Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

[1]   [2]  [3]  [4]  [5]  [6]  [7]


The general objective of this study was to determine the impact of interest rate volatility on the financial performance of commercial banks listed at the Nairobi Securities Exchange. The Efficient Market Hypothesis theories, the Keynes’ Monetary Theory of Interest, were reviewed so as to support the variables used in this study. The research incorporated a ten-year period secondary data as of 2009 to 2018. The target population of study comprised the 11 banks trading at the NSE covering 10 years duration of scrutiny, hence making the overall units of analysis to be 110. The study incorporated census techniques in order to acquire data from the banks. Documents from the Kenya National Bureau of Statistics (KNBS), Central Bank of Kenya (CBK) as well as the NSE, were analyzed in order to attain the commercial banks’ financial performance and Interest rate data. The study employed descriptive research design. Analysis of data was through quantitative techniques. Descriptive analysis generated descriptive statistics in form of mean, variance and standard deviation. Inferential analysis specifically correlation as well as the regression analysis were carried out. The coefficients generated from the Regression Analysis Model were employed so as to test the hypothesis. Correlation results depicted an inverse association amid interest rate against financial performance. Hypothesis testing at 95% level of significance established a significant impact on interest rate, with financial performance hence rejecting H01 (which stated that interest rate, has no significant impact on the financial performance of commercial banks listed the NSE). It was concluded that interest rate, fluctuations significantly affect the financial performance of commercial banks listed at the NSE, thus requiring a close monitoring. It was recommended that commercial banks ought to take full control of interest rates fluctuations, since they significantly affect their financial performance, and that that the interest rate should be determined mainly by the forces of demand and supply and not through imposing of interest rate capping. Finally, further studies were suggested.

pengaruh personal cost of reporting, lingkungan etika dan komitmen organisasi terhadap intensitas auditor melakukan whistleblowing dengan locus of control sebagai variabel moderasi []

This study aims to provide an overview of the effect of Personal Cost of Reporting, Ethical Environment and Organizational Commitment on Auditor Intention to Whistleblowing with Locus of Control as Moderation Variable. The object of research is the auditor of the Supreme Audit Agency of the Republic of South Sulawesi Province. Determination of the sample using the Nonprobability sampling technique, namely research that takes a sample that does not provide equal opportunity / opportunity for each element or member of the population to be selected as a sample. The population in this study 55 auditors and all populations sampled data collection using a questionnaire with data analysis using moderated regression analysis (MRA) The results show that: (1) personal cost of reporting has no effect on the auditor's intention to do whistleblowing. (2) the ethical environment affects the auditor's intention to do whistleblowing. (3) organizational commitment affects the auditor's intention to do whistleblowing. (4) Locus of control has no effect in moderating by weakening the relationship between personal cost of reporting and the intention of the auditor to do whistleblowing. (5) Locus of control has an effect on moderating by strengthening the relationship between the ethical environment and the auditor's intention to do whistleblowing. (6) Locus of control has an effect on moderation by strengthening the relationship between personal cost of reporting and the intention of the auditor to do whistleblowing. Keywords: Personal Cost of Reporting, Ethical Environment, organizational commitment, Locus of Control, whistleblowing intention.


The Philippines has taken initiatives to reform its public sector financial management. One of the reform agendas is the introduction of the Budget and Treasury Management System (BTMS) that aims to achieve integration of allotments, commitments, appropriations, reporting functions, real-time monitoring of appropriations, standardization, and automation of manual processes. This paper explores the role of the Budget and Treasury Management System (BTMS) as the key component of the Public Financial Management Reform in the Philippines. It explores the common issues, potential contributions, operational efficiency, and significant roles through the in-depth study with the implementing go-live agencies. This paper also presents local and international journals that provide a context in the automation of Public Financial Management – that support its roles and effects in strengthening Public Financial Management Reform.


This study aims to identify the level of use of coconut testa resulted from Neurospora sitophila fermentation in the most effective formulation of feed for the growth of red tilapia to providing a high survival rate. This re-search was conducted from December 2019 to February 2020 at the Building 4 of Aquaculture and Hatchery Laboratory, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University. It applied an experimental meth-od using a completely randomized design (CRD) with five treatments and three replications. The treatment used feed formulation with different concentration of coconut testa content of A (0%), B (5%), C (10%), D (15%), and E (20%). The parameters measured include absolute weight growth, survival rate, and water quality. Absolute weight growth, and fish survival rates were analyzed using ANOVA with an error rate of 5%. Meanwhile, the water quality was analyzed using descriptive comparative analysis. The result showed that the use of 20% coconut testa produced by N. sitophila fermentation produces an optimal growth rate of red tilapia which is 0,74% with an absolut value of 0,77 gram.

Assessing Civil-Military Relations and COVID-19 in the Philippines []

The article attempts to examine the relations between the civilian authority and the military otherwise known as Civil-Military Relations (CMR) during response operations in battle against COVID-19. This gives an overview of the engagement between civilian actors and the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) since the emergence of CMR in the Philippines and under President Rodrigo Duterte’s present administration. It also aims to identify and analyze the relations of pandemic and other threats in the lens of CMR. It focuses on the following features: the emergence of CMR in the Philippines, the military’s role, the demand for CMR in threats, and what does it entail in the contemporary and future, a future where pandemics and other risks are likely to raise. Local and international journals published in various research journals on-line were utilized to support the materiality of this paper. Specifically, this article highlights the future and importance of the balance of power concerning civil-military relations in a third-world country such as the Philippines given its history of autocratic rule. This paper concludes by offering recommendations in threats such as the COVID-19 that often result in the demand for civil-military relations.

Artificial Neural Network Application to the Flexural Strength of Palm Kernel Shell Concrete []

Application of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to study the effects palm kernel shells (PKS) as partial replacement for normal weight aggregates on the flexural strength of concrete has been carried out. A mix ratio of 1: 1.5: 3 with cement content of 382 kN/m3, water-cement ratio of 0.55 were used for the work, and cured for 90 days. The results showed that the distribution characteristic of PKS-concrete using ANN is adequate for the prediction of flexural strength. The predicted and experimental results are strongly correlated with a model equation of intercept 0.32 and a slope of 0.91. The Minitab 17 software output has an intercept and slope of 0.37 and 0.91. This showed an agreement of 86 % and 100 % respectively. The characteristic distribution results of the predicted with the experimental showed that the parameter estimates (ANN and Statistics), are within the 95 % confidence limits (CI), and very significant (P < 0.05).

The Effect of Flexible Work Arrangement on Work-Life Balance and Turnover Intention Through Organizational Commitment of Generation Y Banking Employees in Makassar []

The aim of this research is to examine the effect of flexible work arrangement on work-life balance and turnover intention through organizational commitment of Y generation banking employees in Makassar. This research used quantitative-descriptive approach with a purposive sampling method. The sample consisted of 37 respondents of employees of PT Bank Negara Indonesia (Persero) Tbk of Makassar Branch Office. The methods of analysis used were path analysis and sobel test to examine the direct and mediation effect between the variables. The results of research indicate that flexible work arrangement has a significant effect on work-life balance, flexible work arrangement has a significant effect on organizational commitment, work-life balance has a significant effect on organizational commitment, flexible work arrangement has a significant effect on turnover intention, and work-life balance has a significant effect on turnover intention. Sobel test reveals that flexible work arrangement through organizational commitment has a significant effect on turnover intention and work-life balance through organizational commitment has a significant effect on turnover intention. Keywords : flexible work arrangement; work-life balance; organizational commitment; turnover intention; generation Y

The Effect of Competence and Work Environment on Employees’ Performance through Job Satisfaction as Intervening Variable in PT. Sermani Steel Makassar. []

The research aimed to investigate the effect of competence and work environment on the employees’ performance through the job satisfaction as the intervening variable in PT. Sermani Steel, Makassar. The research used the non-probability sampling technique, so that all populations in the related company became the samples as many as 60 employee respondents. The research data were collected from the questionnaire (primary) and library study which was proper and related to the research objective. The data were analyzed using the path analysis technique and sobel test. The research results indicates that the competence and work environment have the direct and significant effect on the employees’ job satisfaction. The competence does not have the direct and significant effect on the employees’ performance. The work environment has the direct and significant on the employees’ performance. The job satisfaction has the direct and significant on the employees’ performance. Competence has the indirect and significant effect on the employees’ performance in mediated by job satisfaction, and the work environment has the indirect and significant effect on the employees’ performance in mediated by job satisfaction. Keywords: competence, work environment, job satisfaction, employees’ performance

cardivascular manifestations related to COVID19 []

The global pandemic caused by COVID 19 is known for its respiratory target by being responsible for the “Acute Respitory Distress Syndrome". However, the damage of SARS-Cov-2 affects the cardiovascular system also. In patients with COVID 19 without cardiac arrest history, the virus is implicated in the occurrence of several pathologies, which the most common are myocardial lesions, myocarditis, arrhythmia, heart failure, chronic coronary syndrome, and venous thromboembolic diseases. The situation is even more complicated in subjects with cardiovascular comorbidity because cardiovascular disease can worsen the prognosis. Also, COVID 19 therapy appears to be a heart threat because of its cardiovascular side effects. The objective of this work is to review the most common cardiac manifestations associated with COVID-19, based on data published to date, to understand the impact of this epidemic on the cardiovascular system.

Pelvic Floor training with Vaginal Cone on Urinary Tract symptoms among Women with Stress urinary incontinence. []

50 million men and women all over the world are distressed with urinary incontinence. Research studies proved that almost 10% of all women are suffering with incontinence issues. When a woman is having a urinary incontinence the results are worsened by misinterpretations such as UI is an inevitable because of aged or that once had UI the person must live throughout her lifetime Kang (2009) Gunnar (2005). Women troubled with UI develop tension and fear that they are not having control over their physical functions and that there is no cure Nygaard et al (2003). Aim: Evaluate the effectiveness of Pelvic Floor training with Vaginal cone on urinary tract symptoms (UTS) among women with stress urinary incontinence. Methodology: The research design adopted was Randomized control trial. The sample size was 250, 125 in each group. Results: During post-test II, 99(92%) of the women in the treatment group and 38 (37%) of women in the control group had mild level of UTS, 9 (8%) of the women in the treatment and 66 (63%) of women in the control group had moderate level of UTS. Comparison of pre and post-test II results reveals between treatment and control group, in the treatment group there was a 90.4% reduction of UTS when comparing to control group 33% which is statistically significant at P < .001 Conclusion: Pelvic floor muscle training with vaginal cone helps to reduce the urinary symptoms. Keywords: Urinary Incontinence, Stress Urinary Incontinence, Pelvic Floor Training Vaginal cone

Mindfulness meditation reduces perception of stress among undergraduate students []

Abstract Mindfulness meditation can improve self-efficacy in college students. However, long term practice will provide more benefits such as promoting better emotional health with students having difficulty in coping with stress. The goal of this research is to recognize consistent improvements over time following mindfulness meditation as stress management and effectiveness for college students

The Influence of Government Expenditure, Infrastructure And Investment on Tourism Sector Development Case Study (NTB, South Sulawesi, North Sulawesi, And Papua) []

This study aimed to analysis impact of government expending, investation and infrastructure toward development tourism sector in to four province. The analysis unit in this study is Papua, north Celebes, south Celebes, and west southeast island . collecting data using documentation study that is mixed into time series, cross section and pooled data. The data is analysed such as quantitative by using structural model method. Based on the result of study getting conclusion that infrastructure and government expending has significant positive effect toward of temporary investment tourism number unefffect to number of tourism. In other side number of tourism so significant positive effect in tourism sector worker with the two independents variable like expending of government and infrastructure, investment unefffect undirectly toward tourism sector worker through tourists.

A Potential Local Socio-Ecological Disaster? Artisanal Small-scale Gold Mining at Old Mutare Mission Area in Mutasa District, Zimbabwe []

Today, artisanal small-scale mining (ASM) in Zimbabwe is dominantly characterised by destructive mining and wasteful mineral extraction. Such activities have severe impacts on the environment which include deforestation, over-stripping, burning of bushes, and use of harmful chemicals like mercury and cyanide. From a community perspective, this article explores the ecological concerns resulting from artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) at Old Mutare Mission area in Mutasa District of Zimbabwe, focusing on the extent to which the activity has damaged the environment and created several social problems. A qualitative inquiry was conducted utilizing interviews and onsite observations. The results from the study showed that ASGM at Old Mutare is undertaken by unskilled and under-equipped gold miners known as the Makorokoza, who destroy lands by burning, as well as massive digging which leads to a substantial disturbance of ecosystems. The paper concludes that ASGM is an ecological time bomb, 'a potential disaster' which requires appropriate regulating and management to promote sustainable use of natural resources and safeguard the environment.


Summary : The pancreatic site of hydatidosis remains exceptional even in countries with high hydatid endemicity, which explains its lack of knowledge. We can consider that for hydatid cyst of the pancreas the difficulty is not therapeutic, this having been codified in the report by Mallet Guy and Mercadier, but lies in the diagnosis. The advent of ultrasonography and tomodensitometry has greatly facilitated the diagnosis, which was often an operative discovery.

Personality Traits and Learning: An investigation into students’ personality development as an outcome of the KP Pakistan education system []

Abstract The goal of this research is to quantify and compare the Big Five personality traits of students attending the Public High School in KP Pakistan in context of the education system. Personality growth for students, the research is carried out using a quantitative questionnaire on the Big Five Personality characteristics, which have used a random sample of 600 students (Extraversion, Neuroticism, Transparency, Conscientiousness, and Agreeability). The most noteworthy findings were the proportion of the personality traits of Conscientiousness and Extraversion of the students was more prominent relative to the other three personality traits of the Major big five; the personality trait of Conscientiousness is the most dominant, while Neuroticism is the least dominant personality trait; and some of substantial gap between male and female students.


Enhancing the critical thinking skills of students is one of the principal goals of many educational institutions. This paper presents various articles discussing the general features of the Socratic Method in improving the critical thinking skills of students. Specifically, this study focuses on the importance of incorporating Socratic questioning in teaching Social Studies. The primary resources of this paper were taken from international journals. Related studies reveal that when teachers use Socratic questioning, students examine and probe their thoughts by making them explicit thus allowing them to develop and evaluate their thinking while overtly expressing their ideas. This in turn, is the paramount objective targeted by the Socratic Method, a student with an enriched critical mind.

Effects of Interactive Video Material in Araling Panlipunan (IVMAP) to the Performance of Grade 5 Learners at Taytay Elementary School []

The research assessed the performance of the learners after exposure to conventional method and the researcher-made instructional material in Araling Panlipunan. The school has been engaging in the trends of the current educational system. Projectors, computers, laptops, screens, televisions and speakers have become evident in the classrooms at present. In light of this, the researcher conducted a focus group discussion among grade 5 learners to gather their expectation of the utilization of technology in their respective classrooms. Voices of the Grade 5 learners mostly indicated that they wanted to have interactive presentations during teachers’ delivery of the lesson. They perceived that teachers used the technology primarily for display of text, pictures and videos. Hence, this became an avenue for the researcher to craft PowerPoint presentations turned into video clips highlighting interactive responses from the learners. The study was conducted in Taytay Elementary School during School Year 2019-2020. The researcher employed experimental method of research utilizing two groups of respondents with 40 learners in each group. The researcher selected and grouped the respondents based on their previous grade or Grade 4 academic grade in Araling Panlipunan. The groups were comprised of learners with same academic grades in Araling Panlipunan ranging from 78-90. Controlled group underwent the conventional method while the experimental group had the researcher-made IVMAP. Afterwards, 20-item test were administered to the groups of respondents. Results indicated that the controlled group attained mean rating of 12.19 while the experimental group garnered mean rating of 15.19. Furthermore, results found out the significant difference between the performance of the 2 groups of respondents indicating t-value of 3.17 and critical value of 1.99. Results implied that t-value which was greater than the critical value had sufficient evidence to reject the hypothesis; thus, stating that there was a significant difference on the performance of the learners as revealed by the posttest scores. The research had inherent limitations due to the researcher-made material and test which might not fully cover all the essential aspects of the endeavor. Hence, this study signified that interactive technology-integrated instructional material helped in the improvement of performance of the learners in Araling Panlipunan. Thus, the researcher recommended its use in other lessons, subjects and grade levels.

Imam al-Qasim []

He is al-Qasim bin Imam Musa al-Kadhim bin Jaafar al-Sadiq bin Muhammad al-Baqir bin Ali Zain al-Abidin bin al-Husayn bin Ali bin Abi Talib (may God bless them all), a virtuous scholar, Zahid, a jurist Ayed( .Likewise, Imam al-Qasim (PBUH) was a descendant of the imams, an ally of the pious, who meant faces for his prestige and dignity .

Selling or Being Sold: ‘Eat the Orange and Throw the Peel away’ - Reading ‘Death of a Salesman’ by Arthur Miller as a Modern Tragedy. []

Death of a Salesman (1949) by Arthur Miller is generally recognized as one of the most notable plays of American theatre. It is also regarded to be one of the first and finest works that seriously criticized the American dream in which man is expected to achieve success overnight by proving oneself better than others. The success, in this case, is normally judged by the amount of money and material that could be acquired by somebody. In the given situation, a man who finds it difficult to make money is an utter failure. In this modern tragedy, Willy Loman, the salesman did not commit suicide, yet he had to, as he was in a no- way out situation not being able to pay even his insurance. Therefore, Death of a Salesman is a vivid deviation from a Greek, Roman, or Elizabethan tragedy where the hero is either killed or he/she commits suicide. This paper discusses the tragedy of the salesman as a two-way process, both personal and social. Willy Loman’s personal character traits as well as eat- the orange- and- throw- the peel- away society are equally responsible for the downfall of the salesman who hails from the American middle class. It is also analyzed in the article that the way Arthur Miller generalizes this particular tragedy which could be the tragedy of any individual living in a consumer market society in which not only everything but also everybody has a price, and everything, as well as everybody, is sold in one way or the other. Hence, Willy Loman’s timeless and placeless tragedy mirrors the common man’s tragedy as proven in the play.


The study was designed to investigate the effectiveness of cooperative leaning strategy with competitive leaning strategy on students' academic performance and retention in mathematics in Maiduguri, Borno state. The study was guided by two objectives, two research questions and two hypotheses respectively. The design of the study was quasi-experimental, tested with pre-test, post-test and post-posttest. The population of the study comprised of sixteen (16) public senior secondary schools. The sample of this study was one intact class selected each from the two schools under study using simple random sampling technique. One was assigned as experimental class while the other was assigned as control class. The validated instruments for data collection for this study was Mathematics Test (MT) with 20 multiple choice items with 4 options (A-D). The experimental groups were taught using Cooperative Learning strategy while control groups were taught using Competitive method. The collected data were analyzed using frequency counts, the simple percentages and descriptive statistics (mean and S.D of the scores) to answered the research questions. While the hypotheses were tested using Z-test of independent sample. The result of the findings revealed that, in post-test, the mean scores of the experimental (16.19) is higher than the mean score (12.45) of the control group. Therefore, Cooperative Leaning Strategy is effective in teaching Mathematics. The analyses of the findings on students’ level of retention revealed that, in post-posttest, the mean of the experimental group which is 17.50 is higher than the mean score of the control group which is 13.20. The result of hypothesis one revealed that, there was significant difference in students’ academic performance in Mathematics between the experimental and the control groups because the post-test result showed that (Z = 7.661; p=0.000˂0.05; df= 120). Therefore, Cooperative Learning strategy has significant effect on students’ academic performance over competitive method, as such, hypothesis one is rejected. The hypothesis two results revealed that, there was significant difference on Statistical Analysis of Cooperative Leaning Strategy and Competitive Leaning Strategy based on Students' Retention in Mathematics, when exposed to Cooperative Learning strategy (Z = 8.088; p=0.000˂0.05; df= 120), as such, hypothesis two is rejected. The study concludes that, use of Cooperative Leaning Strategy in teaching Mathematics improves students’ academic performance and retention in mathematics. Therefore, the study recommends that, Cooperative Learning strategy be adopted in teaching Mathematics for the purpose of improving the students’ academic performance and retention in mathematics at any level.

Bacteriological Quality of Infant Powdered Formula Sold In Maiduguri Monday Market []

The aim of this work was to ascertain the quality from bacteriological perspective of the infant powdered formula that are sold to the mothers that cannot meet up with the breast feeding requirements. therefore, Bacteriological quality evaluation of formulated infant milk powders sold in Maiduguri Monday Market was carried out using six (6) different sample labeled A,B,C,D,E,F The samples were prepared using standard method. It was then inoculated into prepared growth media at various dilutions and incubated for 24hours at 37oC. Various colony formed was sub-cultured on blood agar, MacConkey agar and EMB for various growth characteristics. The isolates were identified and further biochemical test was conducted to ascertain the particular bacterial isolates. The colonies earlier formed were read 1 x 103, 0 x 103 and 0 x 103, 0 x103, 0 x 103, 0 x 103while the only bacteria isolated was Bacillus subtilis The bacterial count observed in this study mighty be attributed to factors of infant powder milk to air, personal hygiene at the milk powder handlers, environmental improper disinfection and cleanup is likely to increase the counts of the bacteria as virtually most of the bacteria in milk such as infant powdered milk could have been contaminated from the poor handling practice of the milk producers as the machine may mistakenly not be cleaned very well before production commences.


The aim of this paper is to assess the relationship among factors impacting academic performance of Senior High School (SHS) students at the Bekwai Municipality of Ghana. Four SHS out of a total of eight were randomly selected to participate in this study. Four hundred and twenty students were then sampled through systematic random sampling to serve as study participants. The instruments used in this study were five sets of questionnaires. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient statistical analysis tool was used to test the five null hypotheses. The five null hypotheses were tested and rejected at an alpha level of 0.05. The major findings of this study revealed significant relationship among Guidance and Counselling awareness, study habits, attitude to school and students’ academic performance. It was concluded that Guidance and counselling awareness have a positive relationship with all the variables studied. Recommendations were forwarded amongst which were that; SHS Headmasters and headmistresses should provide adequate resources for the effective running of guidance and counselling programmes in their schools. Also, the Guidance counsellor should provide the right therapeutic atmosphere during counselling sessions

The Personnel Conservation Consequence on Disable and Leisure of Systems in Institutions and Organizations []

People with physical disabilities have endured a long history of social isolation and discrimination. The capacity of personnel conservation affiliation consequence on disable and leisure of systems about disability have tended to focus on individual imperfections. The internal control activities have been the subject of a series of explorations since generations. However, the study sought to enhance and investigated the caliber of personnel conservation affiliation consequence on disable and leisure of systems. However, it’s influence of management’s compliance to internal control operations at the Organization and Institution levels were also targeted. The research design employed was characterized and analyzed the purpose of the study. Purposive sampling techniques were used to select the respondents. The sample size for the study was fifty (50) participants and five (5) internal control units of Management members, Junior and Senior staff, respectively. Questionnaire and interview guide, were used to collect data from the respondents which was analyzed to generate frequencies and percentages with the help of Microsoft Excel. The study resulted that, the working output and operational environment is not encouraging to disabilities. Some, originally in both government and private sector legislators and regulators gave internal control activities a significant attention as a denied result. Finally, the study revealed that the actual establishment of internal control activities and systems prevailing at institutional and organizational levels, which had contributed, to a large extent, the achievement of the organization objective are not well structured and its movement are not fully comfortable to disabilities in both institutions and organizations.


This research is a qualitative descriptive study. This research was conducted in Maros Waktu Regency in this study from March to April 2020. The informants in this study were various parties related to the evidence-based planning of Maros Regency. Data were analyzed descriptively qualitatively. The results showed that (1) the process of compiling and formulating the development planning program has been carried out based on existing data and facts, both sourced from the Terms of Reference, regional medium-term development plans (RPJMD), regional development work plans (RKPD) and strategic plan (RENSTRA), so that the development planning program is effective and efficient so that the objectives and the OPD program targets can be achieved, (2) The Regional Government of Maros Regency has implemented an activity program to achieve the minimum service standard target which is part of basic services in mandatory affairs. The result is that most of the minimum service standard (SPM) achievements have been evidence-based but have not yet achieved maximum results, (3) The use of budget in every evidence-based activity has been achieved effectively and efficiently, (4) Implementation of supervision in evidence-based planning in Maros Regency is carried out by all elements, both within the government and society in general, either directly or indirectly, (5) Implementation of supervision has been achieved in accordance with predetermined targets with follow-up recommendations to higher policy makers to carry out programs / activities that are priority and evidence-based and (6) Evaluation targeted for the implementation of evidence-based planning in the regional apparatus organization (OPD) of Maros Regency every semester by counting the number of programs contained in the RPJMD, then RKPD and RENSTRA so that consistency of planning and implementation program can be maintained..


This exploratory paper aimed to review different articles that explains the integration of Internet Memes in teaching Social Studies as possibilities for developing students’ critical thinking skills. Specifically, it aims to identify such researches which pertain to the relevance of internet memes as a medium for teaching the subject. As well as the significant relationship of it in developing that particular skill. The researcher found out that there are direct relations to the integration of internet memes in teaching, particularly to the development of critical thinking skills in various ways. Therefore, it is a clear manifestation of a new way of improving the skill in adapting to digital age. This suggests a Meme-Based learning method in dealing with students’ cognitive development in the given course.