Volume 10, Issue 1, January 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

[1]  [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]  [6]  [7]  [8]


In recent times, developments in wide range of knowledge sectors have experienced an unprecedented growth of data and information. This makes demand for mechanisms for processing these high volumes of data high. These mechanisms often demand sorting. In the literature, there exist numerous implementation solutions for sorting. The choice of these techniques to be used in the implementation of these mechanisms now becomes a research issue. Thus, the aim of this paper is to evaluate sorting techniques in the solution space based on CPU time and memory consumption as performance index. To realize this, we carried out an extensive review of related works. The knowledge acquired from the literature was used to formulate an architectural model. We implemented the architecture in C-language and the performance of bubble sort, insertion sort, and selection sort techniques was evaluated using the GNU-profiler. Experimental results show that insertion sort technique is the most efficient, while bubble sort technique is the most inefficient in all test cases for CPU time and memory consumption.


This qualitative study on the Issues and Successes of NEUST Papaya-Off Campus School Returnees sought to understand the lives and situations of school returnees to understand their experiences better in pursuing a college degree. The researchers sought to address the following questions in this study: What are the reasons and motivations for returning to higher education for returnee students? How are adult returnees adapting to their new experiences and education? What issues do returnee students face throughout their school-returning lives? What are returnee students' outcomes and expected outcomes in terms of academic success? The participants are fifteen (15) students from various programs at NEUST Papaya Off-Campus, ranging from 23 to 28 years. The researchers employed a phenomenological approach to account for specific situations, experiences, and events. The researchers can conduct in-depth examinations of the phenomena under investigation. The study employed an online interview in which participants responded to questions about their experiences as school returnees. This study established that age and responsibilities do not preclude completing an education. The researchers recommend additional research on this subject and ways to assist students and the people and institutions involved in their lives in improving and overcoming specific imposed problems and challenges.


To understand the importance of elaborating on this topic, first of all, the role of small economy in modern, developed and underdeveloped economies is reviewed, based on the representation of SMEs, their contribution to the creation of GDP, the solution of unemployment problems and promoting overall economic and social development. The impact of fiscal policy is further analyzed, as shown below. In doing so, the effects of taxes and other fiscal obligations are analyzed, paying particular attention to tax incentives, which have a general application to all economic entities, regardless of their size, and then especially the measures envisaged as specific to SMEs in the EU, and then analyze the rich system instrument and specific fiscal measures for the functioning of SMEs in the US. In addition to fiscal policy, systemic and monetary policies are analyzed as solutions, legal framework, lending opportunities and securing financial resources from non-bank sources, which are important for small business development. The main focus, however, is the empirical analysis of the economic and financial situation of small and medium-sized businesses (enterprises) in the EU and in the Republic of Northern Macedonia. The analysis is based on the assessment of legal solutions and reforms implemented in the tax system, as well as changes in tax policy, verified in the years after independence. The analysis also takes into account the volume of fiscal and tax liabilities paid, contributions and other obligations, the size of enterprises to assess the impact of the fiscal and monetary factor on the development of small and medium-sized businesses. Key words: Fiscal policy, SME, Eu regulation

Literary Achievement of Maulana Syed Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi []

Précis For Research Paper In this research article, an attempt has been made to highlight the contribution of one of the great luminaries of the twentieth century in Islamic history and historiography who stood for social reform, literary awakening and for revolution through the medium of Islamic history. The historical analysis of Maulana Nadwi makes one to believe strongly that the time has come when the present leadership should be changed to restore humanity from darkness to light and from ignorance to knowledge and wisdom. To sum up the paper it can be said that one of the characteristics of Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi was his profound belief in Islam. He took pride in his writings and speeches in Islamic cultural heritage, He tried to find solution to all problems the mankind faced primarily in the Quran and Hadith. He was, among all other identities, a great preacher of Islam and an international messenger of brotherhood, humanity, peace and a socio-religious reformer of the Muslim world who eagerly wanted Muslim society to develop and compete with the rest of the world in every field. He had very pleasing personality didn’t have animosity and ill will against any one. He believed in the purity of Islam, worked and lived for Islam, never ran after wealth, never preferred an isolated life, unmindful what is happening around the world. He was observer of the developments taking place across the world, fought for humanity and strived hard for the revival of glorious Islamic history. He pin pointed the shortcomings of his fellow believers and criticized in no uncertain terms all those who miserably failed to develop Muslim society


The unique focus of this paper is to overcome the controversies between metaphysics and epistemology as raised in the philosophy of John Locke a modern empiricist and Carol Rovane a contemporary metaphysician. The aim is to propose a need for meta-epistemic consolidation which will insist on a combine approach of metaphysical theories and epistemology that will ensure the realization of an authentic human knowledge. We shall argue that Locke attitude of valorizing the epistemological analysis base on the content of experience without taking into consideration the metaphysical basis of reality is insufficient. In addition, we shall equally go beyond Rovane’s value of metaphysics which to her remains a fundamental science since it deals with intuitive recognizing consciousness as oppose to common experiences that was being admitted by Locke her predecessor.


This study aims to analyze whether economic growth, total regional assets, and leverage affect the financial performance of West Sulawesi Province in 2010-2020. The data used were analyzed quantitatively. This study used an analytical observational approach with a time series design, the research data was in the form of numbers and analysis using statistics with a hypothesis testing study research design to test the effect between variables. The study used Multiple Linear Regression and Moderated Regression Analysis using the SPSS program. The results showed that: Economic Growth and Total Regional Assets of West Sulawesi Province, had an influence on the Regional Financial Performance of West Sulawesi Province in 2009-2019. While the Leverage variable has a negative but not significant relationship to the Regional Financial Performance of West Sulawesi Province (Y) in 20010-2019.


ABSTRACT The effect of capital inflow on economic growth has become a debating macro-economic agenda among scholars & policymakers in Africa particularly in Ethiopia. From this ground, the researcher has tried to examine The Effect of Capital Inflow on Economic Growth of Ethiopia using an Auto Regressive Distributed Lag Bound Testing Approach (1990 to 2019). The result of the analysis revealed that the Long-run and short-run impact of official inflow (remittance, foreign aid and foreign direct investment) are positive at 1%, 5% and 1% significant level respectively. The long run & short run effect of external debt but reveals negative and significant at 5% and 1%. Other variables of growth such as gross capital formation appeared to be positive and significant at 1% in long run and short run while terms of trade and unemployment rate were significant and negatively associated to growth in both long run and short run growth. The error correction model result shows that, the previous year’s error will be corrected in the current period at an adjustment speed of 90% which takes about 1.1 years to converge to its long-run static position after the short-run shocks. The researcher recommends the concerned body for better benefits of foreign capital flow, the government of Ethiopia has to play a significant role in ensuring better institutional policy arrangement and sound macroeconomic policies, which are necessary requirements and the transmission of remittance channeling into formal which is used to control black market and to fill saving investment gap. Key Words: ARDL, Capital inflow, Economic Growth, ECM, Ethiopia. JEL classification: B41, C22, F32, F62, O55

Effect of adding filler rubber pieces powder on the bending resistance and Compression stress for polymer (unsaturated polyester). []

The Study of the effect of rubber pieces powder on the bending resistance properties and flam for unsaturated polyester which is manufactured in the Turkey, a function of the percentages of Copper powder (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%), a particular size (250 µm). Were investigated through the experimental work for some variables, such as a flame retardant and the bending resistance, Compression stress. Also, the samples of the base material pure unsaturated polyester were measured and measured polyester reinforced with rubber pieces powder . The obtained results appeared that the added rubber pieces powder to led to reducing the spaces between the polymer chains which reflects the high ability of the polymer against the applied stress, the degree of homogeneity is high between polymer and additives, also the results indicate a lowered in bending resistance at percentage (20%) is (70Mpa), and observe from experimental result the average time of burning starts strong impact when (0%) is (189 Sec), and then decreasing behavior values to (121 Sec) when percentage (5%), while the maximum value for percentages when (25%) is (133 Sec.).

The impact of the Corona pandemic on the financial performance of private higher education institutions A case study of the Elobeid College of Sciences and Technology in Sudan []

The aim of the research is to know the impact of covid-19 pandemic on financial performance of higher education institutions in Sudan and the strategies through which this impact can be mitigated to ensure their continuity in the event of recurring crises. The problem represented in the following questions: What is the impact of the Corona pandemic on the actual performance of revenues at Elobied College of Science and Technology? What is the impact of the Corona pandemic on operating and capital expensees at Elobied College of Sciences and Technology during the year 2020. The research found that the Corona pandemic negatively affected revenues, operating and capital expenditures, and the research recommended that multiple strategies be taken to reduce the effects of the pandemic.

the effect of exchange rate volatility and currency substitution on Nigerian Economy []

This work examines the effect of Exchange Rate Volatility and Currency Substitution on Nigeria Economy. I found out that there exist a positive and significant relationship between exchange rate and inflation rate in Nigeria. This means that increase in inflation rate will bring about a rise in exchange rate which may result to the substitution of local currency, that is, if there a unit change in inflation rate, exchange rate will increase by 42.6%. This result is line with the findings of Doguwa (2014) that persistent rise in exchange rate spread would raise economic agents’ suspicion for possible devaluation of the local currency and therefore, may increase his desire for currency substitution. The implication of this is that the monetary authority will ensure that the spread between the official exchange rate and the parallel market rate is contained at any point in time.

The Effect of Education and Training on Civil Servant Career Development with Competence as Intervening Variables in Makassar City Industry Centers []

Education and training play an important role in creating reliable and competent human resources. In addition, career development can also improve employee performance and increase promotion opportunities for employees to be able to achieve career paths. This study aims to analyze and determine the effect of education and training on career development of civil servants with competence as an intervening variable at the Makassar City Center for Plantation Products Industry. This research uses quantitative research, which is carried out using aspects of measurement, calculation, formulas and numerical certainty. The population in this study were 70 civil servants. Data were collected using observation, questionnaires/questionnaires, and literature studies. The data were analyzed using the SPSS program. The results showed that (1) education and training have an effect on career development, (2) education and training have an effect on competence, (3) competence has an effect on career development and (4) education and training has no effect on career development through competence.

Performance Analysis of Stock Mutual Funds using Sharpe, Treynor, and Jensen Methods (Study on Mutual Listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for 2016-2020 period) []

This study aims to analyze and find out the significant differences in the performance of Equity Mutual Funds between the Sharpe, Treynor, and Jensen methods on Mutual Fund issuers listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the 2016 – 2020 period. This research was conducted on the Indonesia Stock Exchange, as for the analytical method used. is secondary data that describes the performance of stock mutual funds listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange using the Sharpe method, Treynor method and Jensen method. Based on the results of the analysis of stock mutual fund performance data in the five-year period, 2016 – 2020 using the average and maximum value assessments, it was found that the Sharpe method had a higher average value than the Treynor and Jensen methods. While based on the minimum value assessment, the Treynor method has a higher value than the Sharpe and Jensen method. There is no significant difference between the performance of stock mutual funds based on the Sharpe method with the Treynor method and the Jensen method. However, the test results between the Treynor and Jensen methods found different results, namely there was a significant difference between the performance of the mutual funds evaluated based on the Treynor and Jensen method.

Molecular and other diagnostic tools used to compare Schistosoma haematobium infections in pupils before and after praziquantel therapy []

Urogenital schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by the Trematode Schistosoma haematobium. In endemic areas, the infection is usually acquired from an early age. Drug of choice for treatment of all Schistosoma species is praziquantel. We compared Schistosoma haematobium infection rates obtained with polymerize chain reaction (PCR), polycarbonate track etched (PCTE) filters and urine dipstick test strip among 400 pupils from two schools in Makurdi before and after praziquantel therapy. S. haematobium eggs in urine samples using PCTE filters gave an overall prevalence of 22.7% before praziquantel therapy. Males had a prevalence (23.1%) higher than (22.3%) in females (p>0.05). Pupils under ten years old had 21.0% prevalence while age-group of 11-20 years recorded 23.4% (p<0.05). Pupils in Location “A” had a prevalence of (26.5%) higher than (19%) for those at location “B” (p>0.05). The PCR gave the highest prevalence (25.75%) before praziquantel treatment and least prevalence (3.5%) after treatment, indicating its highest sensitivity and specificity over PCTE filters and RDT dipstick. Since different diagnostic methods yielded different S. haematobium prevalence, it is necessary to use more than one method to increase the accuracy of diagnosis and for better interpretation of prevalence. Praziquantel is able to significantly reduce egg count and morbidities. Hence annual mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel should continue to be used for control of schistosomiasis in endemic areas of the country. However, infections should be avoided by all means to avoid debilitating effects of irreversible morbidities.


Dr. Brian Mutie PhD is a Renowned Kenyan scholar, researcher and Lawyer. His expertise is on Governance, Law and Democracy, Project Management including Monitoring and Evaluation, Human security, Peacebuilding. He has contributed to the knowledge pool and discourses boundaring in Electoral Governance not only in Kenya but Africa and beyond.

Comparative analysis of budget expenditures of North Macedonia for 2020/2021 []

The failure of economies based on central socialist planning is one of the most significant economic events of the XXI century, it happened that also appeared as the main challenge of economic theory and policy so far nationally and globally The processes of globalization and integration have mostly affected the countries in transition, which for more than a decade and a half are in the process of transforming the economy and macroeconomic institutional construction within the market economy. The management of the former socialist economies in a historical process of transition still unfinished towards a market economy has been realized mainly with the assistance and under the supervision of the main international financial institutions. Cooperation of transition economies with the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in the process of implementing economic reforms has been the only alternative available to countries in transition. Countries in transition throughout the period of transformation of the former socialist system towards the most advanced, ie towards the construction of a more stable economic system, that of the market economy has always been characterized by high inflation, in which the forecasts for a rapid economic growth have stalled. The context in which the budget of the Republic of Macedonia was projected throughout the transition period has been consulted and designed according to the directives of the arrangements of international organizations such as the IMF, in correlation with the specifics and the real economic potential of the RNM. A significant exception was identified during 2020-2021, these years in which fiscal policy was completely contrary to the defined and oriented objective mainly in financing the war against Covid-19, respectively the financing of the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Economy.


The paper investigates empirically the impact of financial inclusion on economic growth in Nigeria using quarterly time series covering theperiod 2009Q1 and 2020Q4. Data used were Real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP) as the dependent variable to capture economic growth and Number of Point of Sale (POS), Loans of Rural Branches of deposit money Banks (LRB), credit barrier (CRB) and deposit money Banks Loans to Small Scale Enterprises (LSE) to capture financial inclusion as the explanatory variables. Relying on descriptive statistics, unit root test and Toda-Yamamoto causality modeling techniques the data were analysed. The outcome of the analyses showed that POS, LRB, CRB and LSE do not affect the RGDP both jointly and individually at 5 percent level. The paper therefore concludes that financial inclusion has not enhanced economic growth in Nigeria within the period of study. The paper therefore recommends that government should create enabling environment for effective financial inclusion through structures and platforms such as bank branches and POS terminals of conventional banks as well as adequately equip them so as to enhance and sustain financial inclusion and by extension bringing those in the informal sector into the formal financial sector. Keywords: Financial Inclusion, Informal Sector and Economic Growth

Is Ransomware a challenge for Cybersecurity? []

Cybercriminals use Ransomware to encrypt your data and demand payment to decrypt it. This is still a growing threat for cybersecurity started with simple email attack. This paper discusses different types of techniques and versions used in ransomware attack and how you can save yourself and your organization by following Incident handling Guide.

Vibrational behaviour of a quarter car travelling over road humps with different suspension systems []

Due to the unawareness of some vehicles’ drivers to abide by the limited speeds, many authorities have had to set up road speed humps to calm down the vehicles flow, especially in densely populated areas. And as a result, bad vehicles ride comfort is produced from the suspension system. Therefore, researchers and car manufacturers were interested in improving the vibrational behaviour of the vehicle while traveling over humps. In this study, the vibrational behaviour of the vehicle was studied while traveling over different types of road humps using passive, semi-active and active suspension systems. A mathematical model was introduced to study the vibrational behaviour of the vehicle when traveling over various types of road humps such as the circular hump, square hump, and circular bump, using a passive and a semi-active model. The parameters that were investigated in this study to evaluate the ride comfort are the body vertical acceleration, the suspension working space, the dynamic tire load, and the displacement of the body displacement. The results show that the ride comfort is greatly affected by driving over humps especially at high speeds. The impact was most evident and tangible when traveling over the road humps, even at low speeds. Traveling over humps, whether circular or square, has a great impact on the vehicle ride comfort as well as the stability of the car. There is a tangible improvement when using a semi-active suspension system. These improvements were obtained in the body vertical acceleration, the suspension working space, and the displacement of the body. While there was no significant change in the dynamic tire load levels. In the case of active suspension system, there is a greater improvement in both the suspension working space, the body vertical acceleration, and the body displacement.


The Secretariat General of the Ministry of Manpower is a government agency that has recently experienced a decline in the organizational commitment of its employees. The Secretariat General is interested to know the variables causing this issue. This paper is intended to develop a conceptual model to determine the effect of transformational leadership style and work conflict on organizational commitment with work stress as intervening variable. This paper proposes a conceptual model for decreasing organizational commitment, along with literature review, hypotheses, and research methodology. The implementation of this paper can provide information about the effects of transformational leadership style, work conflict and work stress on organizational commitment with a case study of the Secretariat General of the Ministry of Manpower.


Tumours are extensively driven by both genetic and epigenetic lesions. Although cancers are induced by genetic mutations more often, progressive carcinogenesis is difficult if not impossible to sustain without an extra helping hand of aberrant epigenetic behaviour. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms that look over the stability, expression, and maintenance of the genome without altering DNA sequence are susceptible to dysfunctioning and mutations in all cancer types but partially remain in the framework of modifiable machinery, intensifying the necessity of learning their contribution and course of action in carcinogenesis. Despite the fact that the DNA methylation is the most acknowledged and therapeutically approached epigenetic mechanism, compelling functionalism of hypomethylation, post-translational histone modifications, non-coding RNAs and chromatin remodellers have a somewhat equally dynamic role in facilitating oncogenesis in mutation-susceptible conditions. Over the last decade aberrant epigenetic mechanisms have found applications in designing prognostic, diagnostic and monitory techniques of cancer management. It's of immense importance to quest inside the genome and comprehend the underlying patterns of epigenetic mechanisms that allow cancers to invade, metastasize and progress towards the destruction of healthy well-being to enable a wider and more accessible advance in adopting epigenetic mechanisms to tackle tumors.

Evaluation of benefits on using diabetes technological devices in emerging adults with type 1 diabetes. []

Research title: Evaluation of benefits on using diabetes technological devices in emerging adults with type 1 diabetes. Background: In the past few years advances in technology used in diabetes care has been observed. Achievement of glycemic control remains challenging in emerging adults with type 1 diabetes due to alternating adolescent behavior and despite of technological advancement until recently only minority of patients were using devices. Objectives: This study aims to identify the clinical benefits of using diabetes technological devices in type 1 diabetes management in emerging adults. Illustrating clinical benefits in glycemic level control and prevention or reduction of diabetes complication like hypo- or hyperglycemia and diabetes distress. Methods: Rapid review method of the scientific literature was conducted using PubMed and Cochrane database. Studies reported in English and published between 2010 and 2020 were included. PRISMA statement was employed in identification, screening and assessing eligibility criteria of studies in the review. From the 350 studies identified, 15 met inclusion criteria. Results: Most of the reviewed studies showed clinical benefits of using insulin pumps and/or continuous glucose monitors related to glycemic control. Increase in the time spent within target glycemic range, reduction in glycated hemoglobin level (HbA1c), incidence of severe hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia and improvement in the quality of life. Conclusion: This review study pointed out the clinical significance of using continuous glucose monitor and/or insulin pump with improvement glycemic control, reduce incidence of severe hypoglycemia and diabetes distress. As adolescents are increasingly accessing technologies. Further research is hence needed to assess accessibility of devices to emerging adults.

Tomato Harvesting Robot Based on Solid Work []

Designing and development of agricultural robot is always a challenging issue, because of robot intends to work an unstructured environment and at the same time, it should be safe for the surrounded plants. Therefore, traditional robots cannot meet the high demands of modern challenges, such as working in confined and unstructured work spaces. Based on current issues, we developed a new tomato harvesting robot arm with a flexible backbone structure for working in confined and extremely constrained spaces. Moreover, we optimized a tomato detaching process by using newly designed gripper with passive stem cutting function. Moreover, by designing the robot we also developed ripe tomato recognition by using machine learning. This paper explains the proposed continuum robot structure, gripper design, and development of tomato recognition system.


With a meager growth rate of 1.2 percent from 2011 to 2019, Nigerian labor productivity has remained consistently low and unsatisfactory. As a result of this, as well as other considera-tions, numerous construction projects in the country have been abandoned. The factors im-pacting labor productivity on building projects in Nigeria were ranked in this study. A ques-tionnaire survey of 500 stakeholders in the building construction business was conducted to achieve this. Management and control (MC), Workforce (W), Material & Equipment (ME), Finance (F), Project (P), and External (E) are the six (6) key areas of labor productivity fac-tors (E). The data from the questionnaire survey were subjected to a Pearson Correlation and Relative Importance Index test. Management and control with workfoce factors showed the strongest correlation in causing project cost overrun, management and control with fi-nance factors for project time delay while workforce and material/equipment factors influ-ence project quality. The scatter chart ranking result revealed that management and control elements have the greatest impact on cost overruns and project delays, while workforce has the greatest impact on project quality. This research showed that a solid management and workforce is key to consistent productivity that enhances good project performance in the Nigeria construction industry.


Assessment of the use of genetic algorithm to optimize the parameters of the building project: project time, price and management of the resource crew: was investigated Project information regarding the quantity of works, the different resource options in terms of productivity and cost & the Line of Balance Schedule table for 15 activities have been included in a GA coded excel sheet on which the optimization was carried out. Total project completion time and cost of 136 days at $‪1,005,305.92 without resource interruptions along units of work was obtained compared to 150 days at $‪1,241,820.09 which was obtained at site using the conventional management techniques. The use of GA in construction project scheduling would aid the managers in managing resources towards efficient project delivery at low cost.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

X-Ray Diffractometer Analysis of Minerals in Rocks and Soils of Lau in Northern Taraba State, Nigeria. []

ABSTRACT This work determined the presence of solid minerals in rocks and soils of Lau in Northern part of Taraba, Nigeria. The rocks and soils samples prepared were analyzed using X-Ray diffractometer. The result showed total number of seven (7) minerals identified in both rocks and soils of Lau. The result obtained revealed the presence of Quartz (SiO3), Microcline (KAlSi3O8), Albite (NaAlSi3O8), Biotite (K(Mg,Fe);3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2), Phlogopite (KMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2), Annite (KFeAlSi3O10(OH)2) and Cronstedtite (Fe2+ Fe3+ (SiFe3+)O5(OH) 4), respectively. 62%, 45.5%, 22% and 9% were highest amounts for Microcline, Albite, Quartz and Biotite at Jimleri, Jasi, Jutahore and Apawa, respectively. While lower minerals values were recorded for 30.7% Microcline, 22.8% Albite, 16% Quartz and 4% Biotite at Jasi, Minda, Jimleri and Jutahore, in rock samples accordingly. The soil samples revealed highest values of 66% Albite, 62.4% Microcline and 53% Quartz at Jimleri, Apawa, and Jutahore sample areas. While the lower soil minerals recorded 15% Albite, 21.8% Microcline, and 12% Quartz for Jimleri, Minda and Jasi sample areas. The three (3) crystal structures identified were Monoclinic, Hexagonal, and Anorthic.


This research work was carried out in selected state in Niger Delta area using Agip oil spill data. The research work aimed at analysing the oil spill hotspots using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. The data used were collected from two major sources, namely; primary and secondary sources of data. The primary data were collected by using Analogue Map of the study area. The secondary data was the Agip oil spill geospatial database of 2016, 2017 and 2018. Data Processing which includes Scanning, Reprojection, Georeferencing and Digitizing were carried out using GIS software (ArcGIS 10.5). The location of oil spill sites and quantity of oil spill were identified. Hotspot analysis was carried out to identify the area with highest oil spill intensity. The hotspots Analysis shows that the oil spill extended yearly and affects more Area. The results showed that in 2016 only part of Bayelsa State was significantly affected. In 2017 the spill highly affected the whole Bayelsa State and part of Rivers State. The oil spill tends to be highly significant in major Area of Bayelsa and less significant in the remain part. In 2018 the oil spill reduced in Bayelsa and highly extended to River State. This will help to identify the area that will be affected in future which in turn will enhance rapid spill management and effective remediation of the affected areas. This study showed that GIS is an indispensable tool in managing and predicting oil spillage, therefore, it is recommended that oil companies should always apply GIS and remote sensing techniques in identifying, managing and predicting oil spillage. This however may lead to more rapid spill management and effective remediation of impacted areas).


Nearpod is a web-based instructional tool that allows students to engage with the facilitator during the lecture session. It also has interactive elements, and lectures are broadcasted to the students’ devices via the internet. This research aimed to know the effectiveness of Nearpod web-based instructional tool in improving the grammar skill of Disiplina Village – Bignay National High School Grade 8 struggling learners, specifically in identifying Parallel Structures in sentences. To determine the effectiveness of using Nearpod web-based instructional tool as a learning intervention, a pre-test, post-test, and retention test were administered to the 30 participants of the study, who were selected through the use of Purposive Sampling. Criterion Reference was used to interpret the skill level of the learners during the pre-test. Dependent T-Test was used to compute the result of the post-test against the result of the pre-test, and the result of the post-test against the result of the retention test, to know whether there is improvement in the skills of the learners in identifying parallel structures. Lastly, Weighted Mean and Thematic Analysis were used to interpret the participants’ perception upon being exposed to Nearpod web-based instructional tool. Findings revealed that there is a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test, as well as between the post-test and retention test of the participants. Therefore, it was proved that the learners clearly exhibited improvement upon using Nearpod web-based instructional tool as learning intervention. Apart from that, this research also revealed that the learners perceived the use of Nearpod web-based instruction positively.

Man and Economy []

man and economy He is the person who is adapted to his environment, the creative and innovative to obtain his needs and desires, he is the unique distinction over the rest of creation in his nature in form, content and essence, he is purposeful and able to achieve his goals, he is the advanced and developed in his ambitions, and he is frugal and economic in his nature... Therefore, man has struggled for a long time to achieve what human civilization has reached today, through the development of his experiences and repeated experiences with his failure sometimes and his success at other times.

An elementary proof of Catalan's conjecture with its only solution. []

The provided handwritten manuscript provides an elementary proof of Catalan's conjecture with its only solution with simple algebra.

Spatial variability of sugar cane (Saccharum officianarum) irrigation requirement mapping for Arjo-Dedessa sugar factory and its surrounding, Southwest of Ethiopia. []

The continuous dependence on rainfall causes a yield reduction and leads to a risk for food security in the world as well as in Ethiopia. For sustainable food security and development, production and productivity improvement it needs to shift the rainfed agricultural production to irrigated agricultural production. The raw matter for the production of the sugar is a sugar cane crop and now a day because of erratic rainfall irrigation water resources planning and management is critical for sugar cane production. Therefore, this study was initiated with the major objective to study the variation of irrigation requirement of sugar cane and to prepare the spatial map of irrigation requirement of the crop for Arjo-dedessa sugar factory and the surrounding area for water resources planning and management. For conducting the study Arc GIS 10.4.1, CROPWAT 8.0, and XLSTAT software were the materials used. Shape file and Digital Elevation Model (DEM) data were collected from Ministry of Water Irrigation Electricity and, climate data were collected from National Meteorological Service Agency. For calculating the irrigation requirement, the crop water requirement was calculated using the CROPWAT 8.0 model and after that the irrigation requirement was calculated by deducting the effective rainfall from the total crop water requirement. For mapping, a linear regression equation was developed between observed data and station's location. The inverse distance weight (IDW) map reveals that the irrigation water requirement of sugar cane in the agro- ecology of Arjo Dedessa and its surrounding was in the range of 464.34 mm - 961.57mm depth of water spatially. It was high in the Northern part of the study area and low in the Western and Eastern part of the study area. The temporal variation of the crop irrigation requirement reveals that, the crop does not require irrigation during the months of May, June, July, August and September in all parts of the study area. A more experimental research has to be conducted in order to determine the irrigation schedule and the water use efficiency of the crop. Key words: depth of water, Irrigation, mapping, mm, sugarcane

CONNAISSANCES, ATTITUDES ET PRATIQUES DES FEMMES ALLAITANTES SUR L’ALLAITEMENT MATERNEL EXCLUSIF (Cas de l’Aire de Santé de Kabinda dans la Zone de Santé de Kabinda, Province de Lomami /RD. Congo) []

Introduction : Cette étude avait comme objectif d’évaluer les connaissances, attitudes et pratiques de l'allaitement maternel exclusif chez les femmes allaitantes de la ville de Kabinda, dans la zone de santé portant le même nom, dans la province de Lomami en République Démocratique du Congo. Matériels et Méthodes : Cette étude a été menée sur une période allant du 1er Juillet au 31 Décembre 2021 soit une durée de six mois et s’est déroulée dans les aires de santé localisées dans la zone de santé de Kabinda et ville portant le même nom. L'étude est observationnelle descriptive transversale, appuyée par la technique d'interview structurée. La population d'étude est constituée par l'ensemble des femmes allaitantes dans les ménages, cependant la population source de présentes données est de : 778 femmes enquêtées comme échantillon. La taille de l’échantillon a été calculé au moyen de la formule de de Lorenz. Le questionnaire d’enquête a été l’outil utilisé dans la collecte des données qui ont été par après saisies sur Microsoft Excel et analysé au moyen du logiciel Epi info 3.5.Ainsi l’échantillon obtenu a été tiré sur base des critères de sélection ci-après : Critères d’inclusion : mères allaitantes des nourrissons de 0 à 6 mois habitant l’aire de santé de Kabinda, quartiers Lunya 1 et 2 ; présentes le jour de l’enquête et ayant accepté de participer librement à notre enquête. Critères d’exclusion : Sont exclus de cette étude, tous les sujets n'ayant pas remplis les critères cités précédemment. Résultats : Les résultats de cette étude indiquent que 68,6% de femmes ne possédaient pas de connaissances sur l’allaitement maternel exclusif, contre 31,4% qui en étaient au courant ; 53,0% de femmes percevaient ce mode d’alimentation comme une punition ; la prévalence de l’allaitement maternel exclusif s’élève à 18,3 % dans la ville de Kabinda. Nos investigations ont révélé également que, 31,4 % des femmes possédaient les connaissances sur l’allaitement maternel exclusif, contre 68,6% qui n’en avaient pas, 53% de femmes trouvaient l’allaitement maternel exclusif comme une punition leur imposée, 26,9% trouvaient que cette recommandation est propre aux femmes qui vivent dans le chômage, donc désœuvrées. 53,0% des femmes enquêtées évoquaient le motif de sevrage précoce relatif à la densité de leurs travaux pour la survie de leurs foyers ; la prévalence de l’allaitement maternel exclusif dans la cité de Kabinda s’élève à un taux de 18,3%. Conclusion : Mettre le nouveau - né au sein et le nourrir du lait de sa mère est un acte naturel qui tire sa nécessité d’impératifs biologique et psychologique. Au cours de ces dernières années , le développement de la technologie alimentaire a entrainé l'irruption sur le marché d'aliments pour enfant et, plus particulièrement, de lait en poudre, volontiers qualifiés de substituts du lait maternel, il en résulte l'augmentation de la consommation de ces produits et, par voie de conséquences, le recul de l'allaitement maternel exclusif surtout en ville. Les stratégies d’encouragement et de promotion de l’allaitement maternel exclusif doivent être redynamisées dans notre contrée avec un accent particulier sur l’éducation prénatale, la prise en charge de conscience sur les prestataires de services de maternités.


Accounting is known as the language of business, it records all financial transactions . Accounting information is necessary to understand the financial situation of the firm and use it as the basis of decision-making. Accounting is defined as the process of collecting, recording, classifying, and interpreting it to enable the decision-making process by users. Therefore each of the recording faces of accounting is bookkeeping. Information should be based on accurate, qualitative, timely, and clear. Significant roles in effective decision-making come from the accounting information systems. The purpose of the research was to study the impacts of accounting information on the decision-making process in SMEs in The Gambia. The researcher used a survey research design to study financial accounting information quality and its relationship with decision-making in SMEs. The study population consisted of three SMEs in The Gambia. The sample size of the study was 100. There was a collection of primary data from the respondents using self-administered questionnaires. A descriptive method was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that comparability, reliability, and relevance were important in determining decisions. The study suggests that managers should put in measures to improve both qualitative characteristics of financial statements in their SMEs so that they are easily comparable to the industry average. The management should also put in measures to enhance reliability in accounting information so as to improve predictive value which helps in decision making in the future. Monitoring and control action should be enhanced in the decision-making process to achieve the desired goal Keywords: Accounting, Accounting Information, Data, Information systems, Management


ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine directly or indirectly the effect of work from home policies and work discipline on employee performance through job satisfaction as an intervening variable at PT. BNI (Persero) Tbk. Unit SBK Makassar Perintis during the Covid-19 pandemic. The number of samples is all employees as many as 40 people. The analysis technique uses Path analysis using the SmartPLS program. The results of data analysis show that: 1). The WFH policy variable applied by PT. BNI (Persero) Tbk. Unit SBK Makassar Perintis has no significant effect on employee performance. 2). Work discipline variable applied by PT. BNI (Persero) Tbk. Unit SBK Makassar Perintis has a significant influence on employee performance. 3). The WFH policy variable applied by PT. BNI (Persero) Tbk. Unit SBK Makassar Perintis has a significant influence on job satisfaction. 4). Work discipline variable applied by PT. BNI (Persero) Tbk. Unit SBK Makassar Perintis has a significant influence on job satisfaction. 5). Job satisfaction variable has a significant influence on employee performance. 6). The WFH policy variable has a positive and significant effect on employee performance through the variable job satisfaction at PT. BNI (Persero) Tbk. Unit SBK Makassar Perintis. 7). Work Discipline variable has a positive and significant effect on employee performance through the variable job satisfaction at PT. BNI (Persero) Tbk. Unit SBK Makassar Perintis. Keywords : WFH policy, work discipline, job satisfaction & employee performance


ABSTRACT This research is a quantitative study using a survey method with a questionnaire data collection tool. This study aims to determine the effect of motivation, discipline and work ability on employee performance at PT Sinar Deli Bantaeng. The population in this study were 86 employees of PT Sinar Deli Bantaeng while the sampling technique was based on the Slovin formula so that the resulting sample amounted to 86 people. The results showed that (1) work motivation, work discipline, and work ability had a positive and partially significant effect on employee performance at PT.Sinar Deli Bantaeng. (2) Work motivation, work discipline, and work ability have a positive and significant effect simultaneously on employee performance at PT. Sinar Deli Bantaeng. (3) Work discipline is a variable that has the most dominant influence on employee performance at PT. Sinar Deli Bantaeng Keywords: Work Motivation, Work Discipline, Work Ability, and Employee Performance


ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to determine directly or indirectly the effect of employee engagement, work-life balance and organizational culture on employee performance through job satisfaction as an intervening variable at PT Prasetia Dwidharma Makassar. The number of samples is all employees as many as 44 people. The analysis technique uses Path analysis using the SmartPLS program. The results of data analysis show that: 1) Employee engagement variable has a positive andsignificant effect on job satisfaction. 2) The work-life balance variable has a positive and significant effect on job satisfaction. 3) The organizational culture variable has a positive and significant effect on job satisfaction. 4) Employee engagement variable has no significant effect on employee performance. 5) The work-life balance variable has no significant effect on employee performance. 6) Organizational culture has no significant effect on employee performance. 7) Job satisfaction has a positive and significant effect on employee performance. 8) Employee engagement has a positive and significant effect on employee performance through job satisfaction. 9) Work-life balance has a positive and significant effect on employee performance through job satisfaction. 10) Organizational culture has a positive and significant effect on employee performance through job satisfaction. Keywords: employee engagement, work-life balance, organizational culture, job satisfaction and employee performance.


Abstract The purpose of this study was to determine directly or indirectly the effect of job transfers and promotions on employee performance through job satisfaction at PT. Makassar Pawnshop Area. The total population in this study were all employees at PT Pegadaian Area Makassar 2, which amounted to 218 employees with a total sample of 132 people. The data analysis method used is Partial Least Square (PLS) using the Smart PLS 3.0 program tool. The results of data analysis using Partial Least Square (PLS) show that 1. Mutations carried out by PT. Makassar Pawnshop Area has a significant effect on employee performance.2. Promotion of positions carried out by PT. Makassar Pawnshop Area has a significant influence on employee performance.3. Mutations have a significant effect on job satisfaction. 4. Promotion of positions applied by PT. Makassar Pawnshop Area has a significant influence on job satisfaction.5. Job satisfaction has a significant effect on employee performance.6. Job satisfaction has been proven to play a role as a mediating variable between mutations on employee performance.7. Job satisfaction has been shown to play a role as a mediating variable between job promotions and employee performance. Keywords: Mutation, Promotion, Performance, Job Satisfaction


The conjugate gradient method, which is one of the most effective method of solving linear and unconstrained optimization problems, was modified in this paper to accommodate a control operator. We now applied the embedded control operator in the modified conjugate gradient method to solve some optimal control problems. The result obtained compares favourably with some existing results and analytical solutions.


Abstract The consequences of the economic crisis of the late 1980s and the disengagement of the State from the provision of basic socio economic infrastructures in rural communities in Sub Saharan countries have a significant implication on their rural socio-economic uplift. The economic crisis instigated the state to disengage from the socio–economic sector without any effective measures put in place to boost access to basic socio economic infrastructures in rural communities. The agricultural sector is one of those areas which were highly hit by crisis and the State disengagement. Over 60% of the population of Mezam Division rely on agriculture but the agricultural sector suffer from poor farm to market roads, inadequate marketing infrastructures, low access to agro-pastoral credits, research and innovation and agricultural sensitisation and training opportunities. Using a systematic sampling of 241interviwees complimented by interviews, Focus Group Discussions and secondary data sources, the study sought to examine the contributions made by development actors in the agricultural sector to uplift the socio-economic development of rural communities in Mezam Division. The results of the study show that, through the liberalisation law of the 1990s, many development actors have emerged to foster the provision of basic socio-economic infrastructures in the agricultural sector in many communities in Mezam Division. It was also observed that, through these actors, farmers in rural communities in Mezam now have better access to farm to market roads, agro-pastoral credits, wider marketing opportunities and marketing infrastructures, training and sensitisation facilities and access to high yielding variety of crop and animal species. The study concludes that the government should continue to strengthen the collaboration with these development actors as they have proven to be veritable partners in the development of the agricultural sector in rural communities of Mezam Division. Key words: Development actors, socio economic development, Rural uplift, Basic infrastructures and Agricultural uplift

Thinking Beyond Critical Theory []

Critical theory ponders on social issues affecting power structure, discrimination and oppression as poignant themes affecting individuals as emancipatory gestures from the many forms of social maladies. While many societies have experienced material gains in capitalistic productions providing personal and institutional gains serving the upper echelons in society, critical theory espouses the need to ponder depth of human suffering in the face of advancement. In explicating such paradoxical truth, art as an ideology becomes a catalyst for change, a symbol of enlightenment because it mirrors the ills of its creator, the artist, as one views the society. While meanings intended by the artist can be definite, many forms of associations come about in a reader’s mind forming complex layers of meanings creating more meanings including destruction of meanings as a celebrated act of self-expression.

Voices and Meanings in "Waray Gad La:" A Performance Autoethnography []

This performance autoethnography sought to dwell upon meanings in a musical concert: “Waray Gad La” featuring well-loved folksongs of Leyte and Samar islands in the Philippines. It expressed my folk sensibility in spite of my experimentations in form mixing various genres to mount nuances of hybridization, transformation, self-identity, cycles of emotions, emancipation, and vulnerability as concepts revealed in the autoethnographic analysis. While they embodied cultural representations, this autoethnogrpahy focused mainly on the musical aspects of performance foregrounding the themes identified. The purpose of the study was to explore and analyze performances of “Waray Gad La” from a musical perspective using reflexivity in order to illuminate personal meanings within cultural praxis. Moreover, it was meant to unearth deep layers in interpretation of the featured perfor-mances mirrored with cultural resonances crossing over folkloric temperament layered with classical and new age nuances enriching sound poetry that would usher a new sound of age-old musical lore. The study revealed that folksongs are not hackneyed expressions but with creative imagination, they can be re-created sensibly and powerful-ly. Grounded on the principle of universal musical expression, “Waray Gad La” epitomized experimentations in music structure unleashing energy in re-designing folksongs as artistic creations imbued with fresh ideas and emotions through meaningful associations as music rheto-ric beyond persuasion.

Hidden Markov Model with Switching Autoregression: The Study of Political Violent Deaths in Nigeria []

In recent time, research on violent death has been rare with little attention drawn to its spread nature. This study extensively explores the dynamic nature of violent death as a stochastic process using monthly Nigeria Watch dataset on violent death count caused by political issues in Nigeria from June 2006 to March 2021 (n=178). The methodology adopted for the study is Hidden Markov Model with Switching Autoregression (HMMSA), a dynamic non-linear model associated with time series that switches back and forth between distinct states called regimes which are hidden to the observer with an autoregressive structure. Result showed that political violent death counts possessed statistically significant positive trend corresponding to an appropriate AR of order 2, and are non-normally and unevenly distributed on monthly basis. The observational hidden states and their transition probabilities from one state to the other accordingly under the Gaussian mixture and the grand transition probabilities of violent deaths count due to political issues were estimated to be [P_11=0.6010,P_22=0.8674,P_12=0.3990 and P_21=0.1326]; The regime switching equations were estimated to be statistically significant at p value < 0.01. Other estimations include the conditional and regime-based residuals, filtered and smoothed probability, death counts regime classification plots, the predictive plots for best regime’s model identification and parameter interval estimation. Violent deaths attributed to political issue have been identified as those which are non-linear in nature due to the traits established from the findings. To monitor the dimension of spread of the underlying death count, regime 2 equation is best suited since it is superimposed with the actual differenced series. This study therefore recommends further research which would allow for the building of sentry system for violence detection using Artificial Intelligence (AI) or Machine Learning (ML). Keywords: Markov Model, autoregression, violent death, politics, firearm.


Leadership is a part of a manager's activities which becomes a tool to influence the behavior of individuals and groups in which to lead to the expected results. Leadership is an ability which owned by somebody to influence other people to work towards achieving goals and targets. A manager must be able to carry out the right and appropriate leadership because management is the key to business success and leadership is the opening key to the success of an organization, including a company. This study uses Organization Citizen Behavior (OCB) as the dependent variable, Transactional Leadership Style as the independent variable, then Job Satisfaction and Work Motivation as moderating variables, the sample in this study amounted to 150 people, the data collection technique which used in this study is using a questionnaire, and then the analytical technique which used in this study is path analysis. Transactional Leadership has a positive and significant effect on Job Satisfaction. Transactional Leadership has a positive and significant effect on OCB. Job satisfaction has a positive and significant effect on OCB. Transactional leadership style has a significant effect on OCB which is mediated by working satisfaction. Transactional leadership style has a positive and significant effect on OCB which is moderated by work motivation.

People, money and capital []

People, money and capital • Introduction:It is life and what is in it in every creature how it lives and adapts on this planet, on land, sea and air, from trees, humans and birds, and from fish to whales and animals... The forms of creation varied and differed, in terms of size, nature and environment, as well as differing in their content in terms of their composition, composition and capabilities, and also the Creator singled them out by instinct and shared some of them by instinct and distinguished others by reason... He is the speaking animal man, which is nothing different from the love of possession and control from other animals. Under the names of necessity in living and continuing in life, and the end justifies the means in improving the pattern, taking care of the body, the well-being of behavior and temperament, and the need is the mother of invention, until man reached in this time to own air and control space through science and technology, and he also exploited science and knowledge for domination, monopoly, exploitation, investment and colonialism. And enslavement to the point of decline, and moving away from human values, under the goals of profit and loss, and he was not satisfied but rather completed his prey on nature and the environment and what they contain, until the world began to live under the threat of climate change and entering the era of epidemics and deadly viruses and they have no way out of what our planet and our world has reached because they do not They still possess the same instinct and the same intellectual stereotype, and historically and until now it is certain to prey on animals, money and humans, and today they have come to prey on planets and control space, after eliminating stone, killing atoms, transgressing cells and playing with genetics at the doors of the third millennium... Therefore, it is necessary to have a quick overview to get to know the human being, capital and the institutions that control money and the national product of some countries, in short...

stock market prediction []

Time series forecasting has been widely used to determine the future prices of stock, and the analysis and modeling of finance time series importantly guide investors’ decisions and trades. This work proposes an intelligent time series prediction system that uses sliding-window optimization for the purpose of predicting the stock prices. The system has a graphical user interface and functions as a stand-alone application. The proposed model is a promising predictive technique for highly non-linear time series, whose patterns are difficult to capture by traditional models.


Employee Performance has always been a subject of concern for the organizations. Thousands of research papers worldwide have been written to explore the impact of Training and Development on Employee Performance, however, no research has so far proved to be a final verdict to this issue. The recent deteriorating trends of Employee Performance are cause of concern for the Banking industry of Karachi, Pakistan. Basic objective of this research is to find out the impact of Job Knowledge, Interpersonal Skills, Communication Skills, Loyalty and Motivation as dimensions of Training and Development on the performance of employee. Banking industry in Karachi City is selected as a geographical boundary for this research. To accomplish the objective, a sample of 101 questionnaires was spread among the bankers to get their perception on the selected questions. Deductive approach and positivism philosophy is applied to this quantitative research. SPSS software version 22 was used to perform the statistical analysis of the data. The Multiple regression model is used to test the hypotheses. It is concluded that out of five hypotheses, four were accepted, whereas, the hypothesis pertaining to Loyalty of employee on performance of the employees was rejected. Motivation has the largest influence on the performance of the employee, followed by Job Knowledge and Communication Skills. Whereas, Interpersonal Skills being the only variable that has negative impact on the performance of employees.

The Art of Administration: Learning by Experience- Some Best Practices []

Literally ‘Administration’ means managing the affairs__ public or private and it encompasses all those actions which are undertaken for this purpose. The resources of men, money, materials, and machines are mobilized through the decisions taken by administrators for achieving predetermined common objectives. Therefore decisions taken should be based on the objective assessment of resources and a careful analysis of situational factors for which the competencies and capabilities of administrators plays a critical role. More of administration, therefore, is learned from real-life situations faced and handled administratively like any other art in life. One of the established pedagogy used in training of administrators is the Case Study method in which the Officer Trainees are exposed to the recorded experiences of others in dealing various situations. This is one of the forms of experiential learning which is a more reliable method of transmitting administrative skills to the learners.

Graduate Seminar for PhD program in Information Science, In Jimma University, Ethiopia []

Executive Summary Disaster is the disorder in reliable situation happening in a level of suffer that exceeds volume of change & disturb society. Disaster management phases, ‘Mitigation’, ‘Preparedness’, ‘Responses’ & ‘Recovery’. Big data uses Hadoop, Apache Spark and extra outlines for distributing and saving data. Whatever, application of big data is endless, in Africa still infancy age. Objectives, to analysis applications of BD in natural disaster management, to explore consequence of natural disaster and narrow knowledge gap on big data analytics developed and developing globe. Method used comprehensive literature review. Sources database; Scopus, IEEE Xplore, Elsevier, ScienceDirect and keywords used ‘disaster’, ‘disaster management’, ‘big data’, ‘evolution of big data’, ‘big data application on disaster management’... By Nima Yaghmaei and Regina,2019, rapid population growth and increasing impact of climate change likely increase in coming decades and over 50 African countries and 30 million square kilometers land threat of natural hazards. (2000-2019*), through cases of drought, extreme temperature, flood and storm in Africa, 36,704 people died from ten countries. In Somalia 20,739, Algeria 3,777, Mozambique 2,291, Nigeria 1,696, Madagascar 1,644, Ethiopia 1,639, Kenya 1,572, Sierra Leone 1,289, D.R. Congo 1,072 and Malawi 985. These countries need to improve big data infrastructure, produce educated human power. Because, evolution of digital data, social media, satellite remote sensing and sensor networks has contributed to a data deluge. Properly use technology key to solve problems by natural disaster. Security and privacy issue in data transmission and storage need to investigation to ensure validity of disaster data.


Introduction : L’objectif de ce travail est de démontrer l’évolution de la croissance économique en RDC dans le temps soit de 1986 à 2020. Méthode : Pour atteindre cet objectif nous avons adopté une méthodologie qui repose sur deux démarches suivantes : La première est une étude théorique basée sur le fondement théorique et empirique de la dynamique de la croissance économique. La deuxième a consisté à expliquer empiriquement l’évolution de la croissance économique en RDC à travers la modélisation des séries chronologiques. Résultats : Les résultats obtenus de l’analyse économétrique indiquent que la situation macroéconomique de la RDC a connu une croissance négative en moyenne de -1,755% sur la période allant de 1987 à 2007. Mais elle est restée la même soit stable et positive de 5,752% durant la période de 2007 à 2020 ceci malgré la mise en œuvre de plusieurs réformes macroéconomiques. Conclusion : La RDC a connu deux grands moments face à sa production intérieure. Le premier est celui allant 1987 à 2007, marqué par une croissance économique moyenne négative de moins 1,755%au seuil de signification de 5%. Et le deuxième est celui allant de 2007 à 2020 marqué par une croissance positive moyenne de 5,752%au seuil de signification de 5%. La dynamique de la croissance économique en RDC reste exogène au sens strict de Solow ayant comme facteur principal, le capital physique alors qu’il a été démontré qu’à cette ère contemporaine, les pays pour réaliser leur objectif de forte croissance devraient passer de la croissance exogène à la croissance endogène comme les prônent les auteurs tels que P.Römer, R. E. Lucas et R. Barro. Mots clés : Croissance économique, Enjeux, Perspectives, Série chronologique, Modèle VAR, Régression de Pool.


Une bonne gestion de stock est une clé de la réussite pour toute entité (entreprise). De tous les livres et autres articles publiés sur la gestion de stock démontrent toujours la tenue d’une fiche de stock d'un article particulier donc, la gestion par article. Or en pratique, il y a certaines entités comme boutiques d’alimentation, pharmacies et autres qui peuvent gérer de fois plus de cinq cent articles en leurs seins et ces derniers sont mouvementés du jour au jour. Si nous nous écrivons dans la logique d’une fiche par chaque article vendu, combien des fiches qui peuvent être tenues par une entité qui en gère cinq cent ? La réponse et bien et belle cinq cent fiches donc, en raison d’une fiche par chaque article. Ce qui apparaît vraiment difficile et impossible. C’est pourquoi tout au long de ce travail, nous avons démontré comment instaurer une gestion efficace de stock dans les entités commerciales multiples articles.


Introduction : Notre objectif général est d’évaluer la prise en charge nutritionnelle de l’hypertension artérielle à l’hôpital valentin Disashi. Méthodologie : L’étude est de type descriptif transversal. Elle cherche à Evaluer de la prise en charge nutritionnelle des hypertendus à l’hôpital Valentin DISASHI, la période de recherche s’était étalée du 10 au 25 Octobre 2020 et celle-ci avait porté sur l’ensemble des patients ayant développé l’hypertension artérielle. La population de notre étude est constituée des malades hypertendus qui fréquentent l’hôpital DISASHI, tandis que notre échantillon est constitué de 29 hypertendus. Pour la réalisation de ce présent travail, nous avons opté pour la méthode d’enquête prospective. Résultats :  44,4% des patients hypertendus ont une durée de la maladie situé entre 1 à 5 ans ;  l’evaluation des apports alimentaires n’a pas etait faite sur tous les 27 cas ;  L’évaluation de l’état nutritionnel n’était pas effectué chez tous nos enquêtés soient dans 100% ;  Le diagnostic nutritionnel n’était effectuer chez tous les patients hypertendus soit 100% ;  La prescription du régime alimentaire en cas de l’hypertension étaient effectué chez 24 cas soit 88,9% seulement 3 cas soit 11,1% qui ne benéficie pas de la precription du regime alimentaire ;  L’exercice physique etait prescrit chez la majorité de cas soit 66,7% des patients hypertendus ;  La prescription médicale etait effectuée chez la plupart des patients hypertendus avec 25 cas soit 92,6%. Conclusion : L’hypertension artérielle (HTA) est un problème de santé fréquent en Afrique dont les conséquences peuvent être graves pour les individus et sont très lourdes pour la population. La réduction de ce fardeau repose sur la prévention à l’échelle de la population et sur le diagnostic précoce à l’échelle des individus, suivis par la mise en œuvre proactive d’interventions dont le bénéfice est démontré. Compte tenu de la variabilité de la mesure de pression artérielle (PA), le diagnostic n’est établi qu’à l’issue de mesures répétées dans des conditions standardisées, si possible en dehors de la consultation. Mots clés : Etat nutritionnel, Hypertension artérielle, Régime


Introduction: This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of local women on female genital bilharzia as well as its prevention. Materials and methods: This study was conducted in Mbujimayi with local women frequenting the rivers that run along the 4 HZs, namely the BONZOLA HZ (at the Lubilanji and Kanshi rivers), the NZABA HZ (at the Nzaba river), the LUKELENGE HZ (at the Kalelu River) and the MUYA HZ (at the Muya River). The survey for data collection took place for 1 week, from 05/10 to 12/10/2021. The sample consisted of 185 women, it is a simple random sample, drawn on the basis of the selection criteria below: - All having frequented one of the five rivers mentioned below to bathe or do the laundry or wash the plates; - Any woman who agreed to participate in the survey and to complete the consent form and answer the survey questionnaire. The data was collected and analyzed using epi info software. Results: 1. Knowledge Eighty-six point five percent of the women had never heard of the BGF. Among those who had heard it, 92% had heard it more during the CPN. 64% had defined BGF as "a genital infection" and 48% as "uncleanliness of the female genitalia". Ninety-two percent of women had cited vaginal discharge followed by 76% of women who had successively cited pain on urination and the presence of blood in the urine and respectively 72% and 68% of vaginal pain and during sexual intercourse as Symptoms of the BGF. 2. Women's attitude towards FGM One hundred percent of women accept the prevention of BGF, say that BGF is avoidable and they are ready to give up river water for tap water provided their socioeconomic conditions improve. Conclusion: Bilharziasis control activities are currently managed primarily by public health officials, stakeholders in neglected tropical disease control programs, and school nurses who administer mass treatment. People with symptoms of BGF, such as smelly vaginal discharge, small bleeding and pain, are managed by primary health care professionals (in rural areas), health centers for sexually transmitted infections (in urban) and general practitioners. Clinical observations are usually made by nurses performing Pap smear tests, visual inspection with acetic acid, or by physicians during speculum examinations. Gynecologists are likely to see patients when symptoms and lesions are refractory to treatment for sexually transmitted infections or suspicion of cancer or more advanced cases of genital lesions in women and girls living in vulnerable situations. Keywords: Bilharzia, Mollusc, Knowledge, Attitude, Practice


Introduction : Considérant la problématique des structures hospitalières qui éprouvent d’énormes difficultés dans la dotation de son personnel, nous avions pris l’initiative de mener une étude portant sur « expérience et attente des Infirmiers Chefs de service sur la dotation du personnel infirmier ». Cette étude a pour objectif de comprendre l‘expérience et attente des infirmiers chefs des services hospitaliers sur la dotation en personnel infirmier à l‘Hôpital Général de Référence de Kintambo, dans la ville province de Kinshasa, en République Démocratique du Congo, en vue d‘orienter les politiques et plan de dotation en personnel pour une meilleure qualité des soins. Méthode : Cette étude est qualitative et elle utilise la méthode phénoménologique. Elle a utilisée également la technique d‘interview semi-dirigé face à face pour la collecte des données sur un échantillon de dix infirmiers de sexe confondu. Résultats : les Infirmiers Chefs des services se représentent la dotation comme une activité de répartition des infirmiers, ayant un rôle d’un processus de supervision et évaluation. Pour ce qui est de l’expérience, pour arriver à faire des dotations, ils tiennent compte des critères de la dotation et se référent aux anciens roulements ; l’élaboration de la dotation est une activité très difficile et douloureuse, l’ignorance de la méthodologie de la dotation, indisponibilité, l’irrégularité des infirmiers et la résistance au roulement sont les difficultés vécues. Comme mécanismes d’adaptation aux difficultés de la dotation, ils appliquent des sanctions et prévoient le service de remplacement. L’attente des Infirmiers Chefs des services face à la dotation a été axé sur le besoin essentiel de la formation en dotation et la prise de conscience des infirmiers sur le travail. Mots-clés : Expérience, attente, dotation du personnel, Infirmier.

Effect of ECOWAS Trade Liberalization Scheme on Agricultural Sector Performance in Selected West African Francophone Countries []

The study investigates empirically the effect of ECOWAS trade liberalization scheme on agricultural sector performance in selected Francophone ECOWAS West African countries using annual time series covering a period of 41 years, between 1980 and 2020. The study used agriculture GDP as the dependent variable and used ECOWAS trade liberalization scheme as the main independent variable whereas agriculture exports, agriculture imports and exchange rate were used as check variables. The study used a sample of 5 Francophone ECOWAS countries. The study used descriptive statistics, correlation matrix, pooled OLS, fixed effect and random effect models as well as generalized method moment (GMM) modeling techniques for the analysis. The study shows that ECOWAS trade liberalization scheme (ETLSFRC) has a negative effect on Agricultural sector performance in all the selected Francophone West African countries; agriculture export to GDP ratio (AGEXFRC) has a positive effect on agricultural sector performance in all selected in Francophone countries; agriculture import to GDP ratio (AGIMFRC) has a negative effect on agricultural sector performance in all selected Francophone ECOWAS countries; exchange rate (EXRCFRC) has a negative effect on agricultural sector performance in Francophone countries. The study therefore concludes that ECOWAS trade liberalization scheme has not enhanced agricultural sector performance in selected Francophone West African countries within the period of study. The study therefore recommends full compliance in the removal of tariff and non-tariff barriers in line with the provisions of ETLS, implementation of (Common External Tariff CET), and adoption of a common currency by ECOWAS member countries to help mitigate negativity in exchange rate. Key words: ECOWAS Trade Liberalization Scheme, Agricultural Sector Performance, West African Francophone Countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Niger, Cote d’Ivoire, Senegal).

Role of ultraviolet rays filters and antioxidants in prevention of DNA damage and oxidative stress associated with phototherapy in jaundiced term neonates. []

Background: phototherapy induces DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) damage by direct and indirect (oxidative) effects which are prevented by ultraviolet (UV) filters and antioxidant. Objective: our goal was to assess DNA damage and oxidative stress associated with phototherapy and to prove the efficacy of UV filters and antioxidants for prevention of that DNA damage. Methods: The study included 160 jaundiced neonates who had been exposed to phototherapy for at least 48 hours divided into four groups, 40 neonates per each group, the first (control) group received phototherapy only, the second group received antioxidants before and during phototherapy, the third group received phototherapy under umbrella of UV filters and the fourth group received phototherapy under both UV filters and antioxidants. DNA damage was assayed by (comet assay). Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were also measured then oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated for the all four groups before and 48 hours after phototherapy. Results: the first group showed significant DNA damage accompanied with severe deterioration in all oxidative stress parameters by about 19%, the second group showed decreasing as regard DNA damage and oxidative stress parameters deterioration to about 9%, the third group showed more decreasing than group II to about 5%, but on the other hand the fourth group showed complete DNA protection from damage with no changes in oxidative stress parameters. Conclusion: phototherapy cause DNA damage that can be completely prevented by combined concurrent use of UV filters and antioxidants.


This paper presents the results of an experimental and numerical programs that were carried out to investigate the effect of shear reinforcement ratio on the behaviour of circular reinforced-concrete (RC) beams. A total of three full-scale circular RC-beams with, the same GFRP longitudinal reinforcement ratio (1.5%) and, different spiral shear reinforcement ratios, ranging from 0.26% to 0.53%, were constructed and tested to failure. Afterward, numerical finite element models (FEM) were built to imitate the conduct of those beams. The beams had a diameter of 500 mm and a length of 3000 mm. The beams were subjected to a vertical shear force through two points. The test results showed that, increasing the shear-reinforcement by 35% and 104%, from 0.26% to 0.35% and 0.53%, increased the shear strength by 9% and 31%, respectively. The constructed FE models, also, were able to copy the characteristics of these beams in terms of load-deflection curve, and load-strain relationships for reinforcing bars as well, with excellent accuracy. Last but not least, the results from the FEM, showed that the average value for the experimental shear strength to the predicated one, by the FE program, (Vexp/Vmodel) for the beams is 0.99 with a 2.3% standard deviation.


Almost all forms of sweet potato tuber processing required that the sweet potato be peeled. These peeling processes face a significant problem of time consuming and inefficiency due to loss of a substantial part of the sweet potato by manual peeling. In order to ameliorate the resulting fatigue and reduce the amount of time consumed and the same time improve the peeling efficiency a mechanical sweet potato peeling machine was designed, developed and tested. The sweet potato peeling machine consist of 0.113112m3 cylindrical peeling chamber, with a peeling tool constructed on a 25mm diameter shaft using 2mm x 2mm square pipe. A 3hp electric motor was part of the machine, with a 36mm diameter pulley while that of shaft was 490mm. feeding of the tubers was done with aid of a constructed hopper on top of peeling cylinder which allow the tubers fall free with gravity. The machine was operated with an average speed ranging from 151-253rpm. This speed of rotation was achieved by means of pulley and belt arrangement. The abrasive surfaces of the shaft and the cylinder where the peeling is done. The peeling time, peeling efficiency and flesh loss was determined at the speed of 151,200 and 253 rm. The result obtained for the speed of 151,200 and 253 rpm respectively were 3.10sec, 2.31sec and 0.87sec for peeling time, 35.55%, 56.37% and 70.44% for peeling efficiency and 7.46%, 5.16% and 4.92% flesh loss, ANOVA shows that speed has an effect on peeling time and peeling efficiency but not on flesh lost. The peeling time decreases with increase in speed. The peeling efficiency also increase with speed with the highest efficiency of 70.44% occurring at a speed 253rpm. The use of the machine is recommended at a speed of 253rpm. Key Words: Sweet potato, peeling, peeling machine


Background: The accessibility to various types of drugs and their indiscriminate use before, during, and after childbirth have become threats to the health of pregnant women and their fetuses. Many drugs are not meant to be taken by pregnant women but not many women are aware of the drugs that are dangerous to them and their unborn child. This study aimed to ascertain the prevalence and practice of self-medication among pregnant women that are attending ante-natal clinics. Method: This study was carried out among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in Enugu State University of Science and Technology teaching hospital, Enugu. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study that involved distributing a structured questionnaire to 300 pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in the hospital. Result: The result showed the mean age of the respondents as 24.1(±1) years. The practice of self-medication turned out high with about 63% of the population practicing self-medication. The major reasons behind the practice of self-medication were affordability (31.6%) and previous experience of treating a similar ailment (19.6%). The ailment that was majorly treated was cough (27.40) and malaria (27.05%) and the drugs mostly used were analgesics (34.4%), anti-malaria (19.1) and antibiotics (19.1%). The study showed that there was a high prevalence of self-medication among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic in the hospital. Conclusion: This study shows that there is a high prevalence of self-medication among pregnant women attending ante-natal clinic at ESUT teaching hospital, Enugu; despite the health education given to them during the ante-natal sections about the side effects. There is a need to continue creating awareness of the negative effects of self-medication, including reducing maternal and infant mortality.

The impact of Corporate Religion on the Management of African work organizations as a measure for enhancing organizational success. []

Successful business organizations sell emotional and spiritual inner values rather than brand with physical attributes, Jesper,(2000) noted that what a company does, makes, sells is inseparable from who it is. Any organization that wants to succeed globally in recent times, should have to get a religion (corporate Religion). In this context corporate religion and workplace spirituality are important and emerging trends in organization that should receive attention from managers. This study examines how to inject corporate religion into the management of African work as a measure of improving efficiency and enhancing organizational success, the study explores how religious work environment provides a beneficial situation for a company or organization. However, given the profound role that religion continues to play in contemporary societies, it is surprising that management researchers have not explored the intersection between religion and organization in a more meaningful and determined way. This is because religion is considered too far from the commercial organizations. Keywords: Corporate religion, African organization, efficiency, Brand, Corporate Identity, effectiveness, spirituality, organizational success.


This research examined the perceptions of the Dibabawon parents and students, the minority tribe in of New Kapatagan, Casoon, Monkayo, Compostela Valley. It covered the perceptions of this particular group of people in education. Using the qualitative method with interview approach, the study was conducted to gather data about the perceptions of the Dibabawon parents and students and the influence of it in sending their children to school or being in school. Specifically, the study was conducted in order to explore their lived experiences regarding education, their perceptions or views regarding education, the benefits Dibabawon parents and students may get in education and how do the experiences and the possible benefits of Dibabawon parents and students influence their drive in sending their children in school or being in school. Findings showed that the participants and respondents were very grateful and delighted in the establishment of the school and expected that their children may finish studies and find a good job. Thus, it made them supportive to their children with the help of teachers and government officials inspite of the scarcity of financial resources. Keywords: Dibabawon, minority tribe, perceptions, benefits, establishment and scarcity.

Prevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Relapse of Drug Abuse among Youths at Huye Isange Rehabilitation Center, Rwanda []

Globally, in 2016, the number of people who used drugs rose by 30 percent than it was reported in 2009 according to the UN Office on Drugs and Crime report. In Rwanda, a 2018 mental health survey revealed that about 1.6% of the youth suffer from drug and alcohol-related disorders and that nearly 10% of rehabilitated drug users experience relapse. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of relapse on drug abuse and the risk factors associated with it among Rwandan youths at Huye Isange rehabilitation center. A logistic regression analysis showed that age group onset to drug abuse of < = 25 were 12.1 times higher risk of developing relapse with as strong association of a p-value (0.03), (OR=12.1), 95% CI [0.703-208.31]. As conclusion, the study found that at Huye Isange Rehabilitation Center the prevalence of relapse is high whereby factors such as group age onset, student by occupation, peer pressure and to cope with family/home problems were contributing to relapse of drug abuse and effort should be made while including drug abuse related courses in the curriculum for students of all levels, also enforcement in the clubs related occupation to prevent drug abuse in youth should be encouraged especially among younger people in order to decrease peer pressure that may result to drug abuse behaviors and relapse.


ABSTRACT The leadership traits of prefects in public secondary institutions is an essential concept that is capable of influencing a positive effect in academic achievement of the institutions as well as influencing the general growth of the institution and the learner. This study focused on establishing the influence of prefects’ leadership characteristics on learners’ academic achievement in secondary institutions in Matuga Sub County, Kwale County Kenya. The specific objective of this research was; to establish the extent to which prefects’ academic performance influence learners’ academic achievement in public secondary schools in Matuga Sub County, Kwale County, Kenya. The study was anchored on Path-Goal theory and was descriptive in nature. The study employed questionnaires, interview guide and secondary data sources to enrich data gathering. Descriptive statistics as well as inferential statistics were employed to analyse data. The results of the study revealed that prefects’ academic performance had a great influence on learners’ academic achievements. The study concluded that prefects’ academic performance positively influenced learner’s academic achievements in public secondary schools. The study recommended that: School management should induct and train prefects before assuming their roles; school management should engage prefects and learners in general to be actively involved in their learning activities; and school management should organize regular appraisal sessions with prefects with a view of identifying their weaknesses and remedial measures taken to make them work better.

The influence of organizational conflict on task-achievement. The case of Microfinance Institutions in Cameroon []

Organizational conflicts are disagreements that occur in the workplace between members of the organization. Such disagreements occur as a result of actual or perceived oppositions of relationship, values and task to be performed. Task-achievement is the primordial role of every organisation irrespective of the nature of the task. The achievement of any given task requires the combined efforts of a number of people with varying functions and responsibilities whose positions in the organisation are usually hierarchically arranged to establish the relationships between the superiors and their subordinates. Within the hierarchical structure incompatibility in opinions occur because of unclear responsibility, interpersonal relationship, scarcity of resources and conflict of interests. Financial institutions in Cameroon have over the years organized workshops to discuss and propose solutions on the occurrence of relationship, value and task conflicts and how they hinder the attainment of institutional goals. This paper therefore adopts an analytical approach on the major conflict types -task, relationship and value as well as the concept of task achievement. Factors influencing organizational conflict will also be analysed. The study further explores organizational conflict from a theoretical point of view. It highlights organizational conflict challenges faced by Cameroon Micro Finance institutions. Finally it suggest proposals that Micro Finance institutions through strategic organisational conflict resolution can use in minimising the occurrence of conflicts within the organisation.


This study aims to determine the effect of website quality, perceived value and promotion on website loyalty through customer trust as an intervening variable. This research method uses a quantitative approach. The Population of this research is all active users of Tokopedia in Makassar City. The sample of this study was 400 users, while the sample was taken using the Lemeshow method because the population was unknown. The data analysis techniques are instrument test (validity and reliability test), Classical Assumption Test (normality, multicollinearity, heteroscedasticity) and Hypothesis Testing (multiple linear regression analysis, path analysis). (1) Based on the results of the study indicate that the quality of the website has a t-count value of 6.054 with a significant value of 0, 000 Then the result of the hypothesis is that the quality of the website (X1) has a positive effect on the trust of Tokopedia customers in the city of Makassar. (2) The results of the analysis using the Sobel test showed a statistical value (z- value) of 4.6933 > 1.96, then the customer trust variable was the intervening variable between the Website Quality (X1) and Customer Loyalty (Y) variables. (3) Based on the results of the study, it shows that the perceived value has a t-value of 2.854 with a significant value of 0.000 which is smaller than 0.05. Then the results of the hypothesis that perceived value (X2) has a positive effect on the trust of Tokopedia customers in the city of Makassar. (4) The results of the analysis with the Sobel test showed a statistical value (z value) 0.2869 < 1, 96, it can be concluded that customer trust is not significant as an intervening variable between perceived value and customer loyalty. (5) Based on the results of the study, it shows that promotion has a tcount value of 2,739 with a significant value of 0.006 which is smaller than 0.05 (0.006 < 0.05). So the results of the hypothesis that promotion (X3) has a positive effect on Tokopedia customer trust in the city of Makassar. (6) The results of the analysis using the Sobel test showed a statistical value (z value) of 0.2869 < 1.96, so it can be concluded that customer trust is the intervening variable between promotion and customer loyalty. 05) Then the result of the hypothesis is that promotion (X3) has a positive effect on the trust of Tokopedia customers in the city of Makassar. (6) The results of the analysis using the Sobel test showed a statistical value (z value) of 0.2869 < 1.96, so it can be concluded that customer trust is the intervening variable between promotion and customer loyalty. 05) Then the result of the hypothesis is that promotion (X3) has a positive effect on the trust of Tokopedia customers in the city of Makassar. (6) The results of the analysis using the Sobel test showed a statistical value (z value) of 0.2869 < 1.96, so it can be concluded that customer trust is the intervening variable between promotion and customer loyalty.


Trials were carried out in field cages during 2017 cropping season at teaching and research farm of faculty of Agriculture Bayero University, Kano (11.9836˚N, 8.4753˚E) to evaluate the efficacy of plants phenolic fraction to legume pod borer (Maruca vitrata (G.) Fab). Three cowpea varieties (IT07K-318-33, IT07K-292-10, and IT97K-556-4) were used. Treatments were arranged at Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) replicated three times and sprayed at 500µg/ml, 250µg/ml, 125µg/ml, and 0µg/ml (control). Parameters assessed include flower damage, pod damage, and larval mortality. Results of the experiments showed that all concentrations of the treatments were significantly better than control treatments. There was significant difference (p>0.05) among the different concentrations and the cowpea varieties. Application of the treatments at 500 and 250µg/ml showed significant reduction of damage due to larval Maruca at both at flowering and the podding when compared with 125 µg/ml and control. Highest protections were recorded in plots sprayed with 500 and 250µg/ml. highest percentage of damage on the pods and flowers were recorded on the untreated control plots. Response of the varieties against the larval damage also varied significantly (p>0.05). Highest percentage flower damage was recorded on IT07K-318-33, and then the other varieties, however no significant difference was recorded with respect to pod damage among the three varieties used. Mean percentage mortality was very low on untreated plots which do not differ (p>0.05) with 125 µg/ml sprayed plots. Although the calculated LC50 was determined at 389.05 µg/ml. Application of the treatments at 500 µg/ml showed highest percentage mortality of the larvae at 66.11% and the mortality tend to reduced to 21.11 % at 250µg/ml.

Factors which will determine the fate of COVID-19 []

Abstract The aim of this research is to show the result of struggle between the international community and COVID-19 after administration of vaccines which based on current fundamental factors. Covid19 has caused real threat to the entire world in the past 2 years. Nearly 5 million have been dead since its occurrence and many countries have been severely hit economically during imposing mandatory lockdown which led to paralyzing of all life facilities. Global efforts have been united to find a safe and effective vaccine against COVID-19 to prevent the devastating consequences if the virus left untreated. Many pharmaceutical companies have managed to produce different types of vaccines based on different known technology such as Pfizer, AstraZeneca, Moderna, Jonson and Johnson, Sinopharm. There are many factors which will determine the fate of pandemic among them: 1. High mutation rate of SARS-COV-2 due to lack of error correcting process(proofreading) which means the virus capacity to proofread and remove mismatching nucleotides during genome replication and transcription. 2. sustainability of the antibodies induced by vaccine and evaluation the period of its effectiveness. 3. Inequalities in distributing of vaccines worldwide which made many low- income and developing countries unable to vaccinate their people while some developed countries started to give a booster dose at least 6 months after completion of primary vaccine series. 4. Impact of misleading rumors of using COVID-19 vaccines.