Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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This paper aims to present different articles that identify the significant role of Job Orders (JO) or the Contract Services (COS), particularly, it aims to identify the Role of Job Order employees or Contract of Service from various international online journals that served as primary resource of this paper. It focuses on the findings and recommendations of this journal. A method, system and program product are disclosed for filling job orders, the method comprising: creating electronically a respective commitment reservation for each of a plurality of workers, with each respective commitment reservation comprising a commitment for the respective worker to work on a prospective job not yet created, with the prospective job having one or more job parameters; receiving electronically a job order subsequent to the creation of one of the commitment reservations, the job order specifying a job with one or more job parameters; matching the job parameters of the job in the job order to the job parameters in one or more of the commitment reservations to obtain a reservation-job match; and, securing automatically based on the results of the matching step the job in the job order to one of the workers with a commitment reservation.


This research aimed to analyze the direct and indirect effects of the number of tourist visits, hotel occupancy rates, tourist expenditure on poverty through the number of unemployed and economic growth in Bali Province. The data used in this study are time series data from 2000-2019. The analysis technique used is path analysis. The results showed that the number of tourist visits directly had a negative effect on poverty in Bali Province. The number of tourist visits does not indirectly affect poverty through the number of unemployed and economic growth in Bali Province. Hotel occupancy rates and tourist expenditure have no effect on poverty through unemployment and economic growth in Bali Province.

The impact of service quality attributes on customer service value, satisfaction, loyalty of Foreign media in Malaysia []

ABSTRACT The aim of this research study is to determine the satisfaction level of Foreign media regarding service quality attribute on customer service value, satisfaction and loyalty. Service quality is studied within a spectrum of different dimensions. An effort is also made to find out which service quality dimensions may enhance customer satisfaction and customer loyalty in a better way. Respondent are chosen from a range of varying demographic features using stratified random sampling. Findings indicate that service quality and its entire dimension have significant and positive association with customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. Therefore, this study has been specifically conducted to look into this phenomenon and seek empirical justification in this regard by considering service quality as the main contributory factor towards customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. Keywords: customer loyalty, customer satisfaction, service quality


Pressure is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Force is an external effort in the form of push or pull, which produces or tries to produce motion in a body at rest or which stops or tries to stop a moving body, or which changes or tries to change the direction of motion of the body. Rotation is motion and motion is rotation. Rotation is the simultaneous motion on the vertical cycloid path as well as the horizontal straight line path. So this type of motion is the wave motion. Every point of a wheel moves vertically in a curved path to cover horizontally on a straight line path in a rotation . So every point of a body is a particle, which moves on a wave path. If a force is applied on a wheel and that force simultaneously converts to the centripetal force as well as the centrifugal force then the wheel moves forward to cover some distance. So every point of the wheel moves vertically in a cycloid path by the centripetal force to cover horizontally on a straight line path by the centrifugal force. The following laws are derived from the above fact as follows , LAW OF MOTION ----------------------- Nrusingh’s 1st law (a) INERTIA OF REST : A body is at rest, until the applied force on it , converts to the centripetal force as well as the centrifugal force . (b) INERTIA OF MOTION : A body is at motion, as long as the applied force on it , converts to the centripetal force as well as the centrifugal force . The following law is derived from Nrusingh’s 1st law “ THE FORCE OF ACTION IS ALWAYS EQUAL TO THE SUM OF OPPOSITE REACTION AND ABSORPTION ” ---------- Nrusingh’s 2nd law This implies that “14 PARTS ACTION = 11 PARTS REACTION + 3 PARTS ABSORPTION “ i.e. 1 part action = (11/14) part reaction + (3/14) part absorption The following law is derived from Nrusingh’s 2nd law LAW : THE ACCELERATION OF A BODY IS DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL TO THE RESULTANT FORCE AND INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL TO ITS MASS . Force = (11/14) mass * acceleration -------- Nrusingh’s 3rd law The following laws are derived from Nrusingh’s 3rd law ENERGY = (11/14) MASS * (VELOCITY OF LIGHT)² ----- Nrusingh’s 4th law PRESSURE * VOLUME = (11/14) TEMPERATURE ------------ Nrusingh’s 5th law PRESSURE = (11/14) FORCE / AREA where (11/14) is the constant of proportionality

Management Information Systems []

Management Information Systems The Management Information Systems (MIS) refers to a system that comprises of machines, people, databases, procedures, and data models. MIS gathers data from both internal and external sources of an organization. It then processes it before producing information that is utilized by the organization's management in the decision-making process (Nayak, Sequeira & Senapati, 2012; Berisha-Shaqiri, 2014). As such, MIS can be defined as an integrated system of machine and man used to provide information to support the decision-making, management and operational functions in an organization (Nayak, Sequeira & Senapati, 2012; Alcami & Carañana, 2012). It can also be defined as a computer system that is based on the organization's database and is evolved to provide information to the organization's management. This essay discusses the concept of MIS and its role in an organization.


The importance of the development of theoretical and conceptual framework for integrated approach to utilisation of Alternative Building Materials in the Nigerian construction industry in a doctorate (PhD) research cannot be overephasied as it reinforces the calls for the utilisation of Alternative Building Materials. The research is aimed at development of theoretical and conceptual framework for integrated approach to utilisation of Alternative Building Materials in the Nigerian construction industry, this has been achieved through three independent but interrelated theories including stakeholders’ theory, knowledge management theory and innovation diffusion theory have been adopted for the development of conceptual framework for the utilisation of Alternative Building Materials (ABM) in the Nigerian construction industry. This is based on the need to identify the different stakeholders with respect to ABM, determine their roles and emphasise the need for integration among them. Knowledge management effort is key towards integration among the stakeholders which emphasises interaction procedure or value chain linking up individual knowledge to create social value. The diffusion of any innovation emphases scientific, technological, organiational, financial, commercial, social, business in terms of knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation and confirmation of the innovation. The methodology of systematic literature and content analysis has been used to gather and analysed relevant data for the development of theoretical and conceptual framework for integrated approach to utilisation of Alternative Building Materials in the Nigerian construction industry through identification of strategies and benefits for utilisation of Alternative Building Materials which include low embodied energy (often leading to reduced greenhouse gas emissions), ease of construction, widespread availability and low cost.

Assessment on the impact of provision of non-audit service on auditor independence: A case of Masvingo Province []

The main aim of this study is to evaluate the extent to which non audit services impair external auditors’ independence in Masvingo town. A quantitative research design was used in this study. The sample of 70 participants was used in the study. Data was collected using questionnaires from the partners, auditors, and senior management in Masvingo. Results of the study indicated that self-interests and familiarity were the major threats affecting auditors. Findings also indicated that auditor independence with non-audit services cannot be maintained. . The study concludes that non audit services could be extended in Masvingo, with exception of non-audit services with proven risk to auditor independence. The nature of non-audit services should be clear and pre-approved by the client, and non-audit fees published Keywords:;auditing; audit clients; audit firms., Auditor independence, Non audit services

A Review of Current in-vitro Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Methods and Future Directions. []

The increasing emergence of antimicrobial resistance and the failure of many currently available antimicrobials in combatting disease-causing pathogens have led to a surge in research by scientists to identify new and/or modify available compounds in order to have an upper hand in the battle against disease-causing pathogens. Various efforts have been geared toward obtaining bioactive compounds from natural sources but to test for their microbial susceptibility, antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods are relevant. Currently available conventional methods of susceptibility testing provide accurate and reliable results despite being slow, labor-intensive, and time-consuming. Therefore, there is an increasing trend toward the integration of automated systems in susceptibility testing, which provides quicker results and is easy to use. This study reviews the current knowledge of the available methods of in-vitro susceptibility testing, highlighting the advantages and limitations, the challenges with the use of automated systems, and areas to be focused on in future progress.

Protecting employees right in COVID-19: the role of unions in private sector organizations in Ghana []

Abstract Purpose The study aims to examine the role of private-sector unions in protecting the employment rights of employees during the period of COVID-19 with particular reference to Ghana. Design/methodology/approach The study methodology was based on a survey with a sample of 160 participants with a target population of 9,125 private sector workers conveniently drawn from four organizations within the sector. Findings Employees in private sector organizations had some role expectations their unions were supposed to play during the period of COVID-19 and unions performed these roles to the satisfaction of members. The study found out that, the right for employees to enjoy safe and healthy working environment, equal treatment and opportunities for all, providing employees with relevant information as well as championing members' concerns at the workplace were not ignored by unions during the period of COVID-19 in Ghana. Practical implications Union activities should not be concentrated mainly in the public sector of Ghana as the government cannot develop the private sector if private-sector workers are not well represented in their respective organizations to champion their concerns. Unfair labour practices exhibited by some private sector employers particularly SMEs during pandemics could be mitigated if there is a mouthpiece to champion the concerns of employees to the relevant labour regulatory authorities. Originality/value The originality of the study lies in the novelty of recent COVID-19 which affected a lot of employees in Ghana yet no research has been conducted to examine the role of unions in protecting the employment rights of private-sector workers during the pandemic period. This study set the pace by establishing that private-sector workers were satisfied with the roles played by their unions in protecting employees' right as established under Section 10 of the Ghana’s Labour ACT 2003, ACT 651 during the COVID-19 period. Keywords: Unions, employment rights, COVID-19, pandemics, Ghana, private sector, employees


Physical characteristics of starch grains in tubers offer key distinguishing characters amongst plants at higher taxonomic hierarchy. This research was aimed at utilizing micromorphology of tuber starch grains to delineate between populations of Plectranthus esculentus (Lamiaceae) which were collected from upper and lower regions of the Jos and Mambilla Plateaus. Images and data were produced microscopically from shapes, relative sizes and configurations of starch grains in representative populations. Binary coded data were subjected to statistical analyses. There was broad similarity among the physical characteristics of tuber starch grains in populations of Plectranthus esculentus based on different sampling localities and terrains. Small and large grains of simple and compound types occurred as flat rounded or amorphous particles in the same population, suggesting that the starch physical properties are not specific or peculiar to any of the variety or landrace investigated. However, Starch grains in tubers of the landrace Gwe were over 90% amorphous polyhedral without clear lines of stratification. Hilum was close in the flat simple particles. Significant differences (P=0.05) were recorded in confidence interval (CI) on true means between populations based on sampling locality and terrain. Thus, it is recommended that landrace Isci collected from lower regions of Mambilla Plateau may be explored for desirable starch characteristics such as swelling, viscosity, gelatinization and milling quality.

Perceived Relevance of Practical Skills in Content Development of Motor Vehicle Mechanic Works Trade in Technical Colleges in Nigeria for Global Competitiveness []

The study was carried out to identify the practical skills in motor vehicle mechanic works at the technical colleges in Nigeria that are relevant for global competitiveness. The survey design was adopted to carry out the study in Rivers State in southern part of Nigeria. The population of the study was 33, comprising of 21 Technical college teachers and 12 workshop attendants in six government technical colleges in the State. The entire population was used as respondents, since the researcher considered the population to be of manageable size. A structured questionnaire titled “Practical Skills Relevant in Motor Vehicle Mechanic Works at Technical Colleges” in Nigeria. The instrument consisted of five sections with 91 items statements, structured based on a 5-point rating scale. The instrument was validated by three specialists from the Faculty of Education, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt. And the reliability of the instrument was established using test re-test method. Copies of the instrument were administered to 30 respondents at Government Technical and Science Colleges Ahoada, who were not part of the study sample but has similar characteristics with the study population. The reliability index .92, .87, .88, 92, & .79 were achieved using cronbach Alpha formula. This figure guaranteed the reliability of the instrument. The copies of the questionnaire were administered to the respondents by the researcher with the help of one research assistants from each of the institutions under study. All copies of the instrument which were administered on face to face to the respondents on the first visit were retrieved immediately they were completed. This ensured that there was a 100% returned rate, and all the returned instrument were found useable and considered adequate for the analysis. The data collected from the respondents were analyzed by the aid of using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The research questions were answered with Mean statistic while the hypotheses were tested with t-test statistical technique at the 0.05 level of significance. The decision for the research questions was based on the range for which any item mean response value that falls either below or above the real lower limit 2.50 shall be regarded as not relevant and relevant for below and above respectively. T-test was used to test the hypotheses of no significant difference at a 0.05 probability level. Items whose P-Value is greater than 0.05 were accepted while Items whose P-value is less than 0.05 were rejected. The study found 91 practical skills relevant in content development of motor vehicle mechanic works in technical colleges in Nigeria for global competitiveness. It also found no significant difference in the mean responses of teachers and workshop attendants on the practical skills contents in motor vehicle mechanic works in Nigeria technical college that are relevant for global competitiveness. Hence, it recommended that teachers and workshop attendants in technical colleges should always apply effective instructions techniques in delivering practical skills courses in motor vehicle mechanic works. That the curricula of the Nigeria technical colleges should be reviewed to accommodate latest practical skills contents in motor vehicle mechanic works and that there should be industrial training (IT) for students who pass through motor vehicle mechanic works in technical colleges to have field experience that will consolidate on their class room experiences.

Ecological Stakes in The Crabs of Bangui by Linus T. Asong []

Abstract The ecosystem is rapidly degrading and that is a serious call for concern as the survival of all its elements including man is threatened. People of all walks of life, writers inclusive, put in efforts to redress this situation and that is why this article analyses Linus Asong’s ecological vision in his novel The Crabs of Bangui. The study sets out to examine the environmental dimension of the text. The question that guides the work is: how does Linus Asong represent man’s relationship with nature in The Crabs of Bangui? Using Ecocriticism according to Michael Cohen and Ecopoetics as outlined by Sarah Nolan, the work is based on the premise that the novelist depicts the environment with calls for more protection using a wide range of stylistic elements.

Correlation between mucus secreting intensity and age differences for a chance to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 []

Correlation between mucus secreting intensity and age differences for a chance to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 Dessalegn Temesgen leye Addis Ababa Science and Technology University abstract In our yet not published work, to prove “why vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is not feasible than others measures”, we have 5+1 groups of justifications, one of which is – the quantity-quality factors of mucus secretion in respiratory organs. However, during evaluating our selected 53 relevant literatures, in one of them, named: “COVID-19 pathophysiology: A review”, we encountered with its two issues “… viral RNA enters the nucleus for replication.” and “…the simultaneous presence of other viruses in the mucosa lungs and airways, common in young children, can let SARS-CoV-2 virus compete with them and limit its growth”. Certainly, to combat the COVID-19, understanding how the SARS-CoV-2’s RNA behaves inside the host cell is vital, but based on our decades’ biochemistry course delivering experience, a viral RNA do not enter to cell’s nucleus for replication. Therefore, we don’t lose time to approve such obviously mistaken assumption. Instead, the relation between mucus and infection concerns us, not only because, we raised the mucus and SARS-CoV-2 linkage in our future article, but also mucus issue is vital for those, who are engaging in drug-vaccine development. Therefore, we prepared this manuscript to publish urgently. In it, from literature analysis and our life observation: mucus secretion in children is higher than of new born and elderly. Accordingly, we postulated that one of the reasons why children are less susceptible for SARS-CoV-2 is related to the cilia activity and the quantity-quality of the mucus that they are secreting continuously. Key words: Mucin, Pulmonary alveolus, COVID-19, respiratory infections, Cilia

The Role of Liquidity in Enhancing Profitability: An Empirical Study on the Egyptian Public Banking Sector for the Period 2008 to 2018 []

The current research aims to investigate the relationship between liquidity and profitability of public sector banks in the Egyptian context and, also, maintain the balance between the liquidity structure and the required profitability levels. To achieve this aim, literature had been reviewed and hence the research hypotheses were developed. The liquidity indicators identified from previous studies were Investment ratio, Net credit facilities/total assets, Capital ratio, Liquid ratio and Quick ratio. On the other hand, the profitability indicators considered according to previous studies were ROA, ROE, and ROD. Therefore, the deductive approach had been followed in which the research hypotheses are developed and examined using statistical techniques. The research attempts to examine three main hypotheses, which are related to the relationship between Liquidity indicators and each of the profitability indicators; ROA, ROE, and ROD. Secondary data was used to examine the research hypotheses. Data was collected from the official websites of the central bank of Egypt as well as the public banking sector, which are: National Bank of Egypt, Banque Misr and Banque du Caire for the period 2008 to 2018. Data was then analyzed using SPSS and the research results and findings are concluded. It was found that there is an insignificant relation between all liquidity indicators and ROA (H1 is not supported). However, it was observed that there is a significant relationship between the liquidity indicators; Net credit facilities/total assets and Capital ratio and ROE, while there is an insignificant relationship between the liquidity indicators; Investment ratio, Liquid ratio and Quick ratio and ROE (H2 is partially supported). Moreover, it was noticed that there is a significant relationship between the liquidity indicators; Net credit facilities/total assets and Liquid ratio and ROD, while there is an insignificant relationship between the liquidity indicators; Investment ratio, Capital ratio and Quick ratio and ROD. This research contributes to research by understanding how liquidity indicators can enhance profitability through ROA, ROE and ROD, so that banks managers can manipulate liquidity indicators in order to enhance the bank’s profitability.

The Lived Experiences of Students Who Transitioned from Traditional to Active Learning []

Over the years the learning experiences have vastly changed. Active learning gives students the opportunity to learn from their mistakes and grow as future medical professionals. This study examined the experiences of students that transitioned from Traditional Learning to Active Learning. Survey Questionnaires were given to freshmen students at a private university in Cebu City to gather relevant information and feedback. Results showed most of the students looking for leadership and professors to teach and guide them through the learning process. Most students cannot accommodate the changes in curriculum in the university and have a poor outlook on how they are going to get promoted to the next year level.

Review on Factor affecting the productivity of maize by Smallholder Farmers in Ethiopia []

Maize farming is largely carried out by smallholders in Ethiopia. It is also the single most important crop in terms of both the number of farmers engaged in cultivation and crop yield. Ethiopia has doubled its maize productivity and production in 2016, 2017, and 2018. The yield, currently estimated at >3.6 metric tons/ha, at >3.7 metric tons/ha and at >3.2 metric tons/ha respectively in 2016, 2017, and 2018 and also area harvest is estimated at > 2.1 million ha, at >2.1 million and at>2.2 million ha respectively. The main objective of this review is factors that affect productivity in maize production among smallholders in Ethiopia than in these review factors like farm size, seed, age, education, and farm experience, number of oxen, off-farm activity, communication, road, animal clinic, credit, farmers’ cooperative and fertilizers. This implies that a large number of maize productivity farms in the Ethiopia faced inefficiency problems, therefore; the government should have to formulate policy and strategy that enhance the way the farmers managing their farm size, using seed and ways of applying fertilizer to increasing their production and productivity and also it is important to give due attention for farmers education through establishing and strengthening informal education and short term trainings by using the available human and infrastructural facilities like extension agents and Farmers Training Centers (FTCs). . Keywords: maize, productivity, Ethiopia


The safety box can be designed into various shapes and sizes and in modern times, safety boxes are not only used in the banks or institution but also at homes to protect and secure personal belongings because of its design and function. The safety box was designed and fabricated having a power rating of 180w and speed of 0.14m/s. An electromechanical device was used for the engine which was powered by electricity and a 12v battery when there is no power supply. The aim of designing and producing an remotely controlled safety box was achieved.