Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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ABSTRACT The effects of noise in a community have to be critically analysed so as to create awareness for the betterment of our society and for national development. This research therefore reports on the critical analysis of community noise bothers in Uruan, Nigeria. Noise level measurements were carried out at selected locations (L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6, L7 and L8) in the area. The data obtained were compared with the World Health Organisation tolerant noise levels. The selected locations were further assessed through administering of copies of questionnaire (with noise sources, N1, N2, N3, N4, N5, N6, N7, N8, N9, N10, N11, N12 and N13) to relevant respondents and the data were statistically analysed using Percentage Analysis Method. It was observed that L1 had a mean noise level of 90.35 dBA, but only 29% of the respondents were bothered by the noise of N10. The results of the findings revealed that people in the area were exposed to the noise of N3 most, while the noise of N7 bothered them most. However, there were many sources of noise in the area.

Study of Electrical Power Supply to Borikiri Township Axis of Port Harcourt for Improved Distribution Using Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) Method. []

This research work critically examined how to improve on the electrical power distribution for Borikiri Township axis of Port Harcourt using the dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) method. Dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) acts as a device used injecting 3-phase voltage connected in series and is synchronize with the voltage sag which is compensated through the distribution feeder voltage. Dynamic voltage restorer is operated as a power electronic device which is used in protection of customer loads and sensitive loads from voltage disturbances coming from the grid such as voltage sags and swells, voltage variation, transients and harmonics in the electrical power distribution network. In this research work, the Electrical Transients Analyser Program (ETAP version 12.6) and Simulink Environment (MATLAB) were used for simulation. The case study for the variation of the existing and improved power factor, absorbed current before and after power factor, power of the capacitor bank, loss reduction with power factor, reduction of voltage drop and power factor using a capacitor, Pf using a capacitor concerning to Bus Location were investigated vigorously. From our simulations the results indicate that Navy Medical has the lowest existing power factor of 8.1% and an improved power factor of 91.5% instead of having the standard existing power factor of 85.0% and improved power factor of 91.0%. In the case study of absorbed current, Greenson 1 has the lowest absorbed current of 58A. The results also show that the average absorbed current of 58A. The results also show that the average absorbed current as 80A, therefore Greenson 1 should be upgraded to the average absorbed current of 80A. While in the case study of the power of the capacitor bank, Greenson 1 has the lowest power of the capacitor bank of 0.54kVAR and should be upgraded to the power of the capacitor bank of 1.90Kvar. In the case of loss reduction in power factor, Egbema has the lowest loss reduction in power factor with 12.8% while Navy Medical has the highest loss reduction in power factor with 22.6%. The results show that Navy Medical which has the highest loss reduction in power factor with 22.6% should be upgraded to meet the average reduction rate of 13.0%. In the case of a reduction of voltage drop, the results show that Egbema has highest the reduction of the voltage drop of 2.15V, and Oba Street has the lowest reduction of the voltage drop of 0.39V, therefore, Egbema should be upgraded to meet the reduction of voltage drop rate of 1.5V. The next case study is an implementation of power factor (pf) using a capacitor and the result shows that Wilson Bakery has the highest pf using capacitor of 328.8 kVAR followed by Hydro-Graphy with 252.0 kVAR while Oba street has the lowest pf using a capacitor of 47.5 kVAR, therefore Oba street should be upgraded to the average pf using a capacitor of 105.5 kVAR as an average rate.


In any country, hospitals plays an imperative role in the health care system. The service quality in the hospital plays an important role in determining its success. There are many factors that affect the service quality of the private hospitals. SERVQUAL model help to measure the service quality in term of reliability, tangibility, assurance, responsiveness and empathy. Service quality gap is the com-parison between customer expectation and customer perception. Delivering suitable service quality plays an important role in all service industries in particular to health care sector. Hence, the author felt that in such a situation there was a strong case for carry-ing out the current research to understand the service quality Gap .This main objective of this research is to examine the service gap between customer expectation and perception using SERVQUAL model among customers of private health care institutions. This re-search is carried out by using Gap analysis scoring technique. The survey is based on questionnaire and the respondents for this study were selected by using multiphase sampling technique (also called as double sampling) that includes lottery, cluster, and connivance sampling method. This study found that there is a gap between customer expectation and perception on service quality in private hospitals that resulted in the level of customers’ satisfaction. Henceforth, private hospital administrators should focus on the grey areas in the SERVQUAL gap to develop their SERVQUAL in order to offer high quality services to meet customer satisfaction.


An increasing number of Nigerians are embracing the controversial ketogenic diet (KD) which has shown to be quite effective in reducing body weight and the risk factors for various chronic diseases. The study assessed the impact of locally sourced ketogenic food materials in Jos, Nigeria, on weight, some haematological and biochemical parameters in Wistar rats. The proximate nutrient composition of KDs was determined using standard procedures while elemental analysis was determined using Atomic Absorption spectrometry. Wistar rats were fed hyper-calorie diets for rapid weight gain prior to treatment with KD(s) and normal laboratory feed (control). Weight, some biochemical and haematological parameters were measured to evaluate the suitability of formulated diet as tool for weight management. Furthermore, histological assessment of the intestine was carried out to determine safety of the diets. Analysis of data was done using analysis of variance. The results showed significant weight loss expressed in grams by Awara/African spinach (A/S): 131.33±4.90 to 106.73±10.68, Fish/Cucumber (F/C): 124.73±4.90 to 117.98±10.68 for day 5 to 30 of experiments. For the biochemical parameters analyzed, the effects of treatments on total cholesterol and total protein were significant for A/S (1.48±0.09 mmol/l, 66.70±2.64 g/l) and F/C (1.90±0.09 mmol/l, 64.25±2.64 g/l). Results for all haematological parameters checked except haemoglobin was not significantly different. Haemoglobin results for base line (BL): 141.33±4.0 significantly differed with control (CTRL): 123.33±4.0, A/S: 123.67±4.0 and F/C: 121.33±4.0 g/l. Histological results showed little structural changes in the small intestine. In conclusion, this study reveals that, weight management is achievable with the formulated KD(s) available and affordable. KEYWORDS: ketogenic diet, weight management, histological assessment


The combine relation of volume , pressure and temperature of a given mass of gas can be derived from the combining law of ( Boyle’s law as well as Charle’s law ) , (Boyle’s law as well as Gay Lussac’s law) and (Charle’s law as well as Gay Lussac’s law). The combine relation of pressure, volume and temperature of a given mass of gas can be derived from the motion of a wheel. Rotation is motion and vice versa .If a force is applied on a wheel and that force simultaneously converts to the centripetal force as well as the centrifugal force then the wheel moves forward. So every point on the wheel moves vertically on a curved path to cover horizontally on a straight line path. The following laws are derived from the above fact as follows , LAW OF MOTION ----------------------- Nrusingh’s 1st law (a) INERTIA OF REST : A body is at rest, until the applied force on it , converts to the centripetal force as well as the centrifugal force . (b) INERTIA OF MOTION : A body is at motion, as long as the applied force on it , converts to the centripetal force as well as the centrifugal force . The following law is derived from Nrusingh’s 1st law “ THE FORCE OF ACTION IS ALWAYS EQUAL TO THE SUM OF OPPOSITE REACTION AND ABSORPTION ” ------------------------------ Nrusingh’s 2nd law This implies that 14 PARTS ACTION = 11 PARTS REACTION + 3 PARTS ABSORPTION So 1 part action = (11/14) part reaction + (3/14) part absorption The following two laws are derived from Nrusingh’s 2nd law FORCE = (11/14) MASS*ACCELERATION ----- Nrusingh’s 3rd law ENERGY = (11/14) MASS (VELOCITY OF LIGHT)² ---- Nrusingh’s 4th law The following law is derived from Nrusingh’s 3rd law PRESSURE * VOLUME = (11/14) TEMPERATURE where (11/14) is the constant of proportionality The above law is the general gas law of volume, pressure and temperature

Assessment the Utilization of Bottle-Feeding Practices of Mothers and Related Factors that Effecting Infants Health in the Rural Area []

Breast milk substitute are used commonly worldwide with bottle feeding which should be avoided due to its impact on optimal breastfeeding and appropriate complementary feeding. Moreover, feeding bottle are associated with diarrheal disease morbidity and mortality as it is difficult to keep it clean especially in developing countries where sanitation is poor.

Apex: Next Generation Smart Helmet with Artificial Intelligence []

Helmet has been always associated with bike riding since the invention of motorcycle. However, it has always been about protecting riders head in event of a crash. In essence it is a plastic or metal shell shaped for human head, padded inside with some material for increased comfort. Till now it has remains as simple yet functional apparatus. Here goal was to create a smart helmet that integrate with the bike itself to create a multipurpose, sophisticated device that assists the driver in his task without being a distraction. It contains heads-up display that relay useful information to the driver, various sensors that constantly monitor driver and surround area, companion app that contain various extended features and integration with the bike. Also, machine learning has been integrated into the system which in turn enrich the data supply. Research was aimed at bringing common drive aid features on motor vehicles such as lane departure warning, to a smaller platform that can be integrated into the helmet without losing its core functionality or performance.

Uphill Training Improves Agility and Speed among Healthy Individuals []

Agility and speed are two most important skills for an athlete and non-athlete. Aquatic and uphill training environment provides enough resistance to improve both skills. This article aimed to determine the effectiveness of uphill and aquatic training in improving the agility and speed of normal individuals. Healthy male living in Oslob, Cebu completed a pre and post- test measurement using Illinois Agility Test and 30m sprint. Participants were given different types of agility and speed training exercises in their respective training environment. Results showed that the mean difference between pretest and posttest speed for the control group control (M=3.74, SD=0.05), aquatic group (M=3.69, SD=0.05), and uphill group (M=3.80, SD=0.05). Mean difference between pretest and posttest in agility for the control (M=17.56,SD=0.36), aquatic (M=17.24, SD=0.36), and uphill (17.72, SD=0.36). Results showed that both uphill and aquatic training improves speed and agility. Although uphill training showed more improvements in both agility and speed.

Estimation of Glomerular Filtration in Automotive Painters by the Dosage of Plasmatic Creatinine []

In Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo, automotive painters are at risk of poisoning from chemicals in paint because they do not use proper protective equipment. On the other hand, the level of plasma creatinine is an important indicator of kidney function. The noticeable increase in serum creatinine indicates renal dysfunction. Are painters victims of this intoxication? This is the question we want to answer. A comparative study of the plasma creatinine level between 35 automotive painters on the one hand and 36 controls, non-painters claiming to be in good health, was discussed. All were between 18 and 50 years old, with one to ten year career experience. The Jaffé method was used to assay plasma creatinine and the results were analyzed by Student's test. After analyzing the results, the t distribution table gave, at the 5% threshold with 69 degrees of freedom, t = 1.994. We deduced from this the acceptance interval of the null hypothesis H0 at 95% given by tabulary (theoretical) belonging to the interval [-1.994; + 1.994]. However, we noted that t calculated = 1.83 belonged to this interval. Hence the null hypothesis has been accepted and the hypothesis H1 is rejected. In view of the results of the comparison by the Student test, we would be tempted to conclude that the renal function of car painters was not subject to any poisoning related to paint, because there is no significant difference between the means of Plasma creatinine levels observed in painters and those found in controls.


This study identifies and analyzes the use of hedging in some selected legal genres. The data consists of three purposively selected documents from published wills. Salager-Meyers (1997) perspectives were used for the identification and definition of the lexical items which signal hedging. Following the identification of the selected lexical items, the descriptive research design was used. Also, a multi-dimensional approach based on the insights from Biber (1995) was adopted for the analysis. The data include Gani Fawehinmi’s Will, Will in Contemplation of Marriage and Gift during Widowhood. The findings revealed that hedging is used in the writing and drafting of wills as a strategy by which legal writers mitigate and soften the force of their utterances, it also revealed that permission and its modifying device can manifest as hedging in the two genres. The study recommends among others the need to align with ESP practitioners for material design and production on hedging as a course in the teaching of English for Legal purpose at the tertiary and university level. Key words: genres, hedging, lexical, mitigate, multi-dimensional, soften


Human Resources has a very important role in a construction company because, absent a professional/competitive workforce, the company cannot perform its activities optimally even though all the necessary modern equipment is available. In Indonesia, construction projects have a high level of risk of work accidents, this can occur because the Work Safety Culture has not been well established. Among other things, because the project leader is still pursuing short-term financial performance or profit, the low-level of worker awareness of workplace safety. The construction industry is not only product-oriented like many other industries, but this industry is also processed-oriented and has enormous risks. This study analyzes the factors of leadership, communication, competency, and work environment that influence work safety culture and their implications for job satisfaction in construction companies in Indonesia. A total of 392 valid respondents out of 400 who answered the questionnaire came from the construction industry in Indonesia with at least 1 year of work experience. The data were tested for validity and reliability with SPSS 25.0 software, and then the model was analyzed using Structural Equation Model (SEM) using AMOS 23.0 software. Based on statistical data processing, it was found that leadership, competence, and the work environment are critical factors that influence work safety culture, while communication does not affect the formation of a workplace safety culture. Work safety culture significantly affects the level of job satisfaction in the construction industry. For further research, the researchers suggest more specifically analyzing the communication factor deeper, namely why there is no positive influence on Work Safety Culture. Keywords: safety culture; leadership; communication; competency; work environment; job satisfaction; validity and reliability test; structural equation model; construction industry

A New Method for Regression Model Selection []

In this paper we intend to present a new method for regression model selection. The new model selection method that we developed uses clear criteria for variables selection as well as best model selection and its strength lies in its ability to select a best model even before accomplishing all required steps. We have used the built-in R data sets and the provided R packages to develop the procedures through which our new model selection method selects the best model from all possible models. Our new method can be performed via two approaches which always lead to the same result, this will avoid a confusion for statisticians and data scientists about the choice of the approach to be used.

Diabetes Mellitus: History, Types, Pathophysiological aspects, Signs and Symptoms, Etymology, Dietary Management, Causes and its associated risk factors []

Diabetes mellitus is a very common disease nowadays. It has mainly two types, type1 and type 2 both types have different pathophysiology. Type 1 is related to less insulin production or no insulin production by the beta cell in the pancreas, while type 2 is related to the resistance of insulin. For underdeveloped countries, Diabetes mellitus is a considerable socioeconomic problem. Diabetes mellitus is considered to be a worldwide spread disease. It can occur to all individuals regardless of gender. It is expected that by the end of the year 2049, 629 million people will be infected with diabetes. Diabetes mellitus is a 3000-year oldest disease and is expressed earlier in Egyptian literature. Scientists proposed different ideas about the pee of diabetic patients, they stated that the sweet taste from the pee of the diabetic patient is due to increased blood glucose level in the body. The global burden of diabetes is increasing day by day, different country has a different percentage of diabetes among them the fewer income countries are on top. Diabetes mellitus can be managed by different medicinal plant, or daily use herbal, either it is used directly or by making formulation out of it. Some risk factors must be prevented if a person is diabetic, to ensure that diabetes must not induce other diseases.

Types and characteristics of the macroalgae Padina spp. from Pramuka Island and Semak Daun Island, Kepulauan Seribu []

Padina spp. is a marine macroalgae from the Phaeophyta Division that has aragonite crystals on the surface of its thallus. This macroal-gae grows attached to the bottom substrate of the water and has the shape of a flat thallus in the form of wide and brown sheets. On the surface of the thallus, there are many Haslea diatoms which have marennine blue pigment. Marennine has potentials as an antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral which can be used for human benefits. The purpose of this research was to determine the types and character-istics of Padina spp. located in Pramuka Island and Semak Daun Island, Kepulauan Seribu. The research took place from November 2019 - January 2020. The type of Padina was determined based on morphological characteristics, including the surface shape of the frond (thal-lus), color of the thallus, hairline and pattern, tetrasporangial sori and oogonial sori. The observed data were then processed using ImageJ software and the Padina determination key. The results indicated that the macroalgae samples 1B from Pramuka Island and 3C from Se-mak Daun Island were Padina australis, whereas sample 2B from Pramuka Island and 4B from Semak Daun Island were Padina minor. This information is in accordance with the results of previous researches on Padina in Kepulauan Seribu.

Effects of Radiofrequency Radiation from Mobile Phones on Health: A Review []

Research on the possible health effects associated with the usage of mobile phones has become a subject of interest in recent years owing to a large number of mobile phone users. Incidence of headache, stress, cancer, memory loss, and sleep problems have been linked to the frequency and duration of usage by some studies. However, there is no conclusive view on the effects of microwave electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones on health which has ignited more research into this area. This work aims to review the health effects of electromagnetic radiations from mobile phones on databases published till 2020. Emphasis is given to circumstances that have the potential to affect the quality of future research conducted on both long-term use and short-term use of mobile phones and health. Safety measures to protect users have also been highlighted. Future research should therefore factor measures to overcome the potential challenge of accurate data interpretation.


AN OVERVIEW OF THE IMPACT OF COVID-19 ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS (SDGs) ACHIEVEMENT IN NIGERIA Julia Arit OMOTAJO (MRS.) GENERAL STUDIES DEPARTMENT, THE POLYTECHNIC, IBADAN, OYO STATE, NIGERIA arit2011@gmail.com Abstract The year 2020 has witnessed a remarkable and an extraordinary Covid-19 crisis where many human lives have been lost. Covid-19 has uncovered essential weaknesses in our global system. It has exposed how the occurrence of poverty, susceptible health systems, lack of training and a lack of world cooperation exacerbate the crisis. The price of the pandemic in phrases of loss of lives is painful however the effects on the sustainable improvement potentialities are worrisome. Through many economic, social and political avenues, this pandemic is heralded to affect the world improvement desires and goals at a vast scale, more prominently on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in Nigeria. The SDGs purpose to attain sustainable improvement for the service of humanity by adopting 17 goals in 2015. This paper analyzes how this modern day pandemic is affecting the achievements of SDGs in Nigeria. While the deteriorating financial prerequisites will negatively have an affect most elements of the development, there may additionally also be positive developments in the lengthy run. The use of secondary data source is adopted for this work. This paper brings out the effects of covid-19 on SDGs achievements and a few measures to overcome it. Key words: Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Pandemic, Covid-19, achievement

Factors Affecting Perceived of Usefulness of Using E-Banking Services (Study at Bank BNI Makassar) []

Banking is slowly shifting conventional banking services to digital application services. This change is inevitable in today's era. This study aims to determine the effect (Perceived self-efficacy), complexity, perceived trust, compatibility and perceived ease-of-use on perceived usefulness of using. e-banking services at PT. BNI. To achieve this goal, questionnaires were used with data analysis techniques using SEM PLS analysis. The results of the study found that the perceived efficacy had an impact in increasing the perceived ease-of-use of using BNI e-banking services. Complexity has a negative effect on later perceptions of using e-banking services. The effect of perceived trust has an impact in increasing the perceived of usefulness in the use of BNI e-banking services. The effect of perceived compatibility has an impact on the perceived usefulness of using BNI e-banking services. The effect of perceived ease-of-use has an impact on perceived usefulness of using BNI e-banking services.


We are living in era of energy crisis. In this hour of need the renewable energy is the best choice among all. The Solar Updraft Tower Power Plant is an adaptation of the use of sustainable energy resources, a distinct and innovative synthesis of three exiting ideas: greenhouse effect, chimney effect and wind effect. The present research primarily on the thermodynamic analysis of “Solar Updraft Tower Power Plant”: A case study in Jamshoro Sindh, presenting the estimation of power potential from this technology in Jamshoro by focusing the transfer of heat from the sun to the collector, up to the production of electrical power by the wind turbine, consider-ing the air as an ideal gas. The governing equations used in the simulation consist of the Continuity equation, Navier-Stokes equation, Energy equation, and Radiation transfer equation. The mathematical equations were modeled in a simplified form by considering normal thermodynamic actions of the air to determine the performance of prototype plant in terms of electrical power production. The equations were modeled and simulated on the software Engineering Equation Solver. It can be concluded that the SUTPPs are very appropriate for remote areas where there is plenty of solar energy capacity; such as Tharparker, Jamshoro and some areas of Balochistan. These types of technologies should go on the road to commercialization with the diminishing supplies of fossil fuels and the exacerbation of air emissions and greenhouse effect.

Preview the methods of detection and identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis []

Mycobacteria are narrow, acid-fast bacterial cells. They are similar to other bacteria within the Gram-positive group in that their cell wall contains peptidoglycan, but their cell wall is distinguished in that it contains long-chain of fatty acids, called mycolic acids. The genus Mycobacterium contains fast-growing and slow-growing species. Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis (MAP) is classified among the slow growing species. MAP is recognised to be the cause of Johne's disease, which presents in the form of severe inflammation of the intestines of ruminant animals in addition to cattle, including sheep, goats and deer, as well as several kinds of non-ruminants, such as birds. The general symptoms of Johne's disease are cachexia and diarrhea. Infection of cattle causes significant economic losses due to decreased milk production, premature culling and increase in veterinary costs. MAP has also been suggested to cause Crohn’s disease in human, which is characterised by a gastrointestinal disorder, where patients suffer from severe abdominal pain, diarrhoea, bleeding and bowel obstruction. The problem with paratuberculosis is that it is difficult to diagnose in its early stages as no symptoms appear in the beginning of the infection and by the time that general wasting in cattle and a decrease in milk production are detected, infection is at quite an advanced stage. The methods which used to detect MAP are Microscopic detection, Culture detection, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Bacteriophage-based Techniques. However, there is a limitation to each technique. Therefore there are researchers working on developing a novel method to detect MAP using green fluorescent protein (GFP). The aim of this paper is to display the methods of detection and identification of Mycobacterium avium subsp.


Abstract Background: Improving client satisfaction with health service delivery has major effects on health service quality. As one of the health outcome measurements, client satisfaction is directly related to health service utilization and continuity of care. Furthermore, the possible effects of client satisfaction that could bring on the improvement of the health service delivery add to the merit of studying the area. However, fewer reports are present on client satisfaction in developing countries like Ethiopia. Thus, this study presented findings on multi-faceted factors of client satisfaction to be carried at Arba Minch Health Center. Objective: To determine the level of client satisfaction and associated factors with health service delivery at Arba Minch Health Center. Methods: A cross-sectional institution-based study was conducted on 586 clients from December 20, 2019, to January 5, 2020, in Arba Minch Health Center. A systematic sampling technique was employed to reach the study units at the service delivery points. The data were collected using a pre-tested interview guided semi-structured questionnaire. The responses were scored using Likert scales. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20. Binary regression was used to determine predictors of client satisfaction. Results: In this study, the total level of client satisfaction with health service delivery at Arba Minch health center is 66.34% at a confidence level of [9.96, 63.98] with a 95% confidence interval. Variables having an association with client satisfaction were a residence, visit the health center for medical care and age of the client.

Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring in spinal cord surgery: a brief review []

Spinal / spinal cord surgery involves a wide range of procedures with a potential risk of injury to neuronal structures. During major spinal reconstructions, such as for the correction of kyphoscoliotic deformity, structures such as the spinal cord and nerve roots are prone to transient or permanent injuries with significant morbidity and devastating medico-legal and economic consequences. Intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring is a monitoring technique capable of assessing in real time the functional integrity of neurological structures under potential risk of injury, allowing a correlation between surgical manipulation and the neurophysiological changes that precede injuries resulting from surgical trauma, at the time when these can still be reversed