Volume 10, Issue 1, January 2022 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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In recent times, developments in wide range of knowledge sectors have experienced an unprecedented growth of data and information. This makes demand for mechanisms for processing these high volumes of data high. These mechanisms often demand sorting. In the literature, there exist numerous implementation solutions for sorting. The choice of these techniques to be used in the implementation of these mechanisms now becomes a research issue. Thus, the aim of this paper is to evaluate sorting techniques in the solution space based on CPU time and memory consumption as performance index. To realize this, we carried out an extensive review of related works. The knowledge acquired from the literature was used to formulate an architectural model. We implemented the architecture in C-language and the performance of bubble sort, insertion sort, and selection sort techniques was evaluated using the GNU-profiler. Experimental results show that insertion sort technique is the most efficient, while bubble sort technique is the most inefficient in all test cases for CPU time and memory consumption.


This qualitative study on the Issues and Successes of NEUST Papaya-Off Campus School Returnees sought to understand the lives and situations of school returnees to understand their experiences better in pursuing a college degree. The researchers sought to address the following questions in this study: What are the reasons and motivations for returning to higher education for returnee students? How are adult returnees adapting to their new experiences and education? What issues do returnee students face throughout their school-returning lives? What are returnee students' outcomes and expected outcomes in terms of academic success? The participants are fifteen (15) students from various programs at NEUST Papaya Off-Campus, ranging from 23 to 28 years. The researchers employed a phenomenological approach to account for specific situations, experiences, and events. The researchers can conduct in-depth examinations of the phenomena under investigation. The study employed an online interview in which participants responded to questions about their experiences as school returnees. This study established that age and responsibilities do not preclude completing an education. The researchers recommend additional research on this subject and ways to assist students and the people and institutions involved in their lives in improving and overcoming specific imposed problems and challenges.


To understand the importance of elaborating on this topic, first of all, the role of small economy in modern, developed and underdeveloped economies is reviewed, based on the representation of SMEs, their contribution to the creation of GDP, the solution of unemployment problems and promoting overall economic and social development. The impact of fiscal policy is further analyzed, as shown below. In doing so, the effects of taxes and other fiscal obligations are analyzed, paying particular attention to tax incentives, which have a general application to all economic entities, regardless of their size, and then especially the measures envisaged as specific to SMEs in the EU, and then analyze the rich system instrument and specific fiscal measures for the functioning of SMEs in the US. In addition to fiscal policy, systemic and monetary policies are analyzed as solutions, legal framework, lending opportunities and securing financial resources from non-bank sources, which are important for small business development. The main focus, however, is the empirical analysis of the economic and financial situation of small and medium-sized businesses (enterprises) in the EU and in the Republic of Northern Macedonia. The analysis is based on the assessment of legal solutions and reforms implemented in the tax system, as well as changes in tax policy, verified in the years after independence. The analysis also takes into account the volume of fiscal and tax liabilities paid, contributions and other obligations, the size of enterprises to assess the impact of the fiscal and monetary factor on the development of small and medium-sized businesses. Key words: Fiscal policy, SME, Eu regulation

Literary Achievement of Maulana Syed Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi []

Précis For Research Paper In this research article, an attempt has been made to highlight the contribution of one of the great luminaries of the twentieth century in Islamic history and historiography who stood for social reform, literary awakening and for revolution through the medium of Islamic history. The historical analysis of Maulana Nadwi makes one to believe strongly that the time has come when the present leadership should be changed to restore humanity from darkness to light and from ignorance to knowledge and wisdom. To sum up the paper it can be said that one of the characteristics of Abul Hasan Ali Nadwi was his profound belief in Islam. He took pride in his writings and speeches in Islamic cultural heritage, He tried to find solution to all problems the mankind faced primarily in the Quran and Hadith. He was, among all other identities, a great preacher of Islam and an international messenger of brotherhood, humanity, peace and a socio-religious reformer of the Muslim world who eagerly wanted Muslim society to develop and compete with the rest of the world in every field. He had very pleasing personality didn’t have animosity and ill will against any one. He believed in the purity of Islam, worked and lived for Islam, never ran after wealth, never preferred an isolated life, unmindful what is happening around the world. He was observer of the developments taking place across the world, fought for humanity and strived hard for the revival of glorious Islamic history. He pin pointed the shortcomings of his fellow believers and criticized in no uncertain terms all those who miserably failed to develop Muslim society


The unique focus of this paper is to overcome the controversies between metaphysics and epistemology as raised in the philosophy of John Locke a modern empiricist and Carol Rovane a contemporary metaphysician. The aim is to propose a need for meta-epistemic consolidation which will insist on a combine approach of metaphysical theories and epistemology that will ensure the realization of an authentic human knowledge. We shall argue that Locke attitude of valorizing the epistemological analysis base on the content of experience without taking into consideration the metaphysical basis of reality is insufficient. In addition, we shall equally go beyond Rovane’s value of metaphysics which to her remains a fundamental science since it deals with intuitive recognizing consciousness as oppose to common experiences that was being admitted by Locke her predecessor.


This study aims to analyze whether economic growth, total regional assets, and leverage affect the financial performance of West Sulawesi Province in 2010-2020. The data used were analyzed quantitatively. This study used an analytical observational approach with a time series design, the research data was in the form of numbers and analysis using statistics with a hypothesis testing study research design to test the effect between variables. The study used Multiple Linear Regression and Moderated Regression Analysis using the SPSS program. The results showed that: Economic Growth and Total Regional Assets of West Sulawesi Province, had an influence on the Regional Financial Performance of West Sulawesi Province in 2009-2019. While the Leverage variable has a negative but not significant relationship to the Regional Financial Performance of West Sulawesi Province (Y) in 20010-2019.


ABSTRACT The effect of capital inflow on economic growth has become a debating macro-economic agenda among scholars & policymakers in Africa particularly in Ethiopia. From this ground, the researcher has tried to examine The Effect of Capital Inflow on Economic Growth of Ethiopia using an Auto Regressive Distributed Lag Bound Testing Approach (1990 to 2019). The result of the analysis revealed that the Long-run and short-run impact of official inflow (remittance, foreign aid and foreign direct investment) are positive at 1%, 5% and 1% significant level respectively. The long run & short run effect of external debt but reveals negative and significant at 5% and 1%. Other variables of growth such as gross capital formation appeared to be positive and significant at 1% in long run and short run while terms of trade and unemployment rate were significant and negatively associated to growth in both long run and short run growth. The error correction model result shows that, the previous year’s error will be corrected in the current period at an adjustment speed of 90% which takes about 1.1 years to converge to its long-run static position after the short-run shocks. The researcher recommends the concerned body for better benefits of foreign capital flow, the government of Ethiopia has to play a significant role in ensuring better institutional policy arrangement and sound macroeconomic policies, which are necessary requirements and the transmission of remittance channeling into formal which is used to control black market and to fill saving investment gap. Key Words: ARDL, Capital inflow, Economic Growth, ECM, Ethiopia. JEL classification: B41, C22, F32, F62, O55

Effect of adding filler rubber pieces powder on the bending resistance and Compression stress for polymer (unsaturated polyester). []

The Study of the effect of rubber pieces powder on the bending resistance properties and flam for unsaturated polyester which is manufactured in the Turkey, a function of the percentages of Copper powder (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%), a particular size (250 µm). Were investigated through the experimental work for some variables, such as a flame retardant and the bending resistance, Compression stress. Also, the samples of the base material pure unsaturated polyester were measured and measured polyester reinforced with rubber pieces powder . The obtained results appeared that the added rubber pieces powder to led to reducing the spaces between the polymer chains which reflects the high ability of the polymer against the applied stress, the degree of homogeneity is high between polymer and additives, also the results indicate a lowered in bending resistance at percentage (20%) is (70Mpa), and observe from experimental result the average time of burning starts strong impact when (0%) is (189 Sec), and then decreasing behavior values to (121 Sec) when percentage (5%), while the maximum value for percentages when (25%) is (133 Sec.).

The impact of the Corona pandemic on the financial performance of private higher education institutions A case study of the Elobeid College of Sciences and Technology in Sudan []

The aim of the research is to know the impact of covid-19 pandemic on financial performance of higher education institutions in Sudan and the strategies through which this impact can be mitigated to ensure their continuity in the event of recurring crises. The problem represented in the following questions: What is the impact of the Corona pandemic on the actual performance of revenues at Elobied College of Science and Technology? What is the impact of the Corona pandemic on operating and capital expensees at Elobied College of Sciences and Technology during the year 2020. The research found that the Corona pandemic negatively affected revenues, operating and capital expenditures, and the research recommended that multiple strategies be taken to reduce the effects of the pandemic.

the effect of exchange rate volatility and currency substitution on Nigerian Economy []

This work examines the effect of Exchange Rate Volatility and Currency Substitution on Nigeria Economy. I found out that there exist a positive and significant relationship between exchange rate and inflation rate in Nigeria. This means that increase in inflation rate will bring about a rise in exchange rate which may result to the substitution of local currency, that is, if there a unit change in inflation rate, exchange rate will increase by 42.6%. This result is line with the findings of Doguwa (2014) that persistent rise in exchange rate spread would raise economic agents’ suspicion for possible devaluation of the local currency and therefore, may increase his desire for currency substitution. The implication of this is that the monetary authority will ensure that the spread between the official exchange rate and the parallel market rate is contained at any point in time.

The Effect of Education and Training on Civil Servant Career Development with Competence as Intervening Variables in Makassar City Industry Centers []

Education and training play an important role in creating reliable and competent human resources. In addition, career development can also improve employee performance and increase promotion opportunities for employees to be able to achieve career paths. This study aims to analyze and determine the effect of education and training on career development of civil servants with competence as an intervening variable at the Makassar City Center for Plantation Products Industry. This research uses quantitative research, which is carried out using aspects of measurement, calculation, formulas and numerical certainty. The population in this study were 70 civil servants. Data were collected using observation, questionnaires/questionnaires, and literature studies. The data were analyzed using the SPSS program. The results showed that (1) education and training have an effect on career development, (2) education and training have an effect on competence, (3) competence has an effect on career development and (4) education and training has no effect on career development through competence.

Performance Analysis of Stock Mutual Funds using Sharpe, Treynor, and Jensen Methods (Study on Mutual Listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for 2016-2020 period) []

This study aims to analyze and find out the significant differences in the performance of Equity Mutual Funds between the Sharpe, Treynor, and Jensen methods on Mutual Fund issuers listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange for the 2016 – 2020 period. This research was conducted on the Indonesia Stock Exchange, as for the analytical method used. is secondary data that describes the performance of stock mutual funds listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange using the Sharpe method, Treynor method and Jensen method. Based on the results of the analysis of stock mutual fund performance data in the five-year period, 2016 – 2020 using the average and maximum value assessments, it was found that the Sharpe method had a higher average value than the Treynor and Jensen methods. While based on the minimum value assessment, the Treynor method has a higher value than the Sharpe and Jensen method. There is no significant difference between the performance of stock mutual funds based on the Sharpe method with the Treynor method and the Jensen method. However, the test results between the Treynor and Jensen methods found different results, namely there was a significant difference between the performance of the mutual funds evaluated based on the Treynor and Jensen method.

Molecular and other diagnostic tools used to compare Schistosoma haematobium infections in pupils before and after praziquantel therapy []

Urogenital schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by the Trematode Schistosoma haematobium. In endemic areas, the infection is usually acquired from an early age. Drug of choice for treatment of all Schistosoma species is praziquantel. We compared Schistosoma haematobium infection rates obtained with polymerize chain reaction (PCR), polycarbonate track etched (PCTE) filters and urine dipstick test strip among 400 pupils from two schools in Makurdi before and after praziquantel therapy. S. haematobium eggs in urine samples using PCTE filters gave an overall prevalence of 22.7% before praziquantel therapy. Males had a prevalence (23.1%) higher than (22.3%) in females (p>0.05). Pupils under ten years old had 21.0% prevalence while age-group of 11-20 years recorded 23.4% (p<0.05). Pupils in Location “A” had a prevalence of (26.5%) higher than (19%) for those at location “B” (p>0.05). The PCR gave the highest prevalence (25.75%) before praziquantel treatment and least prevalence (3.5%) after treatment, indicating its highest sensitivity and specificity over PCTE filters and RDT dipstick. Since different diagnostic methods yielded different S. haematobium prevalence, it is necessary to use more than one method to increase the accuracy of diagnosis and for better interpretation of prevalence. Praziquantel is able to significantly reduce egg count and morbidities. Hence annual mass drug administration (MDA) with praziquantel should continue to be used for control of schistosomiasis in endemic areas of the country. However, infections should be avoided by all means to avoid debilitating effects of irreversible morbidities.


Dr. Brian Mutie PhD is a Renowned Kenyan scholar, researcher and Lawyer. His expertise is on Governance, Law and Democracy, Project Management including Monitoring and Evaluation, Human security, Peacebuilding. He has contributed to the knowledge pool and discourses boundaring in Electoral Governance not only in Kenya but Africa and beyond.

Comparative analysis of budget expenditures of North Macedonia for 2020/2021 []

The failure of economies based on central socialist planning is one of the most significant economic events of the XXI century, it happened that also appeared as the main challenge of economic theory and policy so far nationally and globally The processes of globalization and integration have mostly affected the countries in transition, which for more than a decade and a half are in the process of transforming the economy and macroeconomic institutional construction within the market economy. The management of the former socialist economies in a historical process of transition still unfinished towards a market economy has been realized mainly with the assistance and under the supervision of the main international financial institutions. Cooperation of transition economies with the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in the process of implementing economic reforms has been the only alternative available to countries in transition. Countries in transition throughout the period of transformation of the former socialist system towards the most advanced, ie towards the construction of a more stable economic system, that of the market economy has always been characterized by high inflation, in which the forecasts for a rapid economic growth have stalled. The context in which the budget of the Republic of Macedonia was projected throughout the transition period has been consulted and designed according to the directives of the arrangements of international organizations such as the IMF, in correlation with the specifics and the real economic potential of the RNM. A significant exception was identified during 2020-2021, these years in which fiscal policy was completely contrary to the defined and oriented objective mainly in financing the war against Covid-19, respectively the financing of the Ministry of Health and the Ministry of Economy.


The paper investigates empirically the impact of financial inclusion on economic growth in Nigeria using quarterly time series covering theperiod 2009Q1 and 2020Q4. Data used were Real Gross Domestic Product (RGDP) as the dependent variable to capture economic growth and Number of Point of Sale (POS), Loans of Rural Branches of deposit money Banks (LRB), credit barrier (CRB) and deposit money Banks Loans to Small Scale Enterprises (LSE) to capture financial inclusion as the explanatory variables. Relying on descriptive statistics, unit root test and Toda-Yamamoto causality modeling techniques the data were analysed. The outcome of the analyses showed that POS, LRB, CRB and LSE do not affect the RGDP both jointly and individually at 5 percent level. The paper therefore concludes that financial inclusion has not enhanced economic growth in Nigeria within the period of study. The paper therefore recommends that government should create enabling environment for effective financial inclusion through structures and platforms such as bank branches and POS terminals of conventional banks as well as adequately equip them so as to enhance and sustain financial inclusion and by extension bringing those in the informal sector into the formal financial sector. Keywords: Financial Inclusion, Informal Sector and Economic Growth

Is Ransomware a challenge for Cybersecurity? []

Cybercriminals use Ransomware to encrypt your data and demand payment to decrypt it. This is still a growing threat for cybersecurity started with simple email attack. This paper discusses different types of techniques and versions used in ransomware attack and how you can save yourself and your organization by following Incident handling Guide.

Vibrational behaviour of a quarter car travelling over road humps with different suspension systems []

Due to the unawareness of some vehicles’ drivers to abide by the limited speeds, many authorities have had to set up road speed humps to calm down the vehicles flow, especially in densely populated areas. And as a result, bad vehicles ride comfort is produced from the suspension system. Therefore, researchers and car manufacturers were interested in improving the vibrational behaviour of the vehicle while traveling over humps. In this study, the vibrational behaviour of the vehicle was studied while traveling over different types of road humps using passive, semi-active and active suspension systems. A mathematical model was introduced to study the vibrational behaviour of the vehicle when traveling over various types of road humps such as the circular hump, square hump, and circular bump, using a passive and a semi-active model. The parameters that were investigated in this study to evaluate the ride comfort are the body vertical acceleration, the suspension working space, the dynamic tire load, and the displacement of the body displacement. The results show that the ride comfort is greatly affected by driving over humps especially at high speeds. The impact was most evident and tangible when traveling over the road humps, even at low speeds. Traveling over humps, whether circular or square, has a great impact on the vehicle ride comfort as well as the stability of the car. There is a tangible improvement when using a semi-active suspension system. These improvements were obtained in the body vertical acceleration, the suspension working space, and the displacement of the body. While there was no significant change in the dynamic tire load levels. In the case of active suspension system, there is a greater improvement in both the suspension working space, the body vertical acceleration, and the body displacement.


The Secretariat General of the Ministry of Manpower is a government agency that has recently experienced a decline in the organizational commitment of its employees. The Secretariat General is interested to know the variables causing this issue. This paper is intended to develop a conceptual model to determine the effect of transformational leadership style and work conflict on organizational commitment with work stress as intervening variable. This paper proposes a conceptual model for decreasing organizational commitment, along with literature review, hypotheses, and research methodology. The implementation of this paper can provide information about the effects of transformational leadership style, work conflict and work stress on organizational commitment with a case study of the Secretariat General of the Ministry of Manpower.


Tumours are extensively driven by both genetic and epigenetic lesions. Although cancers are induced by genetic mutations more often, progressive carcinogenesis is difficult if not impossible to sustain without an extra helping hand of aberrant epigenetic behaviour. Epigenetic regulatory mechanisms that look over the stability, expression, and maintenance of the genome without altering DNA sequence are susceptible to dysfunctioning and mutations in all cancer types but partially remain in the framework of modifiable machinery, intensifying the necessity of learning their contribution and course of action in carcinogenesis. Despite the fact that the DNA methylation is the most acknowledged and therapeutically approached epigenetic mechanism, compelling functionalism of hypomethylation, post-translational histone modifications, non-coding RNAs and chromatin remodellers have a somewhat equally dynamic role in facilitating oncogenesis in mutation-susceptible conditions. Over the last decade aberrant epigenetic mechanisms have found applications in designing prognostic, diagnostic and monitory techniques of cancer management. It's of immense importance to quest inside the genome and comprehend the underlying patterns of epigenetic mechanisms that allow cancers to invade, metastasize and progress towards the destruction of healthy well-being to enable a wider and more accessible advance in adopting epigenetic mechanisms to tackle tumors.

Evaluation of benefits on using diabetes technological devices in emerging adults with type 1 diabetes. []

Research title: Evaluation of benefits on using diabetes technological devices in emerging adults with type 1 diabetes. Background: In the past few years advances in technology used in diabetes care has been observed. Achievement of glycemic control remains challenging in emerging adults with type 1 diabetes due to alternating adolescent behavior and despite of technological advancement until recently only minority of patients were using devices. Objectives: This study aims to identify the clinical benefits of using diabetes technological devices in type 1 diabetes management in emerging adults. Illustrating clinical benefits in glycemic level control and prevention or reduction of diabetes complication like hypo- or hyperglycemia and diabetes distress. Methods: Rapid review method of the scientific literature was conducted using PubMed and Cochrane database. Studies reported in English and published between 2010 and 2020 were included. PRISMA statement was employed in identification, screening and assessing eligibility criteria of studies in the review. From the 350 studies identified, 15 met inclusion criteria. Results: Most of the reviewed studies showed clinical benefits of using insulin pumps and/or continuous glucose monitors related to glycemic control. Increase in the time spent within target glycemic range, reduction in glycated hemoglobin level (HbA1c), incidence of severe hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia and improvement in the quality of life. Conclusion: This review study pointed out the clinical significance of using continuous glucose monitor and/or insulin pump with improvement glycemic control, reduce incidence of severe hypoglycemia and diabetes distress. As adolescents are increasingly accessing technologies. Further research is hence needed to assess accessibility of devices to emerging adults.

Tomato Harvesting Robot Based on Solid Work []

Designing and development of agricultural robot is always a challenging issue, because of robot intends to work an unstructured environment and at the same time, it should be safe for the surrounded plants. Therefore, traditional robots cannot meet the high demands of modern challenges, such as working in confined and unstructured work spaces. Based on current issues, we developed a new tomato harvesting robot arm with a flexible backbone structure for working in confined and extremely constrained spaces. Moreover, we optimized a tomato detaching process by using newly designed gripper with passive stem cutting function. Moreover, by designing the robot we also developed ripe tomato recognition by using machine learning. This paper explains the proposed continuum robot structure, gripper design, and development of tomato recognition system.