Volume 7, Issue 5, May 2019 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Quality of life in patients with irritable bowel syndrome []

rritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is defined very broadly by the association of abdominal pain with transit disorders for periods of time more or less long, recurrent. Its high prevalence and its undeniable impact on the quality of life of patients make it a real public health problem. Although there remains a diagnosis of elimination, IBS is one of these benign pathologies, which induce significant health expenses and an indisputable impact on the quality of life of patients. The aim of this work is to evaluate the overall impact of the disease on the quality of life of patients, and thus to appreciate their experience in relation to their family, their social and work environment, with a view to awareness for better care. It is a prospective cross-sectional observational study with a descriptive aim in a sample of the Moroccan population (the southern region). 892 people responded to a questionnaire based on the Rome IV criteria, then, 296 patients among them, diagnosed as suffering from IBS, responded to a second questionnaire for an assessment of their quality of life. We used the medical outcome study short form (according to the MOS SF-36 Heath Survey) which evaluates 8 dimensions of health. The more sensitive indirect cost analysis was based mainly on the assessment of the number of days off work and on the alteration of presenteeism caused by the disease among persons with a paid professional activity. The average age of our participants was 41.6 years with extremes ranging from 18 to 86 years, a clear predominance of women was noted with a sex ratio = 0.5. The majority had an average economic level (62%). The symptoms were chronic and evolved on average for 103.2 ± 59.2 months. Abdominal pain was noted in all patients. Constipation was seen in 68% of our patients, while 52% of them reported episodes of diarrhea. Most patients had an incorrect lifestyle determining a statistical link (p = 0.0001) between diet and functional colopathy. Stress was present in 43% of patients with a significant correlation (p = 0.059). When the quality of life is impaired, the scores for all domains of the SF-36 are smaller than those observed in the general population of reference (French population), with a significant statistical link (p = 0.0001). Indirect costs are represented first by work stoppages induced by more frequent surgical interventions in patients with IBS, the impact of which is difficult to evaluate, unlike the judgments related to the pathology, which are easier to analyze. Although TFI is not life-threatening, it is a recurrent chronic disease that is often associated with impaired quality of life. The chronicity of the disorders generates economic and socioprofessional repercussions with absenteeism and a decline in work performance. the medical profession must improve the care of people with IBS by giving more information about the disease, by answering patients' questions, by showing empathy and support, by listening better, and having a more positive speech

Role Of Fishermen’s Wives In Family Decision Making. (Case study in Karangsong Village, Indramayu Sub-District, Indramayu Regency, West Java) []

This research aims to analyze contribution to the total income of fishermen household, decision-making pattern and the most influential factors in decision-making for fishermen’s wives who are only housewives (unemployed) and making extra money in the family. This research is done in Karangsong Village, Indramayu District, West Java. This research took place in the research location in Januray 2019 to February 2019. The research was conducted by study case method in Karangsong Village by using primary data and secondary data. Sample technique was conducted by using purposive sampling with 30 working fishermen’s wives and 30 unemployed fishermen’s wives in total with data is analyzed through quantitative descriptive using logistic regression analysis. The average total income of the families of fishermen’s wives who work throughout the year earn Rp 3.293.299 per month and the average total income of the families of the fishermen’s wives who are unemployed earn Rp 2.703.631, the contribution of a working fisherman’s wife is greater in improving the families’ economy than the unemployed fisherman’s wife. As for the working fishermen’s wives, decision making process is dominated by the wives by the percentage of decision making by the wife is 66,7% and by the husband is 33,3%, meanwhile for the unemployed fishermen’s wives, decision making process is proportional between the wife and the husband with percentage of each is 50%. The existing factors in decision making are the wives education background, the husbands education background, wives job status, family status and total family income. The result is factor that has a great chance in decision making is the wives job status factor, while other factors do not affect significantly except the total family income factor.

Media Ethics of PEMRA: Sensationalism in the Talk Show of Dr. Shahid Masood []

Word sensationalism, especially in the media used to create hype in a story. As the media have the responsibility of showing facts, figures, and the truth about the event. Since ever the media became free, sensationalism is the part of it. The content of the media is embedded with sensationalism in almost every country. Past researches have recommended that the media create sensationalism for the rating of their content or channel. The direction of the past studies is not very clear towards the unprofessionalism of the anchor persons Dr. Shahid Masood of Pakistani media. The purpose of this research is to finds out the ethics and regulations regarding sensationalism of Pakistani broadcasting talk show content. For the purpose of an investigation, the researcher will take talk show of Dr. Shahid Masood named as Live With Dr. Shahid Masood specifically Zainab’s murder case as a sample. The media framing theory is more appropriate to understand this issue. The expected result indicates that the reporters, anchors and decision makers of the media content should be educated and professional. They should know the media, ethics, and regulations so that they can produce useful and ethical content.


There is an overwhelming need to accord rural development a priority on the ‘must-do-list’ of government at different levels if the rural communities must contribute meaningfully to the social, cultural and economic development of Nigeria. A bulk of the Nigerian wealth is derived form agriculture, and oil which lie in abundant quantity in rural communities. Current estimates put the rural population at over 80% of the entire population of almost 140 million people. So far, not much in terms of infrastructural development has been done to bring this bulk of concentration of both human and material resources to contribute optimally to national economy. The neglect has resulted to the mass exodus of rural dwellers and in turn has made the rural area qualitatively and quantitatively depopulated, and progressively less attractive for socio-economic investment. There is the need to strengthen and encourage cooperative and community based initiatives in the formulation and management of rural development programmes. Also, cooperative philosophy should be inculcated in rural dwellers as its grassroot appeals make it an ideal means of promoting sustainable rural development. Keywords Rural development, development, programmes, grass root


This paper critically examines cooperative societies in the Nigerian higher institutions of learning with a view to recommending and proffering strategies geared towards the repositioning of such societies for sustainable national development. The researchers relied on information obtained through interview, observation, and review of related literature in textbooks, journals, periodicals, newspapers, magazines, Annual Reports and Accounts of some cooperative societies in Edo State, Nigeria comprising of universities, polytechnics, colleges of educations, teaching hospitals, etc,. selected with an even spread across the state using a combination of the purposive and random sampling techniques. Conclusion and recommendations were made based on such information obtained, which will be useful for the repositioning and proper management of existing cooperative societies, and the resuscitation of under-functional ones in higher institutions of learning in Nigeria for optimal performance and responsiveness to members targeted at improved welfare and wellbeing of staff and cooperators for sustainable national development within Nigeria in particular and the West Africa sub-region. Keywords Nigerian higher institutions repositioning, cooperative societies

Assessment Of Admission Pattern And Outcome Among Patient Admitted To Medical Intensive Care Unit In Adama Hospital Medical College, Adama,Ethiopia []

Abstract Back ground: -worldwide, intensive care units have significantly improved the quality of care and outcomes of critically ill Patients, mostly in developed countries. Non-communicable diseases are the leading cause of medical intensive care unit death globally. Objective: Assessment of Admission pattern and outcome among patients admitted to Adama Hospital Medical College, intensive care unit from september1, 2016 to September, 2017. Methodology: Retrospective review of 316 patient case notes who were admitted to Adama Hospital Medical College Intensive Care Unit from september1, 2016-september1,2017, pretested and structured checklist was utilized for data collection and data was entered by SPSS20, for variable having association binary and multivariate logistic regression were used and the study period was on 2018. Results: From a total of 316 admitted patients to Medical intensive care unit, 197 patients are improved and discharged, 98 deaths with 31% mortality rate, 12 referral and 9 patients left against medical advice. Most commonly deceased age group were 25-34 which account 24(24.5%) followed by 35-44 and >65 age groups both account 17(17.3%). Most commonly admitted cases that lead to Medical intensive care unit death were severe head injury 17(17.3%), Congestive heart failure 16 (16.3%) and post-operative 12(12.2%) and there was statistically significant association between Diabetes keto acidosis, Congestive heart failure, Acute myocardial infection and Severe community acquired pneumonia and improvement. Conclusion: Cardiovascular disease was the leading cause of admission and most common diagnosis that leads to intensive care unit death together with severe head injury. Diabetes keto acidosis, Congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction and severe community pneumonia a patient has statistically lower hospital mortality on multivariate logistic regression. Key wards: Medical intensive care unit, outcome, mortality and intensive care unit

Multinational Companies And Largescale Scale Acquistion Of Land In Cameroon: Case Of The Iko Company In Nanga- Eboko 2006-2016. []

This study titled “Multinational Companies and Large Scale Acquisition of Land in Cameroon: Case of the Iko company in Nanga Eboko from 2006 to 2016” is aimed at portraying the impacts of land acquisition to the rural communities. Large scale acquisitions of land by multinational companies have increased in recent times tailored towards second generation agriculture in Cameroon. The concept that there is vacant and unproductive land in Cameroon opened land for foreign direct investment. The land laws in Cameroon classify land in to three domains; public, private and national domains. Land under the national domain is mostly occupied by the rural communities which is opened to foreign direct investments as the state is the custodian of land in this domain. The Sino-Cameroon Iko agriculture agreement was signed between the government of Cameroon and china for the Chinese Iko company to boast agriculture in Cameroon. In the agreement, the governments grant land concessions of 2000hectares in the locality of Nanga-Eboko for a period of 99years. From our findings, we came out with the conclusion that large scale acquisition of land by multinational companies affects the rural communities taking the case of the Sino- Cameroon Iko agriculture in Nanga Eboko. It deprives the community from access to arable land which is a source of their livelihood. To overcome the negative effects, recommendations were made to ensure a peaceful coexistence with the rural communities.

Smartphone Adoption Amongst University Students: Evidence From the University of Bamenda, Cameroon. []

Drawing from the focus groups and semi-structured interviews conducted on students of the University of Bamenda, North West region of Cameroon, this study indicates that mobile phone adoption among University Bamenda students is pre-dominantly influenced by factors such as the need for connectedness, cost and perceived usefulness of mobile phone handsets. Moreover, this study reveals that acquisition of mobile phones among students is an ongoing process, as it in-volves a young person starting to acquire and use a mobile phone (initial adoption), and then developing a strong link with the device through continuous consumption.

Physico-chemical and Microbiological Parameters Analysis of Harvested Rainwater Using Earthen, Plastic and Concrete Pot for Drinking Purpose collected from Khulna City Corporation Area, Bangladesh []

Rainwater is natural fresh water.In Bangladesh because of salinity, flood and many more different disasters people rely on rainwater. The main causes of water scarcity in South-East region and North-western region of Bangladesh are salinity and drought. The paper contains analysis of physical, chemical and microbiological parameters of harvested rainwater. The study is done at Nirala (ward no 24 of KCC), Khulna (southeast region of Bangladesh). For the harvesting of storage rainwater three types of pots (earthen, plastic and concrete pot) had been used. Rainwater was collected through direct catch and runoff from roof (galvanized iron sheet roof and concrete roof). All the samples were collected in monsoon period (July to September). Physical and chemical parameters ( Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3-, Cl-, SO42-, NO3- , PO43- ) decreased but microbial parameters (E. Coli, faecal coliform, total coliform) increased in stored rainwater day by day. Coliform bacteria were found in water which was collected from concrete roof and Galvanized iron sheet roof due to the presence of feces of birds and animals in roofs. By comparing with WHO and BSTI standards it is found that harvested rainwater can be used for drinking purposes as well as for household works in dry season in KCC. But in Bangladesh it is not a well known approach. So initiatives should be taken for the better uses and management of rainwater.


The traditional political structure of Ile-Oluji of Ondo State in South-western Nigeria presents a unique example of gender collaboration in State administration. This is largely exemplified by the existence of the offices of Jegun (the traditional male paramount ruler of the town) and the Lobun (traditional female leader, or ‘King’ of the town), two collaborative political institutions in Ile-Oluji. Despite this sterling observation, there is a dearth of research on the evolution and activities of the Jegun and Lobun of Ile-Oluji. This raises some pertinent questions: when did the two institutions emerge in Ile-Oluji? How are the two state officials appointed? What are their respective duties? How have they been relating together in peace without any pronounced rancour? Adopting the historical research method of archival search, participant observation, focused group discussion, structured oral interviews as well as content analysis of relevant secondary sources; this study interrogates these problematic.

Dosimetric study at the adult subjects in standard radiography of the neurological system at the Regional Hospital of Ngaoundéré, Cameroon []

Dosimetry is a match between image quality and the low dose process in order to ensure the radiation protection of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of patients according to radiographic investigations at the radiology service of the Regional Hospital of Ngaoundere.

Treatment of brewery waste water using sand and carbon fixed Bed []

The beer brewing process often generates large amounts of wastewater effluent and solid wastes that must be disposed off or treated in the least costly and safest way so as to meet the strict discharge regulations that are set by government entities to protect the environment. Reclamation of process wastewater is a key to water resources conservation and sustainability. Since brewery is inherently associated with the use of considerable amount of water, this study was undertaken to investigate the appropriate treatment of wastewater generated by Heineken (Wallia) brewery for the possibility of reuse. For this work, samples of wastewater were collected and characterized. Series of experiments were conducted to determine the property of the sand filter, the usable portion and effective size of mojo sand, arrangement of the filter media and finally treatment of the wastewater was carried out using fixed bed filtration column consisting of granular activated carbon and sand. The physico-chemical parameter results obtained before application of the treatment for the wastewater showed that 55.11NTU, 89.33 mg/l, 4.4 mg/l, 1.06 mg/l, 4.3mg/l and 1.92mS/cm for Turbidity, COD, TN, Ammonia, TP and EC respectively. After convectional and direct fixed bed treatment was conducted and it is found that conventional treatment possess higher efficiency in removal of both COD and Turbidity. The conventional filtration achieves a final removal rate of 96.71 % of COD and 98 % of turbidity at discharge pH.


The Locust bean decorticator with separator was developed and tested in the National Center for Agricultural Mechanization (NCAM). Dried harvested locust bean fruit bunches were detached from its bunch manually. The fruits were manually fed into the machine through the feeding tray. The operational time were taken using digital stop watch and recorded accordingly. It was tested using 3kg of the dried pods in three replicates. The machine preliminary test gave an average separation efficiency of 48.6 percent (%) and decortication efficiency of 82.8 percent (%) on dry base.


This article examines the performance of Islamic and conventional banks in the Gambia from 2009 to 2012. Many see the Islamic banking system as a modern phenomenon that has attracted a lot of attention and discussion over the last few decades. Islamic banking system is a banking system that complies with Islamic Sharia law. Islam does not allow payment or acceptance of interest charges (riba) in banking activities. Whiles Conventional banks deal with interest, Islamic banks method of operation is strictly based on Sharia principles (profit, loss and risk sharing). The objective of this study is to analyze the impact of the 2009 financial crisis on the performance of the only Islamic bank in the Gambia compared to the performance of some conventional banks in the country. Financial ratios are used to measure the profitability, liquidity, and leverage of the banks. The empirical results of the analysis showed that the only Islamic bank in The Gambia was better than its conventional counterparts in terms of liquidity and leverage for the period under review. In addition, the conventional banks selected in the study were relatively more profitable than their Islamic counterpart bank between 2009 and 2012. Keywords: Sharia, Islamic bank, Conventional banks, Riba, Financial crisis


Family planning is a popular means of birth control method worldwide. It is the ability of individuals and couples to attain their desired number and spacing of their children through contraceptive use. It is one of the most cost effective public health interventions and pivotal to reducing the country’s rate of child birth. The non-utilization of family planning services declines the means of achieving a stable demographic dividend, with consequences of poverty and reducing economic growth in the society. The main objective of this study was to determine the factors affecting the utilization of family planning services by married women at paikon kore market, Gwagwalada, Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja. A cross sectional survey design was employed in this study, a total number of 214 respondents participated in this study. Multi stage sampling technique was used to select forty three sheds at paikon kore market, gwagwalada, Abuja, and simple random sampling techniques was then employed to select five participants per shed, among the married women under each shed. A structured and validated instrument with reliability of 0.8 was used for data collection and was administered to the participants at the market using direct contact approach. Analysis of the data was done using descriptive statistics and pearsons’ correlation which was fixed at 0.05 significant level. The results indicate that the respondent who stated that cultural norms disapproval was 48 (22.4%), Family planning was not affordable was 36 (16.8%), spousal disapproval was 48 (22.4%), those who indicate that family planning promotes promiscuity was 76 (35.5%). There was a significant association between the utilization of family planning and the knowledge of family planning services by the respondents (df=214, R= -0.189, p= 0.005). There was a significant association between the utilization of family planning services and the motivation of the respondents (df= 214, R= -0.185, p= 0.007). There was no significant association between the utilization of family planning services and the self-efficacy of the respondents. The socio-demographic characteristics (number of children, level of education and monthly income) of the respondents, there was no significant association between the monthly income and the utilization of family planning services by the respondents. There was a significant association between the level of education and utilization of family planning services by the respondent (df= 214, R= -0.153 p= 0.002). There was no significant association between the market women’s monthly income and utilization of family planning services. In conclusion, participants of this study demonstrated high Knowledge on family planning services, the level of motivation of the married women to use family planning services was low and the level of self-efficacy of the women to utilize family planning services was low. Furthermore, educational level had a significant relationship with utilization of family planning services. Participants of this study demonstrated that factors affecting the utilization of family planning uptake included believe of promoting promiscuity, cultural norm disapproval, spousal disapproval. It was therefore, recommended that programs could be organized to involve men in the sensitization of community members on family planning utilization. Keywords: Birth control, Contraceptive use, Child birth Spacing,Cultural norms, Demographic dividend, Reproductive age and Spousal dissaproval. Word Count: 480


That election is at the heart of democracy and democratization process has become widely acknowledged. Election performs indispensable roles and thereby remains central to the whole essence of democratic process. However, experience has shown that democratic process in Africa and the developing states in general collapse on the altar of bungled elections and electoral processes. Such failure can be easily traced to the doorstep of the institution saddled with the responsibility of managing the electoral process. This is because of the direct linkages that exist between electoral process and the managing institution. Indeed, it has been widely asserted that more than anything, the quality and credibility of elections depend greatly on the extent of competency and viability of the electoral institutions. No state shows better the strong relationship between elections and managing agency than Nigeria. Looking back at the Nation’s history it is glaring that past efforts at democratization collapsed due to the failure of electoral commissions to conduct credible elections. It is however, saddening that election managers in Nigeria have failed to learn from history. The problem faced by past commissions, continues to beset present electoral institution, while past shortcomings continues to manifest. The paper, however, in its attempt to explicate the crisis of governance and comatose democracy in Nigeria, focuses on the nation’s inability to conduct credible, acceptable, and fair elections. It tries to establish a nexus between election, good governance and democracy by arguing that democracy is inconceivable outside the context of rule-based, fair and credible election as election supplies the essential platform and vitality for the building of democracy. The paper therefore posited that until Nigeria is able to put in place a robust, transparent and credible electoral process, the country will continue to experience governance devoid of all the fundamental trappings of a sustainable democracy.


This paper presents an understanding of vulnerability in Tanzania. The study objective is to understand and identify all vulnerabilities in Tanzania. As well, this paper presents an overview based on available scientific literature from various scholars to examine the meaning of the word Vulnerability. Methodology opted have based on observation, literature review, and sampling. Finally, it has observed that the most vulnerabilities in Tanzania are from floods, earthquake, drought, storms, diseases like malaria, typhoid and cholera and winds. Within these vulnerabilities, there are a natural hazard and artificial hazard vulnerabilities. Some of these can be avoidable while other is unavoidable. The Country at large has a serious threat from various kinds of hazards

Antidotal Assessment of Hydroethanol Root Extract of Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) against Chemically-induced Hepatic Neoplasm in Wistar Rats. []

Curcuma longa L. (Family: Zingiberaceae; turmeric) is cultivated extensively worldwide, popularly used as spice and folk medicine but is native to Southeast Asia. Following urbanization, chemical exposure is incorporated into our daily living, threatening our health and ecosystem. Thus, the quest for ameliorative substances becomes imperative and continues. Study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective/ antitumour potentials of hydroethanol root extract of Curcuma longa (CLE) against chemically-induced hepatic neoplasm in rats. Acute toxicity was determined in Wistar rats using Up-and-Down Procedure. Rats (24) were randomly divided into 4 groups (6 each) and treated thus: Group-I received food and water ad libitum. Group-II received 200 mg/kg b.wt diethylnitrosamine (DENA, i.p.), followed by 3 mL/kg b.wt CCl4 (i.p.) and 0.05% phenobarbital (PB) (in drinking water). Group-III received 100 mg/kg b.wt silymarin (p.o) daily. Groups-IV received 1000 mg/kg b.wt of extract one week prior to the induction of hepatotoxicity and subsequently for 90 days. After 90 days, rats were euthanized under diethyl ether anaesthesia and sacrificed. Blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture for biochemical analysis. From each euthanized animals, the liver was eviscerated, blotted and fixed in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological examination. Extract was safe on acute exposure with LD50 >5000 mg/kg b.wt. Results showed significant (P<0.001) reduction in DENA/CCl4/PB-induced biochemical alteration compared to control. Rats pre-treated with CLE prevented the formation of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and preserved hepatic microarchitecture similar to that of silymarin. Findings suggests the antitumour/antidotal properties of turmeric root extract against chemically-induced liver damage/tumourigenesis in rat model.

Inventing a good electrolyte system for a secondary cell []

The development of a magnesium ion battery system is primarily based on the interactions of mixed organic electrolytes solutions formed by the combination of dimethylformamide(DMF) and Propylene carbonate (PC) solvents with Magnesium perchlorate Mg(ClO 4 ) 2 salt.The binary mixtures were prepared for their physico-chemical properties in other to establish their suitability for magnesium ion battery. These properties include density, viscosity, conductivity and dielectric constant. The cells of Mg2+ ion containing electrolytic solutions of the binary mixtures were also studied. Molar conductivity measurements investigated at 25 0 C demonstrated that the mixed systems exhibit a wide electrochemical stability and improved property than the pure solvents. The properties of the mixed electrolytes were affected by ion-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions. The results have been interpreted on the basis of the intermolecular interactions among the component molecules of the systems. The temperatures studied 25,40,50,60 and 70 o C show that the battery system remains stable even at high temperatures. The mixing ratio of the organic solvents for optimal battery performance is established to be between 50-70% PC for the battery system because it is at this range that the system gave the highest conductivity and electromotive force (EMF).

Road Accidents in Tanzania: Causes, Impact and Solution. []

A road accident is defined as an accident which took place on the road between two or more objects, one of which must be any kind of a moving vehicle. This article examines the road accident, causes, and solution in Tanzania. The methodology opted is table research of which secondary data are extensively adopted. The key causes of road accident are; Overloading, over speeding, poor infrastructure, and drunk driving. The revealed impact is loss of properties, fatality, unemployment and others and finally some solutions were pinned out as improvements of road education, reduction of speed, avoid drunk driving, avoid the use of phones when driving and strict laws to anyone who will violet the road signs.

‘Effectiveness of Content Branding Strategies on Social Media: A Study of Khaadi’ []

Abstract Social media is a successful dynamic and practical platform for branding and for commercial outreach, absolutely for brands related to fashion and retail industry. There are several brands to post pictures of their latest products on social media sites with regular updates in order to promote their brand and get the desired fame. In Pakistan, the fashion industry relies majorly on social media to create awareness and establish strong link with their clients. The retail sectors such as clothing brands in Pakistan are majorly dependent on social media for branding purposes in order to reach maximum audience in a short span of time. The objective of this study is to assess the possible influence of social media channels to Khaadi brand in Pakistan and consequently build an evaluation criterion regarding the usage of social media channels to the branding strategies of fashion brands. Khaadi belongs to the business field engaged in retailing and fashion clothing. This research implements qualitative research design with content research methods followed by case study analysis approach. Therefore, this is a desktop research that makes use of existed content to be used as a source of researching material. This study analyzed the branding strategies used by Khaadi in two social media sites such as Instagram and Facebook. The study reveals that Instagram tends to have few numbers of followers, yet the channel has the best user integration as compared with Facebook. However, Facebook has a great number of followers who like Khaadi’s Facebook page. The Instagram posts of Khaadi receive more interactions from followers by likes and comments on the brand’s respective posts in comparison to Facebook. The results indicate that Khaadi needs to inspire more interactions via user-generated content to the selection of images posted on social media sites in order to have effective branding of the company’s retail products. Keywords: branding, retail, social media, Facebook, Instagram, Khaadi

Automotive Industrial Robot - Selection Criteria for Body Assembly Application []

In automotive manufacturing processes especially at Body Shop, industrial robots are widely used to increase productivity while maintaining desired quality standard and design specification in production line. The application are mainly on welding (spot / arc welding), sealant / adhesive application and material handling. Therefore, the selection of the robot types and brand are crucial in order to get best fit to the application at minimum cost.

use of correlation, tolerance and variance inflation factor for multicollinearity []

Multicollinearity is a statistical phenomenon in which there exists a strong or perfect relationship between the predictor variables. The presence of multicollinearity can cause serious problems with the estimation of β and the interpretation. Most of the works on regression model did not check if there was presence of multicollinearity on the predictors and that led to poor estimation of the regression coefficient. This study was carried out to model a dependent and independent variables with a regression equation and compute variance of the estimated coefficients. Also to evaluate tolerance and variance inflation factor for each kth independent variable in the regression model. The data for this study was obtained primarily from students of Federal School of Statistics Enugu. The method of analysis adopted was multiple regression analysis. Focus was on correlation, tolerance and variance inflation factor to detect presence of multicollinearity among the independent variables. The multiple regression analysis was carried out on BMI, weight and height of the students. There was a moderate correlation between weight and height. Using tolerance and variance inflation factor, it revealed that there was no presence of multicollinearity among the weight and height. The absent of multicollinearity make the estimate of the regression coefficients more accurate of their parameters.


Organisations are shifting their attention towards flexibility, savings and efficiency in order to win or to survive in the market. The emergence of open source ERP for financial institutions can be viewed as one of the most important and constructive developments that has gained momentum in recent years. Consequently, it has become crucial for many organisations in their quest to improve and enhance their competitiveness through its adoption and use. The main objective of the study was to establish the mediation effect of system success features in the relationship between open source ERP adoption-use and organisational performance of Deposit-Taking SACCOs in Kenya. Target population was 168 Deposit-taking SACCOs with sample size of 378 respondents. Questionnaire was used to collect quantitative data. PLS-SEM using smartPLS 3.2.8 was used to analyse the data. The study concludes that adoption-use of open source ERP will have significant effect on organisational performance; learning and growth, internal process, customers and financial indicators. To maintain organisational performance and sustain long term viability of the open source ERP, the service quality has to be effective has it has the largest effective size among other mediating system success features (system and information) qualities combined. The service quality components include the support staff competences, reliability and speed of attending to complaints concerning the system.


The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) represent the greatest promise in the world: a global agreement to reduce poverty and human deprivation to unprecedented levels through multilateral cooperation. This paper appraises the implementation of the (MDGs) in the Gambia. The work highlights performance, identifies the key challenges encountered and policy interventions that were used to mitigate some of the problems. The (MDGs) are eight international development goals to be achieved by 2015 that address poverty, hunger, maternal and child mortality, infectious diseases, education, food gender inequality, damage to the environment and global partnership. Most of the world's activities have focused on maternal and child health and infectious diseases, while environmental sustainability and the development of a global partnership have received less attention. At the end of 2015, the Gambia was close to meeting goal 2, 3 and 4 however, the other goals remain a challenge to the country. Keywords: MDGs, Poverty, Performance, Challenges, and Implementation

The Effect of Occupational Burnout on Employees' Performance at Kufa Electricity Distribution Department []

Occupational /Job Burnout is considered nowadays one of the most prevalent mental diseases among workers who are keen to perform their work with dedication and determination. They are even keener when their work requires direct contact with people in the society. The study aims to examine burnout and workers' performance in the Kufa Electricity Distribution Department and their relationship to the personal characteristics of workers. It is a descriptive-analytical study of a sample of all workers at the Electricity Distribution Department (35), excluding the service workers. Modified Maslach Burnout Inventory and the workers' performance. The results reveal that there is a direct relationship between the performance of employees and the occupational burnout in the near future, because more than (70%) of workers are close to retirement age and young workers are likely to come who may not have sufficient experience in the face of job burnout. Therefore, the study recommends educating employees about the risks of occupational burnout and its impact on them in their daily lives as well. Providing the available resources by the concerned authorities is also recommended to reduce the discontent of citizens on their performance in terms of providing electricity. Keywords: Occupational/job burnout, employees' performance, Electricity Distribution Department, Kufa city

Perceptions of Clients with Regards to National Health Insurance Services in a Selected Public Hospital in Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania []

ABSTRACT Background: The National Health Insurance of Tanzania is commonly known as the National Health Insurance Fund. The scheme operates under the supervision of the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare together with an independent board of the NHIF. It is a mandatory form of healthcare financing primarily for public servants and other categories of employees in the formal sector. Purpose: To explore the perceptions of clients with regards to NHI services in a selected public hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methodology: A descriptive and cross sectional research design was used and a self-administered structured questionnaire was administered for data collection. Data were analyzed using quantitative data analysis methods. Predictive Analytics Software was used to organize the data. Results: The study considered a sample size of 122 clients in the outpatient department to be adequate representation. The results shown that majority of participants acknowledged the benefits of being a member of NHI, with 93.5% agreeing that joining the scheme benefited them and their beneficiaries, 93.4% agreeing that it gave them reassurance that their family would receive care, 89.3% agreeing that it provided easy access to health care, 83.6% agreeing that it would save money from paying hospital bills and 82.8% agreeing that belonging to NHI was better than having to make out-of-pocket payments. Conclusion: The NHI is perceived as one of the beneficial medical aids which provide health cover for the majority citizens who are working in the formal sectors together with their beneficiaries. Keywords: Community Health Insurance, Health Insurance, and universal health coverage.

Contribution of coelioscopic surgery in the healthcare management of female infertility in Cameroon []

694 patients with either secondary or primary infertility were subjected to laparoscopy during the period of January 2006 to December 2016 at the general hospitals of Yaoundé and Douala as well as the gynecology/obstetric and pediatric hospitals of Yaoundé still and Douala. The technics used were mainly laparoscopic adhesiolysis in 35.9%, followed by laparoscopic fibroplastia in 17.4% case. The frequency of laparoscopic surgery in the units was 63% and the average years of infertility within the sample was 6.84 years. Regular patient follow up after surgery permitted to 83% of the sample to become pregnant. The study was mainly a cross-sectional descriptive study with a retrospective data collection period of 10 years. Hence, the study suggest that, laparoscopic surgery occupies a place of choice for diagnosis and therapy of female infertility in our society. Key words: laparoscopy, infertility, care management

Public-private partnership as a tool to increase efficiency and sustainable development in the road transport sector in the Russian Federation []

The article focuses on the need for effective public-private partnership in the road transport sector for sustainable development in Russian Federation. Measures are proposed for pragmatic approach to implementing public-private partnerships.

The Self-Interested Nature of American Foreign Policy as Revealed in the Trump Presidency. []

In the field of international relations, the concept of national interest has been used to describe the foreign policy goals of any nation state, for without it we cannot talk about the existence of well organized or clear foreign policy agenda which is determined and motivated by a set of interests. In the case of the United States, the concept was prominent during the period following World War Two, when the American foreign policy took new directions different from that adopted by the two wars period. Hence, any single move was hailed under the slogan of the protection of America’s national interests and security at home or abroad. Tens of America’s involvements in external regions and countries have been justified by the concept of national interests. So, one should not neglect the fact that these foreign policy traditions were implemented in the American soil and culture starting from the first day of its establishment. The realist school was an important school that has far reaching effect on structuring American foreign relations as it considered the pursuit of national interests as its core principle besides its emphasis on the role of nation state as a key actor in field of international relations. The presidency of Donald Trump represents a good occasion to affirm the self interested nature of American foreign policy. Starting by the slogan raised by that American president when he said “America first” by which he affirmed the realist spirit of American foreign policy, since he promised a foreign policy that puts America first and the priority of its interests over other nations interests.

Development Concept of Tourism Kampung Based on Ecotourism []

Tourism is a sector that can increase regional income. Tourism provides a new experience for tourists to travel by enjoying attractions. Indonesia has a lot of tourism potential. Because it has a variety of beautiful cultures and environments. Surabaya is one of the cities that has kampung tourism by utilizing the environment and culture of the local community. Mangrove Gunung Anyar Kampung Tourism is a kampung that has mangrove forests and local culinary as tourism potential. However, the condition of the kampung did not develop well due to a lack of knowledge of the community in managing tourism activities. So that a development concept is needed as an effort to improve the quality of the kampung by empowering local communities. The ecotourism concept is one of the concepts that support environmental conservation and able to improve the economy of local communities by involving the community in managing tourism activities. The purpose of this study was to formulate the concept of developing ecotourism-based kampung. Qualitative methods are used to complete and discuss the kampung through data collection techniques of observation, interviews, and documentation. This research resulted and development concept in kampung tourism based on ecotourism with a focus on utilizing the local potential and empowering the community.

Evaluation of the Level of Reference Diagnoses in the dosimetric study of the Abdomen Without Preparation (AWP) in the adult at the Regional Hospital of Ngaoundéré, Cameroon []

Introduction: Doses delivered in standard radiography surveys are not sufficiently mastered and the working protocols for the same exam given differ for similar morphotypes within the same hospital structure. Material and Methods: The dose at the entrance of the skin of the Abdomen Without Preparation (mGy) was evaluated on 30 adult patients with a mass of 70 ± 10 kg according to the Davies model from the 75th percentile irradiation. The analysis and processing of the data was carried out by Excel 2010. Results: The entrance dose of the ASP obtained in mGy was 8.13 ± 0.4 for the AP projection. Conclusion: This study revealed large variations in doses at the entry of the skin during the explorations of the abdomen without preparation. These variations made it possible to understand that the diagnostic reference levels depend on the delivered doses and integrate above all the notions of quality of the radiographic image, the quality assurance of the radiological equipment and the level of training of the manipulators. Keywords: standard radiography, Abdomen Without Preparation (AWP), entrance dose, Diagnostic Reference Level (NRD).

Evaluation of Physio-Mechanical Properties of Pellets Derived From Cassava Chips and Mash. []

The cassava pellets used in this study were produced with NCAM Pelleting Machine powered by a 5hp electric motor, die diameter of 1.4 cm and a fixed speed of 290 rpm. Pellets samples were produced through two treatments: cassava dough (chips) and mash. The pellets from the cassava dough (CDP) was produced by chipping, drying, milling, conditioning then pelleting, while the cassava mash into pellets (CMP) was processed by grating, dewatering then pelleting. Test results showed that Durability index of 99.7 %, Hardness test average of 9.78 N/mm2 for CDP while Durability index of 92.7 % and Hardness test of 11.98 N/mm2 %, for CMP respectively. Average lengths of 2.78 cm and 2.22 cm, diameters 1.28 cm and 1.23 cm fall within the standard for Pellets.

Effects of Smoking Process and Conditions on the Proximate Composition of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus). []

The effects of smoking process and conditions on the proximate composition of Catfish (Clarias gariepinus) was investigated and analyzed using the AOAC, 2001 methods. The analysis was carried out at the laboratory of the University of Ilorin, Kwara State Nigeria. The objective of this work is to determine the effects of smoking process and conditioning on some quality attributes of smoked Catfish. The proximate composition parameters that were investigated include: Protein, Fat, Ash and Moisture content. Two different smoking processes were considered. These are: the traditional smoking process, and smoking process carried out with the use of a smoking kiln developed at the National Center for Agricultural Mechanization (NCAM) Ilorin, kwara State, Nigeria. The preparation of the fishes before smoking was carried out in two batches, with one batch salted and the other set unsalted. The results obtained from the two processes were compared and it showed that there was a marked effect of the smoking process on the moisture content (MC) which dropped from 71 % MC to 24 – 30% MC range, the ash content rose slightly from 3 % to a maximum value of 6%, protein content of about 19% rose to 52%, and fat content of about 14% also rose to 21%. There was a marked increase in the ash, protein and fat contents while there was a noticeable decrease in moisture content of the different samples under consideration. Statistically analyzed data reveals that there is significant difference between the effect of smoking method and conditions on moisture, ash and protein content of Catfish at P < 0.05 while there is no significant difference at P < 0.05 in respect of fat content. The smoking of Catfish using NCAM smoking kiln resulted to significantly lower moisture content, higher ash and protein content compared to the traditional smoking method with no significant effects on the proximate parameters studied. The unsalted, smoked Catfish processed by using NCAM’s smoking kiln has better quality attributes than the samples smoked by using the traditional method. It is therefore recommended that, NCAM’s smoking kiln and the procedures should be adopted for the production of high quality smoked Catfish.

Fungal Decay of Yams (Dioscorea dumentorum ) sold in open markets in Nsukka, Nigeria []

Abstract Fungal decay of the yam cultivar Dioscorea dumentorum Pax sold at Nsukka Markets in Nigeria was investigated. The diseased and sound yam cultivar tubers were used to isolate and identify some fungi implicated in post harvest and storage decay leading to economic losses. This cultivar is not as popular as the Dioscorea rotundata and D. cayanensis but it is eaten in many parts of Nigeria in spite of its unpalatable bitter taste. A total of five fungi namely Botryodiplodia theobromae, Aspergillus sp, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium sp and Syncephalastrum sp were isolated from the tubers. The frequency of isolation was recorded and the most frequently isolated organism was Aspergillus sp. Both Asergillus sp were the most pathogenic while Fusarium sp was the least pathogenic. Pathogenicity was proved for all the fungal isolates and each of the isolate was associated with the decay. The fungus Syncephalastrum sp was however implicated for the first time. Inoculated tubers were examined visually and by the application of slight pressure and the nature of rot was varied. Key words: Fungi, yam cultivar, isolation, isolates, inoculation and pathogenicity

Food consumption and energy expenditure of students at Imara Primary School in Lubumbashi []

Abstract: In less developing countries pupils’ food has been a topic less studied. Thus, a cross descriptive study has been conducted in Schools to work out food habits and set out the nutritional status of School age Students. And a sample of 384 school boys, aged six to 12 years old, was used for this purpose. Our research results have showed that the height/age percentage is 2, 6%. As to BMI/age pourcentage <- 2 is 16, 75% of the pupils. In addition, the study indicates that Sport exercises are carried out once a week in school. Thus, 73.4% or 282 students practice sport. 63.3% practice football and spend 130 Kcal of energy and 36.5% practice jogging and spend 167.1 Kcal of energy, eating 3meal and snack between meals. As a result we have noticed that their food is not diversified and that other food groups such as fruit rich in vitamins and minerals are not consumed by pupils