mechanism of the tannery under discussion has been evaluated. The concentration of Cr of the wastewater in the final outlet was found to be 7.461 ppm for Cr (III) and 4.33 ppm for Cr (VI). The total Cr concentration determined by the two methods were comparable, the methods were equally precise at 95% level. The treatment system was 98.8% efficient with regard to Cr (III) but the system has aggravated the concentration of Cr (VI).

The Effect of Asymmetry Information on The Investment Efficiency and Cost of Capital with Integrated Reporting as The Moderating Variable []

This study aims to determine the effect of information asymmetry on investment efficiency and cost of capital with integrated report-ing as a moderating variable. The research object is a manufacturing company listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The study population was 164 companies in the period 2016-2018. Determination of the sample using nonprobability sampling technique, where data collection is carried out in documentation. The number of samples selected was 76 companies. The data used is panel data and obtained 228 firm years with the use of three years of observation time. However, the data that qualify for processing are 182 firm years. The data analysis technique used is regression analysis and moderation regression analysis. The results showed that (1) information asymmetry has a negative effect on investment efficiency; (2) information asymmetry has a positive effect on the cost of capital; (3) integrated reporting moderates the effect of information asymmetry on investment efficien-cy; and (4) integrated reporting moderates the effect of information asymmetry on capital costs.

Greenhouse gases emission in Rwanda and their future impacts on economic sectors []

Global changes in temperature and precipitation and the regional distribution of those changes are the primary drivers affecting climate-related hazards such as floods, landslides and droughts that have struck Rwanda in recent years with devastating effects on the population. From the livelihoods of rural populations to food security in urban areas, agriculture, transportation, communication, energy, health, water, and institutional systems on which populations depend have failed in some cases. This is resulted from immediate consequence of post-industrial increased Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions. This study analyses GHG emission trends in Energy sector of Rwanda for guiding other economic sectors to plan and budget for adaptation and mitigation. The study helped to understand the relationship between energy sector and other economic sectors of Rwanda in terms of climate change and variability related impacts, which in turn will shape Decision makers in future Sector’s adaptation and planning. The result of the study provided details about mitigation assessment and mitigation scenarios in Energy sector (electric power generation, industries, buildings and transport). Mitigation assessments were based on a combination of three alternatives approaches namely: activity based approach, outcome based approach and combination of the two approaches. The total greenhouse gases emission reductions have been calculated by developing a business as usual sectoral baseline scenario and alternative scenario based on policy implementation assumptions. The integrated modelling tool of Long-range Energy Alternative Planning (LEAP) software was used to model baseline and mitigation scenario in energy sector. Relevant data for developing baseline and alternatives scenario were collected from different public and private institutions as well as through literature review from different scientific sources. The results shows that greenhouse gas emissions from energy sector will keep on rising exponentially, mainly due to emission from fossils fuel consumption.

Water Quality Assessment Of Peshawar City []

Peshawar city has a large number of population with many congested areas. Like all major cities of the country, Peshawar also has a lot of challenges in provision of potable water to the end users which directly affects human health and consequently a large number of populations is suffering from water born diseases. This research study is conducted to analyse drinking water quality of Peshawar city. Total of 11 important water quality parameters including physio-chemical and biological parameters were studied for 18 different locations in city. It was found that throughout the city all the samples were almost safe from physical contaminations. However most of the locations were having chemical and bacteriological contaminations posing serious health risks to the users.

Investigating Quality Of water used for Irrigation in Peshawar - Pakistan []

Abstract: Wastewater is used for irrigation purpose in most of the countries. Wastewater has both nutrients and organics. Nutrients are comprised of nitrates and phosphate which act as an effective fertilizer while the organics acts as contaminants lead to human health issues, also damage the plant’s production and soil productivity. A series of laboratory tests were carried out while analyzing the wastewater quality of Peshawar (1) to assess the quality of wastewater used for irrigation in Peshawar, (2) To find whether the quality of water use for irrigation in Peshawar comply with the World health organization standard, (3) To find out the impact of irrigation water on human health and environment. Parameters including E.coli, Total Coliform, Fecal Coliform, Nitrate, Nirite, and Phosphate were compared with World Health Organization (WHO) Quality Standards. The results show an alarming deviation from the standards. From the study it is concluded that wastewater used in Peshawar for irrigation purpose does not comply/fulfil WHO Quality Standards. Using this water for irrigation purpose will leads to serious human health problems, and damage the soil and environment negatively.

Household Resource Capabilities and Risk Perception in Dryland Areas: "Implications for Development Interventions" []

This study investigated household risk challenges in dryland areas. In order to support livelihoods in these areas, various government and non-governmental development agencies are involved in diverse interventions. The study objective was to determine household resource capabilities and risk perceptions that affect development interventions in dryland areas. The study was carried out in the semi-arid area of Buuri and Abothuguchi West divisions, also called the Northern Grazing Area(NGA), Meru Central district in Kenya. Quantitative and qualitative techniques were used to collect primary and secondary data from 68 households and development agencies working in the area. Data was analysed by statistical analysis using SPSS. Study results established that average age of household heads was 47 with a household size of 6(50% males, 50% females) and gender household head proportion of 81% male and 19 % female. 62% of household heads were educated up to primary level and in terms of places of origin, 79% came from the Imenti sub tribe while Tigania sub group was represented by 13% of the sampled respondents. The results further found that households in the area mainly possessed physical, financial and social capital assets. Physical assets were inform of land(80%) and livestock (poultry,78%; sheep and goats, 33%; and cattle, 15%). In terms of financial assets, the main sources were crop sales(60%), livestock(52%), and off farm activities(40%). Social capital was mainly in form of borrowings from relatives (50%); begging (46%); and dependence on relief food supplies (35%). Findings also show the main sources of household risks included drought (98%); human diseases (85%); and famine (81%). Others were technological risks (factors limiting crop and livestock production) (78%); financial(factors limiting financial entitlements e.g. lack of non-farm employment)(65%); insecurity (cattle rustling and tribal conflicts)(60%); and lack of enough land for farming, lack of domestic water and large family to feed(28%). The study recommends the reduction of dryland household risks to the enhance adoption of appropriate livelihood practices advocated by development agencies. In policy terms, the study calls for partnerships in the implementation of development programmes. In broad terms, three principles are recommended for ASAL development i.e. Active involvement of the local people and their practices; Strengthening of local resources; and establishment of linkages between endogenous and exogenous resources (i.e. coherence).

A Comparative Study of Financial Analysis of Jet Airways and IndiGO []

Aviation industry is one of the growing industries in India. However, in recent years many companies in the industry are struggling for the survival. The main objective of this research is to compare the financial data of the two Airlines of Aviation Industry on the base of Annual Reports of Jet Airways and IndiGo. The present study analyzes the profitability of the Air India which is Government owned company and Indigo Air lines which is private sector company.

The Rohingya Refugees: A Review of Security Threats for Bangladesh []

In 2017, The military crackdown of Myanmar forced more than 750,000 Rohingya people, a stateless Muslim ethnic minority in the Rakhine State of Myanmar, to flee into Bangladesh. Afterward, the number of Rohingya refugees living in Bangladesh increased to more than 1.1 million. Later, through bilateral discussions, Bangladesh formally tried two times for refugees' repatriation to Myanmar in 2018 and 2019, but they ignored to return without citizenship and safety in Myanmar. At present, these refugees are creating grave security concerns for Bangladesh. However, for this critical review, related literature was analyzed to explore the nature and extent of security threats creating by refugees for Bangladesh. The article finds these threats so critical- especially in political, social, economic, and environmental sectors. It also reveals that initiatives such as imposing strict rules and regulations and providing more aids in the refugee camps can tackle the threats temporarily, but the repatriation of refugees to Myanmar can give a stable/permanent solution to these threats.