Volume 8, Issue 9, September 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Blue Diplomacy of Bangladesh: Connectivity, Capabilities, and Challenges []

Bangladesh has become a pilot country of blue economy which is internationally accepted and recognised. As a pilot country of blue economy, Bangladesh has taken some programmes, policy and schemes for the development of her blue economy especially after the final maritime dispute settlement against India in 2014, positive verdict awarded by PCA ( Permanent Court of Arbitration ). Bangladesh is still lagged in its blue diplomacy advancement. Though Bangladesh has some international agreements and negotiations with some international maritime and other international organizations as well as academia like UN, FAO, IMO, UNEP, IORA, WMU, WB, ADB etc. But, still there is no mentionable improvements in the development of blue diplomacy of Bangladesh for the sake of a prosperous blue economy in Bangladesh. The research paper has a sincere effort to sketch the scenarios like Bangladesh’s blue diplomatic connectivity, capabilities and challenges. At the same time, the research paper also has a sanguine endeavour to address some insightful recommendations for the overall further and future development of blue economy of Bangladesh through blue diplomacy. Key Words: Blue Diplomacy, Connectivity, Capabilities, Challenges, Bangladesh

The Impact of Microfinance Institution on Poverty Reduction (Acase study Amhara Credit and Saving Institution in North Showa Zone) []

Abstract The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of MFIs (ACSI) towards reducing poverty in north showa zone, by taking four woreda and 390 samples of loan active client of ACSI. The researcher was used a data collection technique through structured questionnaire to collect the necessary data by first distributing and collecting later and the response rate of the questioners was approximately 80% (313) were properly filled by the respondent and collected. The researcher was analyzed the data obtained through questionnaire by using both descriptive such as graph, mean, standard deviation, tabulation, frequency distribution and chart and inferential statistics using paired sample t test through SPSS software version 20 and econometrics model which was a logit model using STATA software version 13. The study found that limitation on service of ACSI for its clients including higher interest rate on borrowing, low interest on saving deposit, too short loan period, conflict between clients of group loan user, poor habit of saving by the client. The logistic regression model results shows that R2 value of 89% and five variables out of ten variables which are included in the model as explanatory variables were found statistically significant in affecting the poverty status of the clients including change in log income after ACSI at 1% level, household size at 1% level, IMCEDN at 5% level, improvement in loan repayment at 10% and EDB at 1% level of significant. The study recommends that the institution (ACSI) should improve its services delivery mechanisms for its client by reducing of the interest on loan, increasing the loan period and others limitation. The study mainly recommends that all stakeholders in ACSI should focus on how to increase rural household income, which has large effect in affecting the poverty status of rural household. Finally the study recommends ACSI should continuously improve their outreach and accessible for all rural household to enables them improve their living standard and reduce its poverty status. Key Words: Poverty, Poverty Reduction, Micro finance, Amhara credit and saving institution

The impact of government expenditure on economic growth in Nepal []

This study seeks to examine the nature and impact of government expenditure on Nepal’s economic growth. Annual series data between 2000/2001-2017/2018 is used for the study. Real Gross Domestic Product, proxy for economic growth is adopted as the dependent variable whereas, government expenditure, remittance, import and export the independent variables. The study employed quantitative techniques and econometrics methods to analyze the data. The empirical result shows that the beta coefficient is positively significantly for import, it implies that higher the import higher would be RGDP. The P- value of Breusch-Godfrey serial Correlation LM Test, Heteroscedasticity test: Breusch-Pagan-Godfrey and normality test is greater than 5 percent which is desirable. So, this model is free from auto correlation and heteroscedasticity. The residual is normally distributed. Keywords: Government expenditure, economic growth, import, export, remittance


With the difference in working skills, it is feared that there will be a decrease in work performance, so the organization will really need employees with (OCB) who are willing to work outside their main duties or work voluntarily. The aim of this research is. analyze the influence of organizational culture, organizational commitment to (organizational citizenship behavior (OCB), and the performance of educators (tender) at Musamus Merauke University. As many as 115 educators (tender) were the population and sample in this study. Saturated sampling is used as a sampling method, while the data. The analytical instruments used in testing the hypothesis are the validity and reliability of the test, multiple linear regression analysis, the t-test, and the intervening analysis pathway. The results of the study, based on the t-test and the results of multiple linear regression analysis, showed that organizational culture and organizational commitment had a positive and significant impact and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) on performance. Based on the three linear regression analysis, the path analysis of the intervening variables can be tested and this shows that the variables of organizational culture and organizational commitment can be intervening variables or can mediate because the results of the analysis show that the coefficient of the direct influence of organizational culture and organizational commitment is known that indirect is greater. rather than the direct influence of organizational culture and commitment to performance.

TITLE: Social Business in Bangladesh-A study on Grameen Bank []

Abstract: Social business is cause driven business and it is a process that bridges an important gap between business and benevolence. The present study aimed to contrast Conventional business with Social Business as defined by Prof. Muhammad Yunus. In accordance to that aim, primarily background of the social business has been described. Then, the main arguments in regard to both subjects have emphasized. Subsequently, the main differences between Conventional business and social business have been identified. The study also depicted the first endeavors to create such business with in Grameen Group. This paper attempts to overview of the idea, discuss current practice of social business in Bangladesh; and compare social business model with other existing business models.


Abstract Propanil is a selective contact herbicide. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare the sublethal toxicity of propanil pesticide and assess their effects on behavioural,mortality,biochemical and haematological changes in Clarias gariepinus juveniles.The 24,48,72 and 96hLC50 of propanil were 0.49,0.25,0.24 and 0.21mg/l. The safe levels estimated varied from 0.21x 10-l to 0.29 x 10-5 mg/l in propanil. Behavioural changes, such as hyperactivity, gulping of air, skin discoloration, erratic swimming and mucus secretion were observed in fish exposed to both pesticides at 1,5,10 and 15 days. Therefore, the use of these pesticides in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems should be subject to strict control and monitoring to prevent potential ecotoxicological hazards to aquatic lives. Keywords: Comparative, Fish, Propanil, Oxidative Stress, Hematology.

The study of the coastline change between Ksser Sghir and Dalya Beach (Nord of Morocco): The tool used is: « Digital Shoreline Analysis System» []

Erosion and fattening are the most important factors affecting the movement of most coasts. This study aims to analyze the role of erosion and accretion in shoreline changes between the city of Ksser Sghir and Dalya Beach (northern Morocco); before and after the construction of the great port of Africa: Mediterranean ports. The shoreline change analysis was performed using the DSAS extension: DigiItal Shoreline Analysis System, after compiling data from Landsat imagery from 1984, 2002 and 2017. The study was carried out over two periods: the first period from 1984 to 2002 and the second between 2002 and 2017, in order to compare its results.

Trajectory tracking control of quadcopter by designing Third order SMC Controller []

This paper studies the modeling and control of quadcopter. It models the quadcopter nonlinear dynamics using Lagrange formalism and design controller for attitude (pitch & roll), heading & altitude tracking of the quadrotor. Mathematical modeling includes aerodynamic effects and gyroscopic moments. One Non-linear Control strategy, Third-Order Sliding Mode Control (TOSMC), based on a supertwisting algorithm has been proposed. The Controller has been implemented on the quadrotor physical model using Matlab/Simulink software. Finally, the performance of the proposed controller was demonstrated in the simulation study. The simulation results show excellent modeling and control performance.


The study examined self-efficacy and parental expectation as correlates of students’ academic performance in Federal Government Colleges in North-west zone of Nigeria. Three research hypotheses as well as research questions and objectives guided the study. The study adopted a correlational research design. A sample of 333 SSII students was drawn from the population of 2,057 students. Two set of instruments were adapted in the study: Adapted version of Jerusalem and Schwarzer (1995) General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) and Adapted version of Federal Ministry of Education Parental Expectation Scale (PES) which were both adjudged to possess construct and content validity by experts in guidance and counselling with a reliability ‘r’ indices of 0.74 and 0.73 respectively. Researcher designed tests in English language and Mathematics was considered to have content validity by teachers in both English language and mathematics with a reliability ‘r’ indices of 0.71 and 0.66 respectively. Ho1 and Ho2 were tested using Pearson Product Moment Correlation coefficient statistics while Ho3 was subjected to Multiple Regression analysis. The result of the multiple regressions analysis shows that parental expectation is a better predictor of academic performance than self-efficacy of students in Federal Government Colleges in North-west zone of Nigeria. Based on the findings, recommendations were made including that, self-efficacy should not be considered as variable that is related to students’ academic performance.


Distance learning is education and training resulting from the technological separation of learners and instructors that gives learners freedom from traveling, time and place in order to learn. Higher learning institutions from developing countries suffer from suitable low cost solution to offer a distance education especially when it is needed as temporary way out. The web based solution increases challenges in side of students due to network coverage issues from telecommunications providers and many students own handheld device with no internet capability. Major existing and applicable approach to deliver class based lectures is by using presentation slides. According to this study these slides can be re-formatted in SMS and enabling a distance education to take place. The Short Message Service (SMS) stated with GSM a 2G technology and has being adopted by its successor technologies like 4G and 5G; the SMS provides electronic text services between Mobile Station (MS). SMS bundles in country like Tanzania is less expensive when compared with Internet bundles. This study investigate chances of offering SMS based education and gives a blueprint of how SMS can be used to facilitate distance learning in developing countries.


Topic Effect of using Teaching Learning Materials (TLMs) in Mathematics at the Basic School level Abstract This study explored the effectiveness of how TLMs are used in Mathematics at the Basic School level. The purpose of the study was to look at the views of teachers through the administration of questionnaires, interviewing the teachers, observe the various schools in the use of TLMs in the mathematics classroom and ascertain the effect. The objective for this study was to determine the appropriate stage for a TLM to be introduced in the mathematics lesson for effective use. The design was the descriptive research design of which the random sampling, convenience sampling and purposive sampling techniques were used to collect the data. Major findings and results show that teachers can easily get TLMs for use in their lessons to produce the maximum level of understanding desired in their students. Also, it was shown that TLMs should be introduced at Preliminary and delivery stages of the teaching and learning process for the best results. To conclude, TLMs should be used at the right time to increase the level of understanding of pupils at the Basic School level.


Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) remains a disease of global public health concern. Many human infections in Middle East are zoonotic in origin, but some result from clusters of human-to-human transmission, especially within hospitals and health care facilities. Zoonotic disease has been reported from the Arabian Peninsula, and dromedary camels are the only confirmed source of zoonotic infection. Droplet transmission or direct contact with infected camels may be one way of transmission, the other possible way includes through food-borne transmission, consumption of unpasteurized camel milk/raw meat and the medicinal use of camel urine were common culture of the people. Globally,23 countries reported confirmed cases of camels MERS CoV/serologically and few of them characterized the virus. According to FAO, 2018 there are about 27 countries reporting human cases of MERS-CoV most of them caused with travel history from Middle East. Africa harbors more than 60% of the world population of the dromedary camels, in several African countries sero surveillance was done and in average more than 85% of the camels was found positive. In Africa, in spite of high sero positivity for MERS-CoV in camels, un like middle east there were no zoonotic report from Africa, the zoonotic significance of the diseases especially to high exposed groups of population were not well studied. Nowadays only few attempts to isolate the virus and perform molecular characterization of MERS-CoV in camel of Africa were seen. Hence, the objectives of this seminar are to review the prevalence of MERS-CoV in camels of Africa with particular emphasis on camels of East Africa and highlight the existing knowledge gaps in epidemiology, virology and potential zoonotic risk of MERS-CoV in the animal human interface. Keywords: Africa, Diagnosis, Dromedary camels, MERS-CoV, Public health, Zoonotic

Some Relations On Fuzzy δ-Open Set in Fuzzy Topological Space on Fuzzy Set []

The aim of introduce and study the notion of a fuzzy δ-open set (Ω-open set, α-Ω-open set, feebly –open set, α-open set, ƥ-open set, Sp-open set, a-open set) and the relationships between them and fuzzy δ-open set in fuzzy topological space on fuzzy set and some properties, remarks related to them .

Assessing the Practices of Illegal Land Transactions in Periphery Urban Lands of Sawla Town, Gofa Zone, Southern Ethiopia []

All urban and rural lands are constitutionally declared as a public property in Ethiopia. The Constitution and succeeding rural land laws strictly prohibits transfer of rural land rights by sale. Besides the statutory laws, the customary notion of Gofa people also discourages sale of land outside lineage lines. However, practically in the study areas illegal land transactions seems as a legally permitted business. Periphery urban lands become a target area of urban residents who failed to acquire a piece of residential urban land by lease. Individual unlimited holding of urban land by lease under the current lease proclamation, administration problem of periphery urban lands and conflicts during its expropriations, etc are the main problems of this study. The objective of this study is to explore the nature and practices of illegal land transactions, its pushing factors, key actors and beneficiaries of the transactions and the roles of courts in handling transaction cases in the study areas. This study is a non-doctrinal legal research and the data presented in this study obtained from both primary and secondary sources. To gather the primary data the writer used both quantitative and qualitative approaches, and the data collection tools employed were questionnaires, interview questions and personal observations. In addition, different secondary sources were also consulted. The results of this study indicate that uncontrolled soaring of lease prices, weak administration of periphery urban lands, minimum compensations during expropriation, internal displacements in different parties of the country because of ethnic based conflicts, construction of administrative offices for lately formed Gofa Zone, etc are identified as the main pushing factors for illegal land transactions in the study area. Illegal brokers and local officials at Kebele level are the main role players in illegal land transactions. As a result, the writer recommends the amendment of current lease proclamation that set limitations on lease holdings an individual can hold to minimize monopolization of urban lands by a few rich individuals, fair compensations during expropriations based on newly amended expropriation proclamation, an independent law that governs periphery urban land should be enacted and its administration power should be given to the municipality. Key terms: Periphery urban land, illegal land transaction, Kebele, Sawla, Ethiopia.

The impact of Internet of Things in healthcare []

Abstract Introduction: This paper is an overview of some of the concept of Internet of things (IoT) on the healthcare field. IoT is a fast growing, a user-friendly technology which allows everything to connected. One of the most attractive applications fields for IoT is the Healthcare, giving to us the possibility of many medical applications such as remote health monitoring, fitness programs, chronic diseases, and elderly care. This paper categorizes the discussion in two aspects, services and applications. The Internet of Things changed the healthcare industry, increasing efficiency, lowering costs and putting the focus back on better patient care. Objective The Effectiveness of IoT on Health Care Method The study began by searching the extant literature by a specific keywords and search items, in order to obtain as many relevant papers as possible. The collected papers are used to identify and develop a paper based on the research questions. Conclusion Internet of Things has been widely used to link existing medical resources and provide reliable, effective and intelligent health care for the elderly and patients with severe illness. Keywords: Medical Services, Medical, Internet of Things, Healthcare