Volume 10, Issue 1, January 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine directly or indirectly the effect of work from home policies and work discipline on employee performance through job satisfaction as an intervening variable at PT. BNI (Persero) Tbk. Unit SBK Makassar Perintis during the Covid-19 pandemic. The number of samples is all employees as many as 40 people. The analysis technique uses Path analysis using the SmartPLS program. The results of data analysis show that: 1). The WFH policy variable applied by PT. BNI (Persero) Tbk. Unit SBK Makassar Perintis has no significant effect on employee performance. 2). Work discipline variable applied by PT. BNI (Persero) Tbk. Unit SBK Makassar Perintis has a significant influence on employee performance. 3). The WFH policy variable applied by PT. BNI (Persero) Tbk. Unit SBK Makassar Perintis has a significant influence on job satisfaction. 4). Work discipline variable applied by PT. BNI (Persero) Tbk. Unit SBK Makassar Perintis has a significant influence on job satisfaction. 5). Job satisfaction variable has a significant influence on employee performance. 6). The WFH policy variable has a positive and significant effect on employee performance through the variable job satisfaction at PT. BNI (Persero) Tbk. Unit SBK Makassar Perintis. 7). Work Discipline variable has a positive and significant effect on employee performance through the variable job satisfaction at PT. BNI (Persero) Tbk. Unit SBK Makassar Perintis. Keywords : WFH policy, work discipline, job satisfaction & employee performance


ABSTRACT This research is a quantitative study using a survey method with a questionnaire data collection tool. This study aims to determine the effect of motivation, discipline and work ability on employee performance at PT Sinar Deli Bantaeng. The population in this study were 86 employees of PT Sinar Deli Bantaeng while the sampling technique was based on the Slovin formula so that the resulting sample amounted to 86 people. The results showed that (1) work motivation, work discipline, and work ability had a positive and partially significant effect on employee performance at PT.Sinar Deli Bantaeng. (2) Work motivation, work discipline, and work ability have a positive and significant effect simultaneously on employee performance at PT. Sinar Deli Bantaeng. (3) Work discipline is a variable that has the most dominant influence on employee performance at PT. Sinar Deli Bantaeng Keywords: Work Motivation, Work Discipline, Work Ability, and Employee Performance


ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine directly or indirectly the effect of employee engagement, work-life balance and organizational culture on employee performance through job satisfaction as an intervening variable at PT Prasetia Dwidharma Makassar. The number of samples is all employees as many as 44 people. The analysis technique uses Path analysis using the SmartPLS program. The results of data analysis show that: 1) Employee engagement variable has a positive andsignificant effect on job satisfaction. 2) The work-life balance variable has a positive and significant effect on job satisfaction. 3) The organizational culture variable has a positive and significant effect on job satisfaction. 4) Employee engagement variable has no significant effect on employee performance. 5) The work-life balance variable has no significant effect on employee performance. 6) Organizational culture has no significant effect on employee performance. 7) Job satisfaction has a positive and significant effect on employee performance. 8) Employee engagement has a positive and significant effect on employee performance through job satisfaction. 9) Work-life balance has a positive and significant effect on employee performance through job satisfaction. 10) Organizational culture has a positive and significant effect on employee performance through job satisfaction. Keywords: employee engagement, work-life balance, organizational culture, job satisfaction and employee performance.


Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine directly or indirectly the effect of job transfers and promotions on employee performance through job satisfaction at PT. Makassar Pawnshop Area. The total population in this study were all employees at PT Pegadaian Area Makassar 2, which amounted to 218 employees with a total sample of 132 people. The data analysis method used is Partial Least Square (PLS) using the Smart PLS 3.0 program tool. The results of data analysis using Partial Least Square (PLS) show that 1. Mutations carried out by PT. Makassar Pawnshop Area has a significant effect on employee performance.2. Promotion of positions carried out by PT. Makassar Pawnshop Area has a significant influence on employee performance.3. Mutations have a significant effect on job satisfaction. 4. Promotion of positions applied by PT. Makassar Pawnshop Area has a significant influence on job satisfaction.5. Job satisfaction has a significant effect on employee performance.6. Job satisfaction has been proven to play a role as a mediating variable between mutations on employee performance.7. Job satisfaction has been shown to play a role as a mediating variable between job promotions and employee performance. Keywords: Mutation, Promotion, Performance, Job Satisfaction


The conjugate gradient method, which is one of the most effective method of solving linear and unconstrained optimization problems, was modified in this paper to accommodate a control operator. We now applied the embedded control operator in the modified conjugate gradient method to solve some optimal control problems. The result obtained compares favourably with some existing results and analytical solutions.


Abstract The consequences of the economic crisis of the late 1980s and the disengagement of the State from the provision of basic socio economic infrastructures in rural communities in Sub Saharan countries have a significant implication on their rural socio-economic uplift. The economic crisis instigated the state to disengage from the socio–economic sector without any effective measures put in place to boost access to basic socio economic infrastructures in rural communities. The agricultural sector is one of those areas which were highly hit by crisis and the State disengagement. Over 60% of the population of Mezam Division rely on agriculture but the agricultural sector suffer from poor farm to market roads, inadequate marketing infrastructures, low access to agro-pastoral credits, research and innovation and agricultural sensitisation and training opportunities. Using a systematic sampling of 241interviwees complimented by interviews, Focus Group Discussions and secondary data sources, the study sought to examine the contributions made by development actors in the agricultural sector to uplift the socio-economic development of rural communities in Mezam Division. The results of the study show that, through the liberalisation law of the 1990s, many development actors have emerged to foster the provision of basic socio-economic infrastructures in the agricultural sector in many communities in Mezam Division. It was also observed that, through these actors, farmers in rural communities in Mezam now have better access to farm to market roads, agro-pastoral credits, wider marketing opportunities and marketing infrastructures, training and sensitisation facilities and access to high yielding variety of crop and animal species. The study concludes that the government should continue to strengthen the collaboration with these development actors as they have proven to be veritable partners in the development of the agricultural sector in rural communities of Mezam Division. Key words: Development actors, socio economic development, Rural uplift, Basic infrastructures and Agricultural uplift

Thinking Beyond Critical Theory []

Critical theory ponders on social issues affecting power structure, discrimination and oppression as poignant themes affecting individuals as emancipatory gestures from the many forms of social maladies. While many societies have experienced material gains in capitalistic productions providing personal and institutional gains serving the upper echelons in society, critical theory espouses the need to ponder depth of human suffering in the face of advancement. In explicating such paradoxical truth, art as an ideology becomes a catalyst for change, a symbol of enlightenment because it mirrors the ills of its creator, the artist, as one views the society. While meanings intended by the artist can be definite, many forms of associations come about in a reader’s mind forming complex layers of meanings creating more meanings including destruction of meanings as a celebrated act of self-expression.

Voices and Meanings in "Waray Gad La:" A Performance Autoethnography []

This performance autoethnography sought to dwell upon meanings in a musical concert: “Waray Gad La” featuring well-loved folksongs of Leyte and Samar islands in the Philippines. It expressed my folk sensibility in spite of my experimentations in form mixing various genres to mount nuances of hybridization, transformation, self-identity, cycles of emotions, emancipation, and vulnerability as concepts revealed in the autoethnographic analysis. While they embodied cultural representations, this autoethnogrpahy focused mainly on the musical aspects of performance foregrounding the themes identified. The purpose of the study was to explore and analyze performances of “Waray Gad La” from a musical perspective using reflexivity in order to illuminate personal meanings within cultural praxis. Moreover, it was meant to unearth deep layers in interpretation of the featured perfor-mances mirrored with cultural resonances crossing over folkloric temperament layered with classical and new age nuances enriching sound poetry that would usher a new sound of age-old musical lore. The study revealed that folksongs are not hackneyed expressions but with creative imagination, they can be re-created sensibly and powerful-ly. Grounded on the principle of universal musical expression, “Waray Gad La” epitomized experimentations in music structure unleashing energy in re-designing folksongs as artistic creations imbued with fresh ideas and emotions through meaningful associations as music rheto-ric beyond persuasion.

Hidden Markov Model with Switching Autoregression: The Study of Political Violent Deaths in Nigeria []

In recent time, research on violent death has been rare with little attention drawn to its spread nature. This study extensively explores the dynamic nature of violent death as a stochastic process using monthly Nigeria Watch dataset on violent death count caused by political issues in Nigeria from June 2006 to March 2021 (n=178). The methodology adopted for the study is Hidden Markov Model with Switching Autoregression (HMMSA), a dynamic non-linear model associated with time series that switches back and forth between distinct states called regimes which are hidden to the observer with an autoregressive structure. Result showed that political violent death counts possessed statistically significant positive trend corresponding to an appropriate AR of order 2, and are non-normally and unevenly distributed on monthly basis. The observational hidden states and their transition probabilities from one state to the other accordingly under the Gaussian mixture and the grand transition probabilities of violent deaths count due to political issues were estimated to be [P_11=0.6010,P_22=0.8674,P_12=0.3990 and P_21=0.1326]; The regime switching equations were estimated to be statistically significant at p value < 0.01. Other estimations include the conditional and regime-based residuals, filtered and smoothed probability, death counts regime classification plots, the predictive plots for best regime’s model identification and parameter interval estimation. Violent deaths attributed to political issue have been identified as those which are non-linear in nature due to the traits established from the findings. To monitor the dimension of spread of the underlying death count, regime 2 equation is best suited since it is superimposed with the actual differenced series. This study therefore recommends further research which would allow for the building of sentry system for violence detection using Artificial Intelligence (AI) or Machine Learning (ML). Keywords: Markov Model, autoregression, violent death, politics, firearm.

People, money and capital []

People, money and capital • Introduction: It is life and what is in it in every creature how it lives and adapts on this planet, on land, sea and air, from trees, humans and birds, and from fish to whales and animals... The forms of creation varied and differed, in terms of size, nature and environment, as well as differing in their content in terms of their composition, composition and capabilities, and also the Creator singled them out by instinct and shared some of them by instinct and distinguished others by reason... He is the speaking animal man, which is nothing different from the love of possession and control from other animals. Under the names of necessity in living and continuing in life, and the end justifies the means in improving the pattern, taking care of the body, the well-being of behavior and temperament, and the need is the mother of invention, until man reached in this time to own air and control space through science and technology, and he also exploited science and knowledge for domination, monopoly, exploitation, investment and colonialism. And enslavement to the point of decline, and moving away from human values, under the goals of profit and loss, and he was not satisfied but rather completed his prey on nature and the environment and what they contain, until the world began to live under the threat of climate change and entering the era of epidemics and deadly viruses and they have no way out of what our planet and our world has reached because they do not They still possess the same instinct and the same intellectual stereotype, and historically and until now it is certain to prey on animals, money and humans, and today they have come to prey on planets and control space, after eliminating stone, killing atoms, transgressing cells and playing with genetics at the doors of the third millennium... Therefore, it is necessary to have a quick overview to get to know the human being, capital and the institutions that control money and the national product of some countries, in short...

stock market prediction []

Time series forecasting has been widely used to determine the future prices of stock, and the analysis and modeling of finance time series importantly guide investors’ decisions and trades. This work proposes an intelligent time series prediction system that uses sliding-window optimization for the purpose of predicting the stock prices. The system has a graphical user interface and functions as a stand-alone application. The proposed model is a promising predictive technique for highly non-linear time series, whose patterns are difficult to capture by traditional models.


Employee Performance has always been a subject of concern for the organizations. Thousands of research papers worldwide have been written to explore the impact of Training and Development on Employee Performance, however, no research has so far proved to be a final verdict to this issue. The recent deteriorating trends of Employee Performance are cause of concern for the Banking industry of Karachi, Pakistan. Basic objective of this research is to find out the impact of Job Knowledge, Interpersonal Skills, Communication Skills, Loyalty and Motivation as dimensions of Training and Development on the performance of employee. Banking industry in Karachi City is selected as a geographical boundary for this research. To accomplish the objective, a sample of 101 questionnaires was spread among the bankers to get their perception on the selected questions. Deductive approach and positivism philosophy is applied to this quantitative research. SPSS software version 22 was used to perform the statistical analysis of the data. The Multiple regression model is used to test the hypotheses. It is concluded that out of five hypotheses, four were accepted, whereas, the hypothesis pertaining to Loyalty of employee on performance of the employees was rejected. Motivation has the largest influence on the performance of the employee, followed by Job Knowledge and Communication Skills. Whereas, Interpersonal Skills being the only variable that has negative impact on the performance of employees.

The Art of Administration: Learning by Experience- Some Best Practices []

Literally ‘Administration’ means managing the affairs__ public or private and it encompasses all those actions which are undertaken for this purpose. The resources of men, money, materials, and machines are mobilized through the decisions taken by administrators for achieving predetermined common objectives. Therefore decisions taken should be based on the objective assessment of resources and a careful analysis of situational factors for which the competencies and capabilities of administrators plays a critical role. More of administration, therefore, is learned from real-life situations faced and handled administratively like any other art in life. One of the established pedagogy used in training of administrators is the Case Study method in which the Officer Trainees are exposed to the recorded experiences of others in dealing various situations. This is one of the forms of experiential learning which is a more reliable method of transmitting administrative skills to the learners.

Application of Big Data Analytics in Natural Disaster Management in African Countries []

Executive Summary Disaster is the disorder in reliable situation happening in a level of suffer that exceeds volume of change & disturb society. Disaster management phases, ‘Mitigation’, ‘Preparedness’, ‘Responses’ & ‘Recovery’. Big data uses Hadoop, Apache Spark and extra outlines for distributing and saving data. Whatever, application of big data is endless, in Africa still infancy age. Objectives, to analysis applications of BD in natural disaster management, to explore consequence of natural disaster and narrow knowledge gap on big data analytics developed and developing globe. Method used comprehensive literature review. Sources database; Scopus, IEEE Xplore, Elsevier, ScienceDirect and keywords used ‘disaster’, ‘disaster management’, ‘big data’, ‘evolution of big data’, ‘big data application on disaster management’... By Nima Yaghmaei and Regina,2019, rapid population growth and increasing impact of climate change likely increase in coming decades and over 50 African countries and 30 million square kilometers land threat of natural hazards. (2000-2019*), through cases of drought, extreme temperature, flood and storm in Africa, 36,704 people died from ten countries. In Somalia 20,739, Algeria 3,777, Mozambique 2,291, Nigeria 1,696, Madagascar 1,644, Ethiopia 1,639, Kenya 1,572, Sierra Leone 1,289, D.R. Congo 1,072 and Malawi 985. These countries need to improve big data infrastructure, produce educated human power. Because, evolution of digital data, social media, satellite remote sensing and sensor networks has contributed to a data deluge. Properly use technology key to solve problems by natural disaster. Security and privacy issue in data transmission and storage need to investigation to ensure validity of disaster data.


Widyaiswaras are civil servants at the Human Resource Development Agency or BPSDM (from its Indonesian acronym Badan Pengembangan Sumber Daya Manusia) of Indonesia’s Ministry of Home Affairs that have recently experienced a decline in career development. The Human Resource Development Agency or BPSDM is interested to know the variables causing this issue. This paper is intended to develop a conceptual model to determine the effect of work experience and training on career development by using work performance as a mediator. This paper proposes a conceptual model for decreasing career development, along with a literature review, hypotheses, and research methodology. The implementation of this paper can provide information about the effects of work experience and training on work performance and career development with a case study of Widyaiswaras at the Human Resource Development Agency or BPSDM of Indonesia’s Ministry of Home Affairs.


Leadership is a part of a manager's activities which becomes a tool to influence the behavior of individuals and groups in which to lead to the expected results. Leadership is an ability which owned by somebody to influence other people to work towards achieving goals and targets. A manager must be able to carry out the right and appropriate leadership because management is the key to business success and leadership is the opening key to the success of an organization, including a company. This study uses Organization Citizen Behavior (OCB) as the dependent variable, Transactional Leadership Style as the independent variable, then Job Satisfaction and Work Motivation as moderating variables, the sample in this study amounted to 150 people, the data collection technique which used in this study is using a questionnaire, and then the analytical technique which used in this study is path analysis. Transactional Leadership has a positive and significant effect on Job Satisfaction. Transactional Leadership has a positive and significant effect on OCB. Job satisfaction has a positive and significant effect on OCB. Transactional leadership style has a significant effect on OCB which is mediated by working satisfaction. Transactional leadership style has a positive and significant effect on OCB which is moderated by work motivation.


With a meager growth rate of 1.2 percent from 2011 to 2019, Nigerian labor productivity has remained consistently low and unsatisfactory. As a result of this, as well as other considera-tions, numerous construction projects in the country have been abandoned. The factors im-pacting labor productivity on building projects in Nigeria were ranked in this study. A ques-tionnaire survey of 500 stakeholders in the building construction business was conducted to achieve this. Management and control (MC), Workforce (W), Material & Equipment (ME), Finance (F), Project (P), and External (E) are the six (6) key areas of labor productivity fac-tors (E). The data from the questionnaire survey were subjected to a Pearson Correlation and Relative Importance Index test. Management and control with workfoce factors showed the strongest correlation in causing project cost overrun, management and control with fi-nance factors for project time delay while workforce and material/equipment factors influ-ence project quality. The scatter chart ranking result revealed that management and control elements have the greatest impact on cost overruns and project delays, while workforce has the greatest impact on project quality. This research showed that a solid management and workforce is key to consistent productivity that enhances good project performance in the Nigeria construction industry.


Assessment of the use of genetic algorithm to optimize the parameters of the building project: project time, price and management of the resource crew: was investigated Project information regarding the quantity of works, the different resource options in terms of productivity and cost & the Line of Balance Schedule table for 15 activities have been included in a GA coded excel sheet on which the optimization was carried out. Total project completion time and cost of 136 days at $‪1,005,305.92 without resource interruptions along units of work was obtained compared to 150 days at $‪1,241,820.09 which was obtained at site using the conventional management techniques. The use of GA in construction project scheduling would aid the managers in managing resources towards efficient project delivery at low cost.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

X-Ray Diffractometer Analysis of Minerals in Rocks and Soils of Lau in Northern Taraba State, Nigeria. []

ABSTRACT This work determined the presence of solid minerals in rocks and soils of Lau in Northern part of Taraba, Nigeria. The rocks and soils samples prepared were analyzed using X-Ray diffractometer. The result showed total number of seven (7) minerals identified in both rocks and soils of Lau. The result obtained revealed the presence of Quartz (SiO3), Microcline (KAlSi3O8), Albite (NaAlSi3O8), Biotite (K(Mg,Fe);3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2), Phlogopite (KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2), Annite (KFeAlSi3O10(OH)2) and Cronstedtite (Fe2+ Fe3+ (SiFe3+)O5(OH) 4), respectively. 62%, 45.5%, 22% and 9% were highest amounts for Microcline, Albite, Quartz and Biotite at Jimleri, Jasi, Jutahore and Apawa, respectively. While lower minerals values were recorded for 30.7% Microcline, 22.8% Albite, 16% Quartz and 4% Biotite at Jasi, Minda, Jimleri and Jutahore, in rock samples accordingly. The soil samples revealed highest values of 66% Albite, 62.4% Microcline and 53% Quartz at Jimleri, Apawa, and Jutahore sample areas. While the lower soil minerals recorded 15% Albite, 21.8% Microcline, and 12% Quartz for Jimleri, Minda and Jasi sample areas. The three (3) crystal structures identified were Monoclinic, Hexagonal, and Anorthic.


This research work was carried out in selected state in Niger Delta area using Agip oil spill data. The research work aimed at analysing the oil spill hotspots using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. The data used were collected from two major sources, namely; primary and secondary sources of data. The primary data were collected by using Analogue Map of the study area. The secondary data was the Agip oil spill geospatial database of 2016, 2017 and 2018. Data Processing which includes Scanning, Reprojection, Georeferencing and Digitizing were carried out using GIS software (ArcGIS 10.5). The location of oil spill sites and quantity of oil spill were identified. Hotspot analysis was carried out to identify the area with highest oil spill intensity. The hotspots Analysis shows that the oil spill extended yearly and affects more Area. The results showed that in 2016 only part of Bayelsa State was significantly affected. In 2017 the spill highly affected the whole Bayelsa State and part of Rivers State. The oil spill tends to be highly significant in major Area of Bayelsa and less significant in the remain part. In 2018 the oil spill reduced in Bayelsa and highly extended to River State. This will help to identify the area that will be affected in future which in turn will enhance rapid spill management and effective remediation of the affected areas. This study showed that GIS is an indispensable tool in managing and predicting oil spillage, therefore, it is recommended that oil companies should always apply GIS and remote sensing techniques in identifying, managing and predicting oil spillage. This however may lead to more rapid spill management and effective remediation of impacted areas).


Nearpod is a web-based instructional tool that allows students to engage with the facilitator during the lecture session. It also has interactive elements, and lectures are broadcasted to the students’ devices via the internet. This research aimed to know the effectiveness of Nearpod web-based instructional tool in improving the grammar skill of Disiplina Village – Bignay National High School Grade 8 struggling learners, specifically in identifying Parallel Structures in sentences. To determine the effectiveness of using Nearpod web-based instructional tool as a learning intervention, a pre-test, post-test, and retention test were administered to the 30 participants of the study, who were selected through the use of Purposive Sampling. Criterion Reference was used to interpret the skill level of the learners during the pre-test. Dependent T-Test was used to compute the result of the post-test against the result of the pre-test, and the result of the post-test against the result of the retention test, to know whether there is improvement in the skills of the learners in identifying parallel structures. Lastly, Weighted Mean and Thematic Analysis were used to interpret the participants’ perception upon being exposed to Nearpod web-based instructional tool. Findings revealed that there is a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test, as well as between the post-test and retention test of the participants. Therefore, it was proved that the learners clearly exhibited improvement upon using Nearpod web-based instructional tool as learning intervention. Apart from that, this research also revealed that the learners perceived the use of Nearpod web-based instruction positively.

Man and Economy []

man and economy He is the person who is adapted to his environment, the creative and innovative to obtain his needs and desires, he is the unique distinction over the rest of creation in his nature in form, content and essence, he is purposeful and able to achieve his goals, he is the advanced and developed in his ambitions, and he is frugal and economic in his nature... Therefore, man has struggled for a long time to achieve what human civilization has reached today, through the development of his experiences and repeated experiences with his failure sometimes and his success at other times.  It led to the creativity of some philosophers and thinkers to formulate the relationship between man and energy and translate it scientifically within the theory of economics... And human history confirms that energy was one of the main pillars for the establishment of civilization, and man has sought since the beginning, to provide it by various means, and with the availability of resources in abundance, he was able to extract the rest of the materials from the earth, water and air, conduct construction operations in various forms and even go to space, energy is a key  Each door has its necessities and luxuries... His first tools were fire, spear and other tools, one million five hundred thousand years ago. And his discovery of fire constituted the first revolution of energy in human history, as man benefited from it in cooking and heating, fearing it sometimes and worshiping it at other times and using it as a weapon against enemies. Man lived his civilization in a primitive way, and this stage extended from 15000 to 9000 BC. With his discovery of agriculture, he moved to the second stage of energy, which started since the seventh millennium BC when man began using some tools and animals in order to carry out agriculture and gradually shift to stability in specific places of the earth and thus turned into an urban organism, so construction was built and societies were established... Also, with his discovery of the mining industry, he began his third stage of energy, through which man moved towards making pottery and then smelting iron, using simple machines in agriculture, setting up silos and manufacturing household appliances, inaugurating the era of industry. He also benefited from wind and water mills to increase his energies and establish furnaces for melting.  Iron, copper and other metals that had a far-reaching impact on the overall development of civilization later... As for the fourth stage of energy, when early gunpowder was discovered in China, and then several centuries later in Europe, it led to great changes in the field of wars, railways, road construction, and the use of steel in large quantities for the manufacture of cannons, and to contribute to the development of industry of all kinds.  ... With human progress and development, man entered the fifth stage of energy, with the discovery of coal of all kinds, especially wood and stone, and with it, the great industrial energy in its modern sense began, since the middle of the eighteenth century, when England was a pioneer for this industrial revolution that it accomplished within 130 years, then  France came and achieved it within 70 years, then Germany within 44 years, and Japan and the former Soviet Union within 36 years. He also moved to the sixth stage of energy, with the discovery of oil in America by (Edwin Drake) in 1859, as he was digging a well in order to obtain water in Pennsylvania, as oil came out for him instead. This was a turning point in human history. With his discovery of the atom, he entered the seventh stage, which is one of the most important stages of mankind's progress towards the great revolution of science, so man dived into the planet Earth and space, discovering the energy of large stars and the impact on knowledge of the enormous energy that is available in the nucleus of the atom stored inside it since forever. Most of the secrets of the atom have been known since  The thirties of the last century, and led to the opening of wide areas for its use, the first of which was used against humanity, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945...

An elementary proof of Catalan's conjecture with its only solution. []

The provided handwritten manuscript provides an elementary proof of Catalan's conjecture with its only solution with simple algebra.

Spatial variability of sugar cane (Saccharum officianarum) irrigation requirement mapping for Arjo-Dedessa sugar factory and its surrounding, Southwest of Ethiopia. []

The continuous dependence on rainfall causes a yield reduction and leads to a risk for food security in the world as well as in Ethiopia. For sustainable food security and development, production and productivity improvement it needs to shift the rainfed agricultural production to irrigated agricultural production. The raw matter for the production of the sugar is a sugar cane crop and now a day because of erratic rainfall irrigation water resources planning and management is critical for sugar cane production. Therefore, this study was initiated with the major objective to study the variation of irrigation requirement of sugar cane and to prepare the spatial map of irrigation requirement of the crop for Arjo-dedessa sugar factory and the surrounding area for water resources planning and management. For conducting the study Arc GIS 10.4.1, CROPWAT 8.0, and XLSTAT software were the materials used. Shape file and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data were collected from Ministry of Water Irrigation Electricity and, climate data were collected from National Meteorological Service Agency. For calculating the irrigation requirement, the crop water requirement was calculated using the CROPWAT 8.0 model and after that the irrigation requirement was calculated by deducting the effective rainfall from the total crop water requirement. For mapping, a linear regression equation was developed between observed data and station's location. The inverse distance weight (IDW) map reveals that the irrigation water requirement of sugar cane in the agro- ecology of Arjo Dedessa and its surrounding was in the range of 464.34 mm - 961.57mm depth of water spatially. It was high in the Northern part of the study area and low in the Western and Eastern part of the study area. The temporal variation of the crop irrigation requirement reveals that, the crop does not require irrigation during the months of May, June, July, August and September in all parts of the study area. A more experimental research has to be conducted in order to determine the irrigation schedule and the water use efficiency of the crop. Key words: depth of water, Irrigation, mapping, mm, sugarcane

CONNAISSANCES, ATTITUDES ET PRATIQUES DES FEMMES ALLAITANTES SUR L’ALLAITEMENT MATERNEL EXCLUSIF (Cas de l’Aire de Santé de Kabinda dans la Zone de Santé de Kabinda, Province de Lomami /RD. Congo) []

Introduction : Cette étude avait comme objectif d’évaluer les connaissances, attitudes et pratiques de l'allaitement maternel exclusif chez les femmes allaitantes de la ville de Kabinda, dans la zone de santé portant le même nom, dans la province de Lomami en République Démocratique du Congo. Matériels et Méthodes : Cette étude a été menée sur une période allant du 1er Juillet au 31 Décembre 2021 soit une durée de six mois et s’est déroulée dans les aires de santé localisées dans la zone de santé de Kabinda et ville portant le même nom. L'étude est observationnelle descriptive transversale, appuyée par la technique d'interview structurée. La population d'étude est constituée par l'ensemble des femmes allaitantes dans les ménages, cependant la population source de présentes données est de : 778 femmes enquêtées comme échantillon. La taille de l’échantillon a été calculé au moyen de la formule de de Lorenz. Le questionnaire d’enquête a été l’outil utilisé dans la collecte des données qui ont été par après saisies sur Microsoft Excel et analysé au moyen du logiciel Epi info 3.5.Ainsi l’échantillon obtenu a été tiré sur base des critères de sélection ci-après : Critères d’inclusion : mères allaitantes des nourrissons de 0 à 6 mois habitant l’aire de santé de Kabinda, quartiers Lunya 1 et 2 ; présentes le jour de l’enquête et ayant accepté de participer librement à notre enquête. Critères d’exclusion : Sont exclus de cette étude, tous les sujets n'ayant pas remplis les critères cités précédemment. Résultats : Les résultats de cette étude indiquent que 68,6% de femmes ne possédaient pas de connaissances sur l’allaitement maternel exclusif, contre 31,4% qui en étaient au courant ; 53,0% de femmes percevaient ce mode d’alimentation comme une punition ; la prévalence de l’allaitement maternel exclusif s’élève à 18,3 % dans la ville de Kabinda. Nos investigations ont révélé également que, 31,4 % des femmes possédaient les connaissances sur l’allaitement maternel exclusif, contre 68,6% qui n’en avaient pas, 53% de femmes trouvaient l’allaitement maternel exclusif comme une punition leur imposée, 26,9% trouvaient que cette recommandation est propre aux femmes qui vivent dans le chômage, donc désœuvrées. 53,0% des femmes enquêtées évoquaient le motif de sevrage précoce relatif à la densité de leurs travaux pour la survie de leurs foyers ; la prévalence de l’allaitement maternel exclusif dans la cité de Kabinda s’élève à un taux de 18,3%. Conclusion : Mettre le nouveau - né au sein et le nourrir du lait de sa mère est un acte naturel qui tire sa nécessité d’impératifs biologique et psychologique. Au cours de ces dernières années , le développement de la technologie alimentaire a entrainé l'irruption sur le marché d'aliments pour enfant et, plus particulièrement, de lait en poudre, volontiers qualifiés de substituts du lait maternel, il en résulte l'augmentation de la consommation de ces produits et, par voie de conséquences, le recul de l'allaitement maternel exclusif surtout en ville. Les stratégies d’encouragement et de promotion de l’allaitement maternel exclusif doivent être redynamisées dans notre contrée avec un accent particulier sur l’éducation prénatale, la prise en charge de conscience sur les prestataires de services de maternités.


Accounting is known as the language of business, it records all financial transactions . Accounting information is necessary to understand the financial situation of the firm and use it as the basis of decision-making. Accounting is defined as the process of collecting, recording, classifying, and interpreting it to enable the decision-making process by users. Therefore each of the recording faces of accounting is bookkeeping. Information should be based on accurate, qualitative, timely, and clear. Significant roles in effective decision-making come from the accounting information systems. The purpose of the research was to study the impacts of accounting information on the decision-making process in SMEs in The Gambia. The researcher used a survey research design to study financial accounting information quality and its relationship with decision-making in SMEs. The study population consisted of three SMEs in The Gambia. The sample size of the study was 100. There was a collection of primary data from the respondents using self-administered questionnaires. A descriptive method was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that comparability, reliability, and relevance were important in determining decisions. The study suggests that managers should put in measures to improve both qualitative characteristics of financial statements in their SMEs so that they are easily comparable to the industry average. The management should also put in measures to enhance reliability in accounting information so as to improve predictive value which helps in decision making in the future. Monitoring and control action should be enhanced in the decision-making process to achieve the desired goal Keywords: Accounting, Accounting Information, Data, Information systems, Management

An Assessment of factors influencing commuters travel behaviour on the Mile 2 –Badagry Express-way, Lagos, Nigeria. []

Transport or transportation is the movement of people, animals and goods from one location to another. The study of travel behaviour over the last half-century has yielded critical insights into the choices that individuals and households make about their daily travel. These insights have contributed to the development of this study, which is the assessment of the factors influencing the travel behaviour of commuters on the Mile-2 Badagry Expressway, Lagos, to achieve the aim four objectives as stated alongside the hypotheses. To validate the hypotheses regression statistical tools was used. Regression estimates the coefficients of the linear equation, involving one or more independent variables that best predict the value of the dependent variable. The first hypothesis reveals a fairly high coefficient of determination. This can be seen from the R-squared of .752. The R-squared reports that the independent variables can explain about 75 per cent of the total variation in traffic flow, 25 per cent variation in traffic flow are not accounted for in the result. The first hypothesis accepts the alternative hypothesis which states that traffic flow is influenced by travel behaviour. The second hypothesis reveals an R-squared of .851. The R-squared reports that the independent variables can explain about 85 per cent of the total variation in traffic flow, 15 per cent variation in traffic flow. The first hypothesis accepts the alternative hypothesis which states that the socio-economic characteristics of households are significantly related to their travel behaviour, the acceptance of the alternative hypothesis is because it receives statistical support. The research however revealed that the socio-economic status of the respondents will go a long way to influence their travel behaviour because it will enhance the smooth movement of the respondents from their origin to destination, the traffic congestion sometimes too is assisted by the poor state of the road and poor management practices by commuters.