Volume 7, Issue 7, July 2019 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Impact of Corporate Governance on Financial Performance of Entrepreneurship in Nigeria []

This paper sought to examine how Corporate Governance affects performance of entrepreneurship development in Nigeria. Well-governed firms have higher firm performance. Mismanagement, bureaucracy, wastage, incompetence and irresponsibility by directors and employees are the main problems that have made entrepreneurship fail to achieve their performance. Data were analyzed through descriptive statistics. The findings were that the board size mean for the sample was found to be ten while a minimum of three outside directors is required on the board. The study thus discloses that there is a positive relationship between RoE and board size and board compositions of all State owned Corporations. Keywords: Financial Performance, Small Business Development, Bureaucracy

Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus (Lacepède, 1803) from Itu, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria []

The length-weight relationship and condition factor of silver catfish (Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus) from Itak Nyanyangha landing site along Cross River, Itu, Akwa Ibom State were evaluated for six months (April - September, 2018). The length-weight relationship and condition factor, (k) were determined using the equations: W=aLb and K= W*100/Lb respectively. The result showed that the month of Au-gust recorded the highest number (60 individual fish) of catch while April and May recorded the least number (30 each). The highest weight recorded was 9100g while the least was 8g. In terms of length, longest was 47.5cm and shortest fish was 19.5cm. The b value and Pearson’s correlation coefficient, r (in bracket, 2 decimal places) of the monthly data were April: 2.14 (0.83); May: 0.88 (0.49); June: 3.27 (0.97); July: 1.00 (0.50); August: 2.41 (0.80) and September: 3.22 (0.96). Condition factor significant-ly increased for the months of August and September compared to the other months (p < 0.05). In conclusion, C. nigrodigitatus exhibited both positive and negative allometric growth pattern and were in good physiological condition.


The existing paper aims to delineate administrative ethics of Islam and it can be also called as the professional code of morality in civil services which constitute the moral fiber of civil servants. Moreover, it denotes the professional code of morality in civil services. Administrative ethics assists to regulate the conduct and behavior of different categories of public officials. Islam is a comprehensive way of life it treats and nourishes an administrator personality via trustworthiness, honesty, virtue, politeness, responsibility, and accountability and it discusses the intrinsic characteristics of man to represent an elaborated discussion in the form of moral values of man particularly concerning the public administrators. Islam inculcates the sense of ethical values and responsibility which is the integrating part of public administration except it no administrative process can carry out public policies successfully. It pursues the notion of authority, accountability, and responsibility with the deep satisfaction of one’s soul. Islam urges an individual to be Accountability to ones designed responsibility to materialize the public policies and put the state machinery into practice and it makes one accountable to God and man on the earth.

Effect of Internal Factors on Insurance Services Fraud At Stella Maris Hospital, Makassar []

This study aims to determine the effect of internal control, compensation, and morals on insurance services fraud. This type of research, if viewed from the purpose of the study is explanatory research with data collection techniques using a questionnaire with a sample of 104 respondents. The data analysis technique used is Multiple Linear Regression Analysis using SPSS version 22 software. The results of the study show that internal and moral controls have a significant negative effect on insurance services fraud, while compensation has a negative effect not significantly on insurance services fraud. Keywords: internal control, compensation, moral, insurance services fraud.

Consistency Analysis of Three Dimensional Advection-Diffusion Equation with a Mixed Derivative []

The paper studies consistency analysis for (3+1) Dimensional Advection – Diffusion equation with a mixed derivative. Taylor series expansion is used to generate the finite difference scheme of Alternating Direction Explicit (ADE) scheme and Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme. The two schemes are found to be consistent with the model equations.


With the integration of Federally Administrated Tribal Areas of Pakistan, the government’s drive to develop the area with vast opportunities for construction industry. The chances can be converted into success if management of the firms demonstrates commitment for quality. This research fundamentally discovers the outcome of Administration Commitment on Entire Quality Management in construction projects with particular orientation to companies associated with reconstruction projects in war-torn Federally Administrated Tribal Areas of Pakistan. These construction projects are different from civil works in many ways. The advantages of efficient management and time bound decisions are contrasted with drawbacks of minimal expertise and exposure to limitations on account of assets and threats in field environment. Individually the concepts of value management are implemented in a befitting manner. However, the absence of integration of quality processes to achieve total quality management is acerbic. The research applied semi-structured interview approach. The target population comprised of project management practitioners from construction entities associated with Ministry of Defense and participating in Federally Administrated Tribal Areas reconstruction projects. The sample size is kept small and manageable (a sample of 250) participants from construction firms associated with Ministry of Defense in Federally Administrated Tribal Areas). The outcomes of the study stated that Management Obligation has significant effect on Total Quality Management and the problems are found in relation to establishing quality objectives that need consideration and added research. The research is cross sectional and limited to a specific area.


This study aims at determining the effect of competencies, commitments and internal control systems on financial accountability of political parties. The object of this study was ten political parties in Makassar with respondents from the leadership and treasurers of political parties. Data collection is done through the distribution of questionnaires. Data were analyzed by quantitative approach through multiple linear regression analysis. The results of the study show that: (1) competence has a positive effect on political party financial accountability; (2) commitment has a positive effect on financial accountability of political parties; and (3) the internal control system has a positive effect on political party financial accountability. Therefore, political parties should consider these aspects in developing strategies to support financial accountability. Key words: competence, commitment, internal control system, financial accountability of political parties


This study aims to examine and analyze the influence of human resource competencies and leadership style on the absorption of the budget, as well as testing and analyzing organizational commitment as moderating the relationship of these variables. The research design is non-experimental and the type of research is explanatory research or hypothesis testing that explains the effect of independent variables on the dependent variable. Data obtained through questionnaires involved 44 respondents ... at Makassar Polytechnic and analyzed using multiple regression (moderated regression) and moderated regression analysis (MRA) with IBM packages for social sciences (SPSS). The results of the study show that the competence of human resources affects the absorption of the budget, while the leadership style does not affect the absorption of the budget. Organizational commitment variables can strengthen the relationship between human resource competency and leadership style towards budget absorption. This finding shows that factors such as resource competency, leadership style and organizational commitment can provide useful understanding and framework to government agencies in increasing the effectiveness of budget absorption. The results of this study can also have implications both theoretically and implementation for policy making to increase the effectiveness of government budget management, especially Makassar Tourism Polytechnic.


The purpose of this research was to determine the concentration of hydrogen peroxide that has the best physical characteristics and effective as a bleaching agent in the proses of pangasius skin tanning. The research was held during April-May 2019. The research divided into two stages, namely the production process of pangasius tanned skin and characterization consisting of physical character (tensile strength, elongation, and tear strength), chemical character (water content), and organoleptic (appearance, aroma, and texture). Tanning process and quality testing are carried out in the laboratory of the Center for Leather Rubber and Plastic Yogyakarta. The method that used in this research is complete randomized design consisting of one factor and five levels with three repetitions (triplo). The treatment of the research is the soaking of pangasius skin in following concentrations, 0% (control), 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%. The result showed that hydrogen peroxide with 6% concentration has the best result, with a tensile strength of 322,08±50,13 kg/cm2, elongation or stretch strength of 43,76±4,61 %, tear strrength of 59,20±6,78 kg/cm, and water content of 16,84±0,071%, while the organoleptic test has an average score of 8,6 for appearance, 8,2 for odor/smell, and 8,4 for texture.

Management of Costs in a Higher Education Institution []

Abstract- The purpose of this study is to describe the perception of the leaders of Mindelo Private University (Pseudonym) located in Cape Verde about the institution's cost management. Specifically, it is intended to define and describe the cost centers that are relevant to cost management analysis in university institutions: teaching costs, research and extension costs, administration costs and maintenance costs. It is also intended to characterize cost-generating activities for each cost center. The participants of this research were four leaders who have experience in the management of the university, and thus, can contribute with relevant information on the cost management of this university. Having in mind the aim of this study, this research focused on qualitative data collection through the use of documentary research and interviews. After analyzing and discussing the obtained data, the results allowed concluding that it is necessary to know the costs of a University Institution in order to be able to define the pricing strategy of the monthly fees charged. Correct cost management is essential. It is also concluded that an incorrect cost management means higher monthly payments, which makes the “product” education less competitive in the market.

Endophytic Acremonium zeae and Xylaria adscendens in Crops: A Review []

Fungal endophytes have been shown to increase the survival and persistence of their host plants in a diverse range of environments and may also protect them from pathogens. Acremonium zeae and Xylaria adscendens have both been reported as endophytes of many important crops plants with the potential to serve as biocontrol agents against some important pathogenic fungi. This review paper focus on the use of fungal endophytes; such as Acremonium zeae and Xylaria adscendens to protect some economic crops against important pathogens.

Biochar application enhances germination and growth of some forest tree seedlings in the nursery []

Current study assessed the effect of different doses of biochar application on germination and growth of some forest tree seedlings in Bangladesh. Seedlings of the test species were raised in a nursery and treatments were applied for three months. Four doses of biochar concentration including control, 5t/ha, 10t/ha and leachate were applied to the test species seedlings grown following a randomised complete block design experimental setting with three replications. Germination percentage, germination rate index, shoot height, root height, leaf number, leaf area and nodule formation of the test species were monitored and recorded. Collected data were analysed using Microsoft Excel and ImageJ software packages. Results showed that, compared to the control, biochar application had a significant positive effect on germination and growth of all test species. Of the three biochar treatments, leachate was found to be most effective in enhancing germination of the majority of the test species. Results suggest that the use of biochar in nursery soil would ensure better seed germination and seedling growth.

Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) in Vanname Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Based on Shrimp Life Stage []

The White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) has a high virulence, can attacks shrimp at post larval stage (PL) to adult, with mortality above 60% up to 100%. Shrimp resistance to pathogens can vary based on the life cycle of shrimp. Research has been conducted in April-July 2018, which aims to determine the presence of WSSV in Vanname shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) based on shrimp live stages or different age of shrimp. The vanname shrimp samples examined were vanname shrimp which were maintained at BPBAPLWS Pangandaran. Observation of the presence of WSSV using molecular analysis carried out at the virus laboratory of SKIPM Bandung, which included detection of WSSV virus in vanname shrimp on juvenile stage (PL 8-PL12), sub adult (14 days -30 days), and adult (> 30 <75 days). The number of shrimp samples was 15 individu for each stage, divided into 3 replications. Detection was carried out by the PCR method on the target organ of the swimming feet and gills. Water quality parameters measured including temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and ammonia, The results of molecular analysis of vanname shrimp in juvenile, sub-adult and adult, show negative results. This shows that the vaname shrimp where is maintained at BPBAPLWS is not infected with the WSS virus. This healthy condition of vanname shrimp is due to the vanname shrimp cultivation technique that is it applies according to SNI 8037.1:2014 and CBIB for Vannamei shrimp and the quality of maintenance water in the hatchery and brackish water ponds, still meets water quality quality standards for vanname shrimp cultivation based on PERMEN KP No 75 Tahun 2016 SNI no 8037.1:2014, and SNI 7311:2009.


This study aimed to evaluate and analyze the implementation and obstacles in the implementation of internal control systems of government in the collection of parking services in PD parking Raya Makassar. SPIP aims to provide reasonable assurance for the achievement of effectiveness and efficiency, reliability of financial reporting, the safeguarding of state assets, and, compliance with the legislation. If the SPI evaluation applied properly on a government can facilitate the achievement of objectives in accordance with the plans that have been made by the government and can increase local revenue sources, especially the parking services sector. This study used a qualitative method performed on PD Parking Raya Makassar. The informants are Director of Operations, Head of General and Head of the Division Perparkiran directly involved in the management, collection and return of parking services, third party as a manager in the field and the collector as a helper to collect the produce from the manager of parking services in the field. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. The results of this study menunjutkan that implementation of the internal control system menunjutkan that the control environment, risk assessment, control activities, information and communication to monitoring the fee collection has not been effective. Employee integrity and ethical values associated with the practice of granting licenses still held a number of problems such as an employee who handles the collection of parking services amounted to only 20 people. Control activities carried out in the collection until returns are still very weak. Means of communication have not run optimally in a staged performance of PD parking, especially related to the purposes of collection and monitoring of parking services is only limited in certain locations in the city of Makassar.

HIV epidemic in Pakistan (Review article) []

HIV is a virus that attacks the immune system, our body’s natural defence against illness. Pakistan's HIV epidemic is fully established and expanding among injection drug users (IDUs) of whom 20% are infected with HIV. Inceptive epidemics are seen in several cities among Male sex workers and transgenders who made sexual contacts of IDUs. With participation of sex workers, Pakistan roll out to be following the "Asian Epidemic Model". On the other hand, nearly all patients in HIV clinics are emigrant workers and their immediate relations. Almost all principle population subgroups have at least some cases of HIV in most cities. While internationally known risk of HIV transmission are present among sex workers, IDUs, a sub-group of men from the general population and other groups, epidemics among male sex workers have introduced those among female sex workers suggesting local modulations in sex behaviors. Universal male circumcision and limited contact between sex workers and IDUs may have reduced the initial progress of the epidemic thus far although that will change as the numbers of HIV infected IDUs and their sexual contacts grows. The government runs HIV prevention programs for IDUs and sex workers in many cities, but must enhance the levels of coverage and quality of services provided. The slow early progression has provided a window of opportunity; it must not be allowed to close.


This study aims to determine the relationship between knowledge and threat of disease in fertile age couples (PUS) against the use of IVA services in Wotu Community Health Center Working Area in 2019. The study used a survey method with a Cross Sectional approach, where the independent variables and dependent variables will be collected and examined in at the same time. The method of sampling uses simple random sampling, so that the sample in this study amounted to 361 respondents. Data analysis is done using the SPSS program (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) version 21. The analytical method carried out consisted of univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis methods. The results showed that there was a relationship between knowledge and threat of disease with the use of Visual Inspection services with Acetic Acid (IVA) for early detection of cervical cancer in Fertile Age Couples (EFA) in Wotu Health Center in 2019. Keywords: knowledge, disease threat, utilization of IVA, couples of childbearing age.

Social Economic Analysis of Sea Farming in Pangandaran (Case study on Pangandaran coast, Pangandaran district, West Java) []

This research aims to analyze the knowledge of entrepreneurs on the socio-economic value of sea farming and analyze the feasibility of a sea farming model business in Pangandaran. This research was conducted in January-July 2019. The research method used in this study was a case study method and quantitative descriptive analysis. The sampling technique was carried out in the form of purposive sampling. The results of this study indicate that the respondents' understanding of the sea farming model only 29% of respondents understood the sea farming model and 71% of respondents did not understand the sea farming model. The feasibility of fish farming in floating net cages in Pangandaran has a profit of Rp. 83,294,500. The B / C value of the average ratio for cultivation in floating net cages is 2.02, which means that the business is feasible to run. Break even point of production produced by grouper is 502 kg / year, BEP of Pompano production is 1047 kg / year, BEP production of starfruit fish is 819 kg / year. The BEP value of grouper fish is IDR 150,572, the BEP value of Pompano fish is IDR 135,347, the BEP value of star pomfret is IDR 163,746. The payback period needed to obtain profits is 11 months 3 weeks.


This research was motivated because with the existence of regional autonomy the West Sulawesi Provincial Government was given the authority to regulate its own budget and regional finances. This study aims to analyze the direct influence of budgetary participation and organizational culture on the performance of government agencies; the influence of locus of control as a variable that strengthens the relationship between budgetary participation and organizational culture on the performance of government agencies in West Sulawesi Province. this study uses a questionnaire in collecting data. The total sample in this study amounted to 80 samples which in the sampling in this study used a sampling method by purposive sampling. The results showed that budgetary participation and organizational culture had a significant effect on the performance of government agencies. Locus of control moderates the effect of budget participation on the performance of government agencies. Locus of control moderates the influence of organizational culture on the performance of government agencies. Manfaaat this research can provide the development of knowledge in improving the performance of government agencies. Keywords: budget participation, organizational culture, locus of control, performance of government agencies

Assessment of Waste Water Quality of selected Sugar Mills in Pakistan []

Pakistan is agriculture based country. Sugar industry is one of the most important agro based industry. The current study was conducted in Sindh, a province of Pakistan, to assess the quality of sugarmills wastewater focusing on physico-chemical properties. Various parameters were determined such as pH, Turbidity, Odor, Temperature, Color, Biological Oxygen Demand, Chemical Oxygen Demand, Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids, Total Suspended Solids, Turbidity, Chlorides and Oil & Grease. These effluent samples contained high concentration of TDS, TSS, Cl, COD, BOD, and conductivity. The results were compared with NEQS. The parameters analyzed almost were exceeded the permissible limits as per standards. Ten sugar industries were selected for samples. Thirty samples of wastewater were collected and analyzed in triplicate. It was concluded that the sugar mill’s wastewater were highly polluted than the standards stipulated by the National Environmental Quality Standards & Environmental Protection Agency. It is recommended that without proper treatment of the effluent, is not suitable for discharge directly into canals, aquatic bodies as well as agriculture lands.

Assessment of logging companies’ interaction with local communities, in the sustainable management of forest resources: towards the creation of a community managed hunting zone, southwest Cameroon []

Abstract In Cameroon, logging companies are by law compelled to collaborate with local communities in the sustainable management of natural resources and contribute towards their socio-economic wellbeing and livelihood. This work assesses the interaction between a logging company and seven local communities around forest concession No. 11 001, southwest Cameroon. It further examines whether or not the level of interaction can enable the creation of a community managed hunting zone (CMHZ) northeast of Korup National Park peripheral zone. Documentary review, interviews, administration of questionnaires and field observations reveals that the level of collaboration between both parties is passive, consultative and greatly dominated by the company. Furthermore, the company had contributed a little towards the socio-economic development/livelihood of the locals. Only 13 % of the sampled population perceived their interaction with the company to be good. Most (61.6 %) of these locals, perceived that creating a CMHZ can be possible only if certain conditions are fulfilled. There is a weak positive but significant correlation between the local people’s perception of the interaction and the possibility of creating a CMHZ. Creating a CMHZ in the area may be possible if agriculture, animal breeding, small and medium sized enterprises, youths employment are promoted. Key words. Interaction, Livelihood, Community managed hunting zone, Korup National Park peripheral zone.


This research is a design and implementation of an automatic sensor water tap for hand washing. The work aimed to switch ON and OFF a water tap automatically without the need of turning it manually. It employs a passive Infrared (PIR) Sensor which has a maximum sensitivity of about 3m. The sensor detects the presence of a user within its viewing range and responds by giving a high at its output. The automatic sensor water tap incorporates a microcontroller (PIC16F628A) which was programmed using the ‘C’ programming language and turns ON the tap automatically whenever the sensor senses the user’s hand, and turns OFF when the hand is withdrawn.

Investigating the Production of Methane Gas from Methane Hydrates through Fluorine Gas Injection []

It’s no news that a major limitation of existing methods for producing methane gas from methane hydrates is the large scale productivity. Methane hydrates is a novel energy resource amply distributed around the globe. These energy source lies in huge proportion in their sediment and have the possibility to counter future energy demands. This paper examines the feasibility of recovering methane gas by the injection of fluorine gas. In this analysis, existing production methods and limitations, reservoir assessment, fluorine reactivity with me-thane hydrates, and efficient productivity are considered. Fluorine gas is highly electronegative which makes it very reactive to cause a destabilization of methane hydrates equilibrium position to methane gas and water. Processes such as wurtz reaction, electrolysis, and cracking are followed to efficiently recover the liquefied gas hydrates solution.

Gas Hydrates: Recovery and Transportation []

Gas hydrates is believed to be found beneath the subsurface in different areas around the world with a percentage sum of 98% in marine sediments and 2% onshore. These hydrate reserve holds an extensive spectrum of energy which will unquestionably influence the ad-vancement of the gas energy system to supersede the oil energy system. Gas from methane hydrate contains very much hydrogen atoms compared to its conventional counterpart. This implies a very low production of carbon monoxide during methane combustion which makes it pure, easy and environmental friendly for use as a fuel. Gas hydrate are saturated at very low temperature and relatively high pressure. Gas hydrate has a practical problem of flow assurance which obstruct the transportation of methane gases in pipeline, forming whitish slugs at particular temperature and pressure, The comprehensive research of the challenges on recovering gas hydrate and eco-nomically transporting it is paramount for absolute development of a gas hydrates energy system in future exploitation.

Service Compact(SERVICOM) Charter and Work Behaviour of Civil Servants in Nigeria []

The cross-sectional study investigated the effect of Service Compact (SERVICOM) Charter on the work behaviour of federal civil servants in Nigeria. Data for the study were drawn from 1007 staff of 32 federal establishments in Imo State,Nigeria. The study participants were selected using total population sampling technique. A structured questionnaire with a reliability co-efficient estimate of 0.742 was used to generate quantitative data. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) aided the presentation and analysis of data with frequency distribution table and Pearsons’ r correlation analysis statistic. The study found that the implementation of the Service Compact (SERVICOM) Charter has had positive effect on employees’ work behaviour in the Federal Civil Service, Imo State, Nigeria. A statistically significant positive correlation between the implementation of Servicom Charter and rating of federal civil servants’ work behaviour was observed. The study recommends the intensification of the implementation of SERVICOM Charter to further improve the work behaviour of employees of the Federal Civil Service as a means of achieving National Development Plans.


Abstract Back ground:-Globally cancer is the fifth and the second most frequent malignancy in men and women respectively. Overall, 715,000 new cancer cases and 542,000 cancer deaths were estimated occurrence in Africa [2]. Approximately half a million women develop cervical cancer each year with an estimated 85% in developing countries. Objective:-The aim of this study is to investigate the prevalence and associated risk factors of cervical cancer among clients that have been screened for cervical cancer in jugal hospital. Methodology:- Retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted for last one year data. Data was collected from June 4th-30th, 2019 E.C. Sample size determination and sampling procedure. Data was collected from secondary data using checklist. For data processing and analysis, SPSS version 20 was used. Result:- This study showed a prevalence of 11.1% for cervical cancer among our study population. The mean age of the women presenting for screening in this study was 35.2 years and most participants were less than 35 years old (62.2%). This study showed After controlling the effect of other predictor variables, the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed statistically significant association between Age of first intercourse ,Multiple sexual partner, HIV status, and cervical cancer with p-value<0.05. Conclusion:- The findings of this study gave insight on the prevalence of cervical cancer among women attending cervical cancer screening and diagnosis center at Jugal hospital. Key words:- Prevalence Cervical cancer Harari regional state

The Use of Natural Clove Oil Anesthetics In The Transportation of Nirvana Tilapia Juvenile (Oreochromis niloticus) []

This research aims to analyze the time of induction and recovery, determine the effective concentration of clove oil for anesthesia and analyze the survival rate of nirvana tilapia using clove oil that is transported. This research uses the experimental method Factorial Randomized Group Design (FRGD) which consists of two factors namely four levels of concentration factors (13, 15, 17 x 10-3 ml/L and controls) and three-level duration factors (3, 6 and 9 hours) The parameters observed during the research took place were the time of induction and recovery nirvana tilapia juvenile, post-transportation survival and water quality in the form of DO, pH, ammonia and temperature. The results showed that the higher the concentration given, the faster the time of induction and the longer the time to recovery, the effective concentration for transportation of tilapia nirvana juvenile was 13 x 10-3 ml/L with the duration of transportation for 9 hours due to post survival transportation are 99.17% and the effect of clove oil concentration and duration of transportation has a significant effect on post-transportation survival.

Farmers’ perception on new cassava varieties grown in Coastal Kenya []

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a dicotyledonous plant, belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae. The status of cassava as a food security crop to most subsistence farmers is, however, threatened by the low quality and the potential toxicity in the crop. Cassava tissues contain cyanogenic glycosides, mainly linamarin, that are enzymatically hydrolyzed to glucose, acetone and hydrogen cyanide during cell rupture. It is believed that cyanogens present in the cassava plant confer protection against attack by some herbivores. The crop grows well over a range of climatic conditions, altitudes and on a wide variety of edaphic conditions. Cassava is mostly used as a subsistence crop in tropical countries, taking over 93% of the production for human consumption.


This study aims to analyze the effect of local government performance, regional dependency, and human development index on voluntary graphics disclosure that is presented on the website of district / city local governments in Indonesia. This was a quantitative approach that processes secondary data in the form of Local Government Financial Statements (LKPD) reports presented on the local government website. The population in this research was 514 local governments in Indonesia. Sampling used purposive sampling method, So that a sample of 40 local governments data was obtained. Data were analyzed using SPSS software with a logistic regression analysis method. The results show that the performance of local governments has a significant positive effect on voluntary graphics disclosure on the website of local governments. The level of regional dependence has a significant negative effect on voluntary graphics disclosure on the local government website. Human development index has a significant positive effect on voluntary graphics disclosure on the local government website. Keywords: performance, level of dependency, human development index, Voluntary graphics disclosure

Review on molecular and biochemical methods for the identification of streptococcus []

In this review the identification methods of discuss. For the identification of streptococcus firstly microscopic appearance of streptococci observed that are coci shape and form chains and pairs. Further identification of bacteria require biochemical test like catalase, pyr, bacitarcin sensitivity. Steptex is also use commercially for the identification of lancified group it give excellent recognize streptococci of groups A, B, C, and G. API strep 20 is also use to identify bacteria that contain 20 wells. For the fast identification of bacteria molecular methods use. Polymerase chain reaction use with specific primers that target the specific genes of streptococcus. In case of pyogenes spy1258, dnase, speB,and the sof genes are key gene target. The amplification of universal sequences that is perseveres in every bacterium. With the one set of universal primer the amplification of the 16sRNA conserved gene present in all bacteria. The amplicon of 996bp produce with all further the RFLP is use to further classify the bacteria.

Construction and performance of chemically and mechanically stabilized granular road test sections. []

Granular-surfaced roadways in Iowa rural area frequently experience damage and degradation from the effect of rainfall, flooding, seasonal freeze-thaw cycles, heavy agricultural machinery and steadily increasing traffic loads. Rutting, potholes and frost boil problems appeared usually and leading these granular roads to unpassable. As a result, many countries have to close damaged roads for repairs and spend significant portions of their budgets on maintenance and rehabilitation of granular roads. Several stabilization methods for granular roads were examined for improving the performance and minimizing damages in Iowa by the previous completed Phase II Iowa Highway Research Board Project TR-664 “Low-Cost Rural Surface Alternatives: Demonstration Project”. To investigate additional stabilization methods suitable for use in Iowa, six mechanical and five chemical stabilization methods employing different types of virgin and recycled materials were examined and used to build test sections in this study. Comprehensive construction procedures were developed and 31 test sections were built in four counties distributed geographically around the state of Iowa in August through October 2018. Extensive laboratory, field tests, and photographic surveys were performed prior to construction, as well as after construction to monitor the performance of the demonstration sections. The shear strength and elastic modulus of granular roads surface course were obviously improved by one of the chemical methods, cement treated surface, and three of the mechanical methods, optimized gradation with clay slurry and two slag stabilization methods. The composite elastic modulus was improved by two cement treated methods and two mechanically methods, optimize gradation with clay slurry and aggregate columns. Several equipment was also found that can shorten the construction time and stabilize the soil more efficiently.


The fruit is locally called in the Democratic Republic of Congo, not in Kikongo of Bandundu and Central Congo. The fruit is a very important nutritional and socio-economic culture in Central Africa and in the riparian countries of the Gulf of Guinea. The importance of this research is to contribute to the nutritional composition and active principles of n'safou fruit (Dacryodes edulis) and serve as a guide for consumers and the food industry to make biscuits and other uses. The aim of this research was to know the nutritional and phyto-chemical composition of the fruits of consumption in Lubumbashi. Finally the results found in our research reveal that the fruits of n'safou (Dacryodes edulis) found in the city of Lubumbashi is endowed with antioxidant, antiseptic, antivenomous properties due to the presence of tannins in the latter; apart from its poverty in protein, the fruits Dacryodes edulis is very rich in moisture and fat. The fruits could be valued in the agro-food industries for the manufacture of biscuits.


Background: Stroke is the abrupt onset of a neurologic deficit and attributable to a focal vascular cause. It is an alarming issue and the third leading cause of deaths globally. Stroke was considered as a disease of developed nations, but now it becomes a top priority public health problem to developing countries. However, the situation in Adama Hospital Medical College (AHMC) is not known. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the types of stroke and associated factors among adult patients attended the medical department of AHMC, 2018. Methods: An institution based cross sectional study was conducted from February 1, 2018 to January 30, 2018 among adult stroke patients admitted AHMC. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data and patient registration book also reviewed using data extraction guideline. Descriptive statistics was done for the variables and presented in tables, figures and text. Both bivariable logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. The variables which have significant association were identified on the bases of OR, with 95% CI and 0.05 p-values to fit in to the final model. Result- Among 242 stroke patients admitted in AHMC was involved in the study. The findings of this study revealed that 64.3% of the respondents had Ischemic stroke while only 35.7% Hemorrhagic stroke. Age ≥45 years [AOR: 2.88, 95% CI: 1.42, 5.83], illiterate [AOR: 0.17, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.71], primary school completed [AOR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.92] and with diabetic [AOR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.03, 5.96] had significant association with ischemic stroke. On the other hand age ≥45 years [AOR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.19, 4.99], illiterate [AOR: 6.38, 95% CI: 1.48, 27.49], primary school completed [AOR: 4.70, 95% CI: 1.28, 17.24], visit the clinic more than once per month [AOR: 2.96, 95% CI: 1.18, 7.45] and had hypertension [AOR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.03, 5.09] had significant association with hemorrhagic stroke. Conclusion and recommendation The present study showed that ischemic stroke was the most common type of stroke diagnosed among the study participants. In this study age, educational status, occupation and having diabetes were independent predictors of Ischemic stroke. Whereas: age, educational status, visit frequency, and being hypertensive were independent predictors of Hemorrhagic stroke. Stroke is become predominant problem for our country. Therefore early identification and treatment will improve prognosis and decrease the complication

Remote Sensing and G.I.S.: How it Changed the Traditional Planning System. []

Abstract— Urbanisation is an index of transformation from traditional rural economics to a modern environment. Today half of the country population lives in cities, due to which the urban population is rising which is increasing pressure on the urban land. Thus, proper planning is required for the city to develop. In India, in the year, 306.9 million Indians (30.5%) were living in nearly 3700 towns and cities spread across the country, and it is expected to increase to over 400 million and 533 million by 2011 and 2021.[4] Remote sensing and G.I.S. is a tool that helps the planners in extracting the data in s systematic manner, timely and accurately. It generates spatial data and provides satellite image and aerial photography which helps in generating data like land use, land cover, transport, energy conservation, infrastructure etc. It is an analytical tool to calculate the growth scenario of a particular place by overlapping the different map layers and creating relationship among different map layers. Index terms- Urbanisation, Urban population, Aerial photography.

Lutte contre la malnutrition à travers les foyers d’apprentissage et de réhabilitation nutritionnelle (FARN) : de la consommation des aliments locaux à la guérison des enfants malnutris []

Quel est le rôle des foyers d’apprentissage et de réhabilitation nutritionnelle dans la lutte contre la malnutrition ? Cette question de recherche est accompagnée par l’hypothèse selon laquelle la consommation des aliments locaux peut réduire la prévalence de la malnutrition dans le département de Tillabéri. L’objectif de cette étude est de montrer l’importance des recettes traditionnelles dans l’alimentation des enfants malnutris aiguës modérés. L’étude s’est déroulée dans huit villages du département de Tillabéridurant la période du 29 Janvier au 12 Février 2018. Les résultats obtenus montrent que, sur les 42 enfants malnutris, 78,57 % ont été rapidement récupérés. L’étude a été réalisée à travers les activités de l'ONG SRMSR DIMOL effectuées dans les différents villages de la zone cible. Nous avons élaboré aussi des fiches d’enquête afin de mener concrètement l’enquête, enrichie par une recherche bibliographique. Notre population cible est composée de 42 enfants, 41 mères gardiennes, 5 agents de santé de base, 7 relais communautaires, 3 facilitatrices et 5 mamans lumières. Mots-clés : foyers, apprentissage, réhabilitation, malnutrition, recettes, alimentation, Tillabéri


Background: Stroke is the abrupt onset of a neurological deficit and attributable to a focal vascular cause. It is an alarming issue and the third leading cause of deaths globally. Stroke was considered as a disease of developed nations, but now it becomes a top priority public health problem to developing countries. However, the situation in Adama Hospital Medical College (AHMC) is not known. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the types of stroke and associated factors among adult patients attended the medical department of AHMC, 2018. Methods: An institution based cross sectional study was conducted from February 1, 2018 to January 30, 2018 among adult stroke patients admitted AHMC. An interviewer administered questionnaire was used to collect data and patient registration book also reviewed using data extraction guideline. Descriptive statistics was done for the variables and presented in tables, figures and text. Both bivariable logistic regression and multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. The variables which have significant association were identified on the bases of OR, with 95% CI and 0.05 p-values to fit in to the final model. Result- Among 242 stroke patients admitted in AHMC was involved in the study. The findings of this study revealed that 64.3% of the respondents had Ischemic stroke while only 35.7% Hemorrhagic stroke. Age ≥45 years [AOR: 2.88, 95% CI: 1.42, 5.83], illiterate [AOR: 0.17, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.71], primary school completed [AOR: 0.26, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.92] and with diabetic [AOR: 2.48, 95% CI: 1.03, 5.96] had significant association with ischemic stroke. On the other hand age ≥45 years [AOR: 2.44, 95% CI: 1.19, 4.99], illiterate [AOR: 6.38, 95% CI: 1.48, 27.49], primary school completed [AOR: 4.70, 95% CI: 1.28, 17.24], visit the clinic more than once per month [AOR: 2.96, 95% CI: 1.18, 7.45] and had hypertension [AOR: 2.29, 95% CI: 1.03, 5.09] had significant association with hemorrhagic stroke. Conclusion and recommendation The present study showed that ischemic stroke was the most common type among the study participants. Age, educational status, occupation and having diabetes were independent predictors of Ischemic stroke. Whereas: age, educational status, frequency visit of health facility, and being hypertensive were independent predictors of Hemorrhagic stroke. Stroke is becoming predominant problem for developed countries in general and in Ethiopia in particular. Therefore early identification and treatment of risk factors will improve prognosis and complications Key words- Ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, Stroke

Effect of Paper Pulp Additive on the Densification of Sawdust Biomass Briquette []

Abstract The use of fossil fuel as source of energy has led to the problem of global warming. Also, its high cost of purchase and possible depletion has led to the search of alternative source of energy that is reliable and cost effective. Biomass as alternative source of energy is the biological degradable fraction of products, waste and residues from agriculture (including animal and plants materials), forestry and the biological degradable fraction of industrial and household waste. Sawdust as a biomass when compacted to form briquette can serve as a good source of renewable energy. In this work, sawdust biomass was use to make briquette using paper pulp as additive; three different sizes of the sawdust biomass were mixed with paper pulp in five different ratio. Their length expansion, swelling thickness, compressed density, relaxed density, density ratio as well as relaxation ratio was determined. The result showed that the larger the particle size, the more the length expansion and swelling thickness irrespective of the ratio of paper pulp additive to the sawdust biomass in the briquette. Also, the best result of compressed density is 41.44x10-5 g/mm3 which is the result for particle size of 2.3mm and a ratio of 90% sawdust biomass and 10% paper pulp while for the relaxed density, the best result is 30.20x10-5 g/mm3 for a particle size of 1.5 mm and ratio of 90% sawdust biomass and 10% paper pulp. For the density and relaxation ratio, particle sizes of 1.5 mm has the highest set of density ratio and least set of relaxation ratio. Considering particle size of 1.5mm and the sawdust biomass to paper pulp additive ratio of 90% to 10%, it has good compressed density as well as relaxed density and also, the length expansion and swelling thickness are low indicating that it will be better in terms of handling, transportation and durability, therefore, it is recommended.


ABSTRACT : This study aims to analyze the effect of education, private investment and government expenditure on the absorption of non-agricultural labor both directly and indirectly through changes in economic structure.The data analysis technique used to discuss the problem in this study is the Structural Model analysis. The results show that education and private investment have a direct effect on the absorption of non-agricultural labor but have no effect through changes in economic structure. While government spending does not have a direct effect on the absorption of non-agricultural labor but has an indirect effect through changes in economic structure.


Swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) is an ornamental fish that has attractive color characteristics. β-carotene is a dye or pigment that can give red and yellow colors which dominate pigmentation in ornamental fish. One source of β-carotene is found in spirulina flour. The purpose of this research was to analyze and determine the concentration of the addition of spirulina flour which is appropriate for artificial feed on the change in the intensity of the color of Swordtail fish. This research was conducted from February 2019 to June 2019. The research method used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD), with four treatments and three replications (addition of spirulina flour as much as 0%, 1%, 3%, and 5% in artificial feed) and tested using the Kruskal-Wallis Test. This research uses Kohaku Swordtail fish measuring 3-4 cm in size maintained in 8-liter capacity maintenance media. Parameters in the study included color intensity, absolute growth, survival rate and water quality (temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH). The results showed the addition of 3% spirulina flour had the best effect with a score of increasing color intensity in the tail section of 6,52 and in the head section 10,67. addition of 3% spirulina flour is the best treatment for increasing weight (0.18 gr) and length (0.43 cm). 100% Survival Rate for all treatments and replications. During the research the temperature was 25.50-27.50oC, DO 4.60-7.20 ppm and pH 7.23-8.13.


Abstract: This research work is a comparative study of the protein profile of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patients that have commenced antiretroviral therapy. The results were grouped into groups of males and females with age grades of 10. The mean values of total proteins for the males are; 86.42 ± 7.82g/l for ages 20-29, 30-39 is 87.85 + 3.12g/l, 40-49 is 72.94 + 9.75g/l, 50-59 is 78.73 ± 4.27g/l and the 60-69 age grade 76.33 ± 2.55g/l. That of the females are 84.71 ± 10.79g/l for ages 20-29, 30-39 has a mean value of 82.89 ± 8.65g/l, 40-49 is 77-88 ± 2.32g/l and 75.69 ± 3.59g/l for ages 50-59. There was no female patient of the age bracket 60-69 on antiretroviral therapy. From the mean values, it is seen that the older patients have a higher rate of deterioration as compared to the younger adults of ages 20-29 and 30-39 that have a higher bioavailability and rate of absorption of the antiretroviral drugs which makes the value of their total protein to fall within the normal range of 62-80g/l because of their increased bioavailability and reduced deterioration rate.


This research aims to obtained the proximate composition of bonylip barb fish meat cream soup. Proximate parameters that observed were water content, protein content, and fat content were determined using the methods of the Association of Official Analytical Chem-ists (AOAC). This research was conducted at Technology of Fishery Products Laboratory of Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science Padjada-jaran University and proximate analysis conducted at the Food Technology, Pasundan University. The study was conducted in May-July 2019. The method used was experimental treatment with the addition of 30% bonylip barb fish from dried material. Cream soup with addition of bonylip barb fish meat comprising with cream soup without addition of bonylip barb fish meat and SNI 01-4967-1999. The results of the research on the proximate test of bonylip barb fish cream soup showed that cream soup contained 5,40% water content, 8,32% protein content, and 6,70% fat content.

Study on Costs and Impacts of Economic Losses due to Congestion in Makassar City: A View Towards the Mamminasata Agglomeration []

The purpose of this study was to analyze and describe the impact of the delay of commuters in Makassar City caused by congestion on commuter consumption. This relationship can occur through delays that affect disincentives of respondents which further affect the consumption of respondents. In this study, it is also assumed that there are differences in consumption between users of public vehicles and private vehicle users due to differences in the use of transportation modes. In this study, delay (X1) has a magnitude of positive influence on the disincentive (Y1) of 944.19. This value indicates that the increase in delay caused by congestion increases the disincentive of Rp. 944.19. However, this does not reduce the consumption of respondents because of the presence of other respondents' income obtained from the income of the second job and the income of the respondent's spouse. Thus, the author recommends increasing late fines on employees to improve employee performance. Furthermore, the Trans-Makassar Bus service scheme needs to be introduced and imporved as an incentive for the use of buses that can reach various classes of society. The bus service program scheme can be found on the Trans-Jakarta Bus under the name "JakLingko" program.

Studies on Cyclic Variation in Ground Water Quality of Sandur Taluka, Bellary District, India: A Cation, Anion Balance and Statistical Approac []

Declining in the groundwater quality and increasing in the anthropogenic activities at an alarming rate in parts of the Karnataka, especially in Bellary district Sandur area. Groundwater samples were collected from 50 wells and analyzed for 20 water quality parameters in three seasons (winter, summer and rainy) during the year 2017. Our finding indicates that concentration of pH, total dissolved solids, Iron, Sulphate, Chloride, Alkalinity, Total hardness, Calcium, Magnesium, Copper, Manganese, Lead, Chromium and Cadmium were found slightly above the standard limits prescribed by BIS. The results shown that groundwater quality were distinctly different between two seasons. The study also indicates that a balance in water quality was observed after the monsoon season which can be attributed to a possible dilution due to clear groundwater recharging effect of precipitation by monsoon. Various agricultural water quality diagrams and parameters such as sodium absorption ratio (SAR), sodium percentage (Na %), Residual sodium carbonate (RSC), Residual Sodium Bicarbonate (RSBC) and Kelley’s ratio revealed that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation. Langelier Saturation Index (LSI) values suggest that the water is slightly corrosive and non-scale forming in nature. Seasonal Piper plot indicates the chemical composition of water, chiefly con- trolled by dissolution and mixing of irrigation return flow. This work thus concludes that groundwater in the study area is chemically unsuitable for domestic and agricultural uses. It is recommended to carry out a continuous water quality monitoring program and development of effective management practices for utilization of water resources.


The research investigated the academic qualifications, job competencies and operations and distribution processes of the family businesses merged Associated Foods Zimbabwe (AFZ) in order to determine the growth requirements. The research’s aim was to transform the AFZ into a competitive corporate business that can successfully compete locally, regionally and internationally. The survey and focus group methods were implemented to collect the research data. Most of the management staff members had minimum academic qualifications that were irrelevant to the job activities that they were performing. Most of the staff members required competence training for effective performance of their job activities in the ten Operations functions of the company. There was need to implement competence training, team building, continuous quality improvement and effective performance improvement strategies. The research suggested a competency budget training template for all associated costs that are necessary for successful planning and implementation of the programme.


The purpose of this research was to explore the importance of games in vocabulary retention and the effectiveness of games in vocabulary teaching and to seek for different authors’ thoughts about fun and effective word games that generate context for language use and vocabulary memorization and expansion. This research focused on qualitative and quantitative data collection and it was chosen two instruments for data collection (a survey and a test on vocabulary). The participants of this study were seventeen first year undergraduate students of Public Relations and Executive Secretariat from CVPU- Cape Verde Public University (Pseudonym) in Cape Verde. There were 13 females and 4 male student participants, with an age range from 19 to 36 years old. The findings suggest that all the two instruments used pointed out students’ positive attitudes toward the use of games in vocabulary instruction and also that games are a powerful and effective technique in vocabulary instruction.