Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication
      
Control of 8 DOF vehicle model suspension system by designing Second order SMC Controller [PDF]
Yibeltal,Bisrat,MebayeIn this paper the mathematical modeling of 8
DOF full car model active suspension system (ASS) using
Lagrange formalism and design of Non-linear Control strategy,
Second-Order Sliding Mode Control (SOSMC), based on a
Super Twisting Algorithm (STA) has been proposed for ride
quality and vehicle handling. MATLAB/Simulink software is
used to simulate the work. The controlled parameters are
sprung masses of driver set heave, vehicle’s body heave,
rolling and pitching displacements and unsprung masses of
four wheels heave displacements. Its performance is evaluated
compared to its corresponding passive suspension system
(PSS). Three bump sinusoidal roads input is used for
simulation. Finally, the performance of the proposed controller
was demonstrated in the simulation study. The simulation
shows excellent modeling and control performance is
CROS SECTIONAL STUDY OF MIDDLE EAST RISPIRATORY SYNDROM CORONAVIRUS IN CAMELS OF ETHIOPIA [PDF]
Ayelech Muluneh MengeshaABSTRACT
Middle East respiratory syndrome is a respiratory and an enteric disease caused by a recently discovered virus called MERS-CoV. It is a zoonotic virus in which camels are implicated as the major source of infection in humans. A cross-sectional study was conducted between January 2020 to August 2020, with the objectives of detection and characterization of MERS-CoV and determining the sero-prevalence and its association with risk factors.the study animals originated from different camel rearing area of Ethiopia: warder, Babille, Ginir, Metehara and Moyale districts. A total of 473 sera sample and 8 nasal swab samples were used for the study. The nasal swab were tested for the presence of specific viral RNA using qRT-PCR and the sera samples were tested for the presence IgG antibody using indirect ELISA at NAHDIC in Ethiopia. Based on ELISA result, the overall seroprevalence of MERS-CoV in Oromia region(Babille,Metehara,Ginir and Moyale was 49.7% (235/473)(95% CI 45-54) while in Somali region(warder)was 100%(8/8). MERS-CoV specific antibody highly prevalent in adult camels 73.2 %( 63/86) compared to young 44.4 %( 172/387) the difference was statistically significant (χ2=23.36 and p=0.001.The sero-prevalence of MERS-CoV specific antibody in camels originated from Metehara have 55.2%(84/152) which was slightly higher from Moyale 51.3%(77/150) and Ginir 39.4%(60/152) and the variation was statistically significant (χ2=16.60 and P=0.002). Result showed higher sero-prevalence of MERS-CoV antibody in camels of all study area districts which reflects the evidence of prior MERS-CoV infection while all 8 nasal swab samples originated from Warder districts showed negative result for MERS-CoV RNA and it might suggests absence of active circulation of MERS-CoV at the time of sampling. Therefore further study is required to determine its significance from animal and public health perspectives and further research should focus on characterization of the virus and identifying similarity between MERS-CoV viral isolates in neighboring countries and from the Middle East.
Key-words: MERS-CoV, camels, sero-prevalence, Oromiya, Somali, Babille, Ginir,Metehara,Moyale, Warder, Ethiopia
REVIEW ON EVALUATING FARMERS’ KNOWLEDGE,
AWARENESS, AND PRACTICE ON ZOONOTIC DISEASES [PDF]
muluken temesgen shefierawABSTRACT
Micro-organisms transmitted from vertebrate animals including livestock to humans account
for an estimated 60% of human pathogens. Micro-organisms can be transmitted through
inhalation, ingestion, via conjunctiva or physical contact. Close contact with animals is
crucial for transmission. The role of intensity and type of contact patterns between livestock
and humans for disease transmission is poorly understood. In this systematic review aimed to
summaries current knowledge regarding patterns of human–livestock contacts and their role
in micro-organism transmission. Regarding mode of transmission many research work
indicts majority of farmers knew rabies as a zoonotic disease contracted via the bite and
contact with saliva of a rabid dog.In endemic areas respondents know about anthrax
Likewise, Taeniasis was well known by of farmers as transmitted through ingestion, whereas
research work indicts farmers blew half of farmers knew tuberculosis can be transmitted
from cattle to humans. However, Brucellosis and Toxoplasmosis were only recognized by a
few respondents as transmitted through contact and ingestion, respectively. Majority of the
respondents 96.5% and 66.2% knows consumption of raw meat and milk respectively can be
a source of infection for zoonotic diseases; on the other hand (99%) and (89.8%) of the
respondents consume raw meat and milk. Therefore, continued awareness creation and
educating community on way of transmission of zoonotic diseases is mandatory.
Keywords: awareness, knowledge level, livestock farmers, zoonotic diseases
Ecological Geospatial Monitoring and Assessment of Surface Water Environment Using Remote Sensing Ecological Index Model (RSEI) in Freetown, Sierra Leone, from 2010 to 2018. [PDF]
*Dauda M. Kamara1, 2, Zhaohui Yang2, Yusuf A. Lahai1Over the last decade, Freetown saw massive infrastructural development that triggered depletion of forest cover due to deforestation. Concurrently, Civil Society Organizations and citizens claimed ecological degradation and surface water pollution. This paper used four indices (factors) to ascertain which of the factors contribute positively or negatively (ecological stressors) to the ecological environment of surface water using solely the idea of remote sensing. To achieve this purpose, a Remote Sensing Ecological Index (RSEI) model was built using Landsat 5 TM 2010 and Landsat 8 OLI 2018 satellite imageries. This model used four ecological indicators: Greenness, Wetness, Heat and Dryness. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to represent Greenness, WET to represent Wetness (Humidity), Land Surface Temperature (LST) to enhance Heat, and the Normalized Differential Build-up and bare land Soil Index (NDBSI) to enhance dryness (Imperviousness). The RSEI model revealed that NDVI and WET have positive effect/contribution to the ecological environment of surface water; LST and NDBSI have negative effect/contribution to the ecological environment of surface water. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to evaluate the ecological quality of Freetown. Therefore, the model concluded that the ecological condition of Freetown increased slightly from 87.3% in 2010 to 89.3% in 2018. Overall, the ecological condition of surface water could be classed as good.
PREVALENCE OF BOVINE TRYPANOSOMOSIS IN SELECTED DISTRICT OF BENCHI MAJI, SOUTH ETHIOPIA [PDF]
MELKAMU MELESE , AKLILU BEZABIH and Aregahegn AlemuA cross sectional study was being conducted at Bench Maji zone, south Bench woreda from March 2016 to May 2016 to determine and estimate the prevalence of trypanosomiasis in study animals. The study was conducted at south Bench woreda, PAS (peasant association), namely zozo. Ayenamba, Keberta, Morita Janchuta which are selected purposively based on the extent of the existing problems, the complaints of the farmers and the level of medium to high tsetse challenge in the areas. The study animals was selected by using simple random sampling method by taking age, sex, body conditions in to account according to and all the animal in the selected areas had equal chance to be selected for this study. Trypanosome infection were found in all study areas. Of 384 cattle examined 27(7.03%) were positive. Prevalence rates were different by study areas with the lowest 5% in zozo, and the highest, 14% in keberta. The prevalence rates in female were 5.85% and males 8.4%.The prevalence rates were also significantly higher in the age between 4-5 years was 8.8%. An infection rate in cattle with good body condition (6.4%) was lower than the rate in animals with poor body condition (7.9%).According to trypanosome species 15(3.95%) were infected with T.conglense, 10(2.63%) were infected with T.vivax and 1(0.26%) were infected with mixed and T.brucci. Farmer in the study area aware of the presence and impact of the disease but have little knowledge on means of transmission (fly vector). Moreover there is unsupervised use of trypancidal drug often from illegal source and administered commonly by the farmer of themselves. Training the livestock owners on situation of trypanosomiasis and means of transmission in the study area is important. Moreover awareness creation on the risk of trypanocidal and drug handling is essential.
Key word- Trypanosomiasis, Cattle, Prevalence, South bench, Ethiopia
Food Security Assessment in Households in the Ruashi-Lubumbashi Health Zone/ Democratic Republic of the Congo [PDF]
Mulungulungu NyamuganiraHo Ali Déogracias, Musul Kazad, Badibanga Kasumpa D. and Kalaka Mayur ClovisA cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in 426 households selected by a cluster survey, of the probabilistic type, at one level in the Ruashi Health Zone in Lubumbashi in Haut Katanga, on the assessment of household food security in December. 2019 to September 2020. The primary objective of this research was to contribute to improving the state of health of the population of this health zone. The interview and the observation of the environment allowed us to obtain the results and to have a general overview of the situation.
The results of this study showed that 59% of households are food insecure, including 10% in severe situation and 49% in moderate insecurity. Upstream action is of great importance in preventing the prevalence of cases of food insecurity in this Zone. A starving population could not produce goods and services for its nation.
Characteristics of Polyvinyl Chloride Powder Cement Paste and Concrete [PDF]
Augustine Uchechukwu Elinwa and Alhassan Aliyu AbdulrazaqThis work is on the use of Polyvinyl chloride powder (PVC) powder waste for cement paste and concrete production. The characterization of the PVC powder material showed that it has a CaO (63 %) value almost that of Portland cement. Thus, it has cementing value and can be used as cement material. The x-ray diffraction analysis of the material contained major mineral like Nacrite, Wollastonite and Gypsum with trace minerals like Illite, Muscovite and Tobermorite. The PVC powder material was used in proportions of 0 % to 40 % by wt. % of cement to produce cement pastes and concrete specimens. Results from the cement paste on consistency and setting times showed that using PVC powder material would require more water for consistency and workability. The results on the setting time showed the material is a retarder and could be used for hot weather concreting. The PVC-powder concrete showed a normal weight concrete, decreased water absorption and compressive strength. However, the statistical characteristics of the concrete mixture showed good quality concrete. A linear regression model was used to represent this behavior and is significant.
Physical activities as “A healthy & disease-free life” [PDF]
Vikas Tiwari, Jaishree TiwariThe purpose of the study was to enrich the awareness of diseases which can be easily controlled through physical activity & provide a healthy life. Physical illness has its claws worldwide. It no longer remains a problem of adults, children, and poor or of underdeveloped countries, but it is rising rapidly among rich and developed countries as well. For example Human life has become dependent on medicines such as digest medicine, allergic medicines, medicine for sleep, medicine for increase of stamina etc. Because of high intake of these pharmaceutical drug’s man has become a “drug robot”. Therefore, this paper discusses the gravity of the health and diseases burden on human life. It attempts to highlight physical activity in human life and how human can do some facile physical activities that can control diseases without much cost. Finally, the paper focus on physical activities related to women and disabled persons with some suggestive future remedial strategies.
State & status of Physical Education in secondary school level in Dehradun district, Uttrakhand, India. [PDF]
Jaishree Tiwari, Vikas TiwariThe purpose of the study was to analyze the state & status of physical education in secondary schools in the district of Dehradun. In the modern era the physical education program, which applies in a different area is more scientific & perfect which fill-up a person’s health, mental & psychological needs. Thus why the program of physical education at the school level is more important to provide skillful citizens for a country. A total of 10 schools of Dehradun were randomly selected as subjects for collecting information about this exciting state & status of physical education. State & status was assisting using a self-made questionnaire. The result indicated that only in 50% of schools there were qualified physical education teachers. Physical education classes are organized mostly theoretically. Facilities of games and sports were found with low standards, most of the schools participate in the different inter-schools competition. Schools follow govt. Thus why most of the students lost their interest in physical education, many schools are now motivating students to maintain a balance between their school work and physical education. At present, the government of Dehradun tries to provide skillful Physical education teachers at the school level. Through this paper, a concept of the status of physical education in secondary school level in a specific district will come forward, & also the importance & lacking of proper management of school level physical education will identify, which should make more conscious & help also to the people of Dehradun as well as the government of the country & all physical educator for further study & improving the current satiation to create more interest to physical education.
The Impact of the Kannangara’s Philosophy of Education (Kannangara Chinthanaya) for the Free Education System in Sri Lanka [PDF]
Rev.Kadawalawewe Kalyana, E.K. Wijayawikrama, N.M. Nimesha PrasadikaMr. C. W.W. Kannangara, who holds a unique position in the field of education in Sri Lanka, is a scholar who has made an effort to reform education with a philosophical thought. He pointed out that every citizen has the equal right to education and the expense of the government that education at is not worthless. He regarded the expenditure on education as an investment for the country and pointed out the value of education in his own language. He introduced the concept of “4H” as a way of contributing to the purpose of education and pointing out the meaninglessness of non-practical education. Furthermore, he pointed out that there is a possibility of socializing the social values and cultural values by the education. He also pointed out that education is the basis for all the racial and religious issues in the country and he proposed mixed religious and national school system.
Les Facteurs Institutionnels de l’Attractivité des Investissements Directs Etrangers en République Démocratique du Congo : une approche par la modélisation VECM (modèle vectoriel à correction d’erreur) [PDF]
KITOKO LISOMBO Etienne , LISELE SHUWA Jean-Paul , PIVA ASALOKO Prince , BASANDJA BALIWE Trésor and ENVI WA AVUTIA JiscardRésume
« Cet article évalue les effets des facteurs institutionnels sur les investissements directs étrangers en République Démocratique du Congo en mettant un accent particulier sur l’indicateur de la gouvernance. Pour ce faire, nous avons recouru au modèle à correction d’erreur vectorielle (VECM) en utilisant des données annuelles allant de 1984 à 2017. A la lumière des résultats trouvés, nous avons tiré deux constatations majeures. Premièrement, la qualité des institutions exerce un effet positif mais non significatif sur les IDE, lequel effet est plus que proportionnel comme pour dire ceteris paribus, un accroissement de l’indicateur de la qualité des institutions de 1 point entraine une augmentation de l’entrée nette des IDE de plus de 1%. Deuxièmement, à long terme, comparativement au court terme, la qualité des institutions exerce un effet négatif et significatif sur l’entrée nette des IDE. Ainsi, toutes choses égales par ailleurs, un accroissement de l’indicateur de la qualité des institutions de 1 point entraîne la baisse de l’entrée nette des IDE de 35,72%. Ce résultat est conforme selon que la qualité des institutions en RDC constitue un frein à l’attractivité des IDE. Cette situation peut être expliquée par les problèmes liés à l’attractivité des IDE en RDC entre autres la corruption, le risque pays, l’instabilité politique, les conflits internes, etc. ».
Mots-clés : facteurs institutionnels, IDE, VECM
INFLUENCE OF PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL MANAGEMENT ON EMPLOYEES PRODUCTIVITY [PDF]
Dr. Cross Ogohi Daniel, Dr Abbas Umar Ibrahim This study sought to examine the influence of performance appraisal management on employee productivity. The main objective of this study was to examine the ways in which performance appraisal has impacted employee’s performance, to know if Management by Objectives method of performance appraisal enhanced employee productivity in North South Power Company and to find out if feedback, as performance appraisal variable influence. From the findings, the study concluded that there a significant relationship between performance appraisal management and employee productivity. Additionally, feedback definitely has an impact positively on employee productivity. Performance appraisal management should be taken seriously by organizations because it yields good results that will take the company far. Keywords: Performance Appraisal, Management and Employee Productivity.
Accessibility of Women Group Lending and Repayment Performance in Council’s Women Development Fund of Lushoto District Council in Tanzania [PDF]
Emmanuel P. Mzingula, Josephine Manase, Rabeka J. MlemetaAbstract
The access to microcredit for women in local government authorities is an essential financial service to ensure empowerment of poor women and their families in alleviating poverty in Tanzania. This study was carried out to assess loan accessibility and women repayment performance in Council’s Women Development Fund of local governments in Tanzania particularly for Lushoto District Council. The study used secondary data of five financial years from 2015/2016 to 2019/2020 collected from council’s progress reports and women’s loan repayment records available in loan management unit. Simple random sampling was used to select 54 women group loans provided by Lushoto District Council through contractual repayment agreement signed between the district council (lender) and individual women entrepreneurial groups (borrower). SPSS computer software version 16 was used for data analysis to reveal descriptive statistics and ran binary logistic regression. Results show that there was an increase in accessibility of women microcredit provided by Lushoto District Council since the amount of money allocated for women microcredit has increased parallel with increase in number of borrowers in the past five years. More results revealed that there is a decline in loan repayment among women groups in the last two financial years of 2017/2018 (68.4%) and 2018/2019 (67.2%). Binary logistic regression revealed that loan size disbursed to a women group has significant influence and positive relation with loan repayment defaulter (β1=0.001, p=0.038). The study recommends to the Lushoto District Council and other local government authorities that they should regularly review their loan appraisal systems so as to enhance effectiveness in scrutinization of women loan applications. In so doing, councils can make proper decisions about size of loan to be provided to borrower in order to avoid occurrence of non-performing loans.
EVALUATION ON THE ENVIRONMENT AL AWARENESS THROUGH ENVIRONMENT AL EDUCA TION AMONG PUBLIC HIGH SCHOOLS IN SOUTH CENTRAL MINDANAO [PDF]
HONEYLYN RAMAYRAT-SACIL.PH.D.ED.AD.In the present global situation people cannot deny the urgency of the major environmental problems affecting the world today such as climate change and biodiversity loss which are threatening humanity’s existence on this planet. There is a pressing need to promote environmental literacy through environmental education among its citizens in order for them to mitigate and to become resilient to these threats. This would develop behavior and practices towards environmental conservation and protection since environmental literacy will enhance comprehension and skills in devising interventions in the consequence of this situation in their lives (Hollweg et al. 2011).
In the Philippines, despite of the efforts of the National Government to promote environmental awareness and education through the implementation of Republic Act 9512 series of 2008, the country is still lagging behind to other nations regarding on its Environmental Performance Index in 2015. Thus, the Philippines ranked 114th among 178 countries based on its performance to address high-priority environmental issues, i.e., the protection of human health from environmental hazards, and ecosystems protection (Hsu et al. 2015).
Many parts in Mindanao need proper care and environmental protection especially in a huge portion of forest, waterfalls, and beaches which are considered natural resources that provides sanctuary and food to the people. The reported abuses of these resources are seen in media reports wherein people do not develop value of resource conservation and environmental care. Garbage are thrown everywhere despite of signage posted. This is an alarming phenomenon that should be addressed to help sustain not only resources but most of all protect the environment where people lived (Revita, 2017).
The evaluation of the implementation and outcome of the education is significant in determining the loopholes in goal achievement. The study may be a good source of strategies and interventions in the delivery of environmental education. The researcher is inspired to conduct this study to be able to apply the recommendations of the study in the instructional delivery of environment education in day to day activities with the students.
Role of Sperm DNA Integrity in Fertility [PDF]
Dr. Abdul Hafeez BalochThe sperm DNA integrity is important for the success of natural or assisted fertilization, as well as the normal development of the embryo, fetus and child. Some investigations have demonstrated that when the damaged spermatozoa DNA of the husband exceeds than 30%, the couple has a very low potential of natural fertility. Several methods are available for the assessment of sperm DNA integrity, which is considered to be a better marker of male fertility potential than conventional semen parameters. Furthermore, monitoring sperm DNA integrity may become an important part of the evaluation for couples seeking assisted reproductive techniques such as intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). Finally, the effects of cryopreservation and preparation techniques on sperm DNA integrity are summarized.
Integration of Physics and Mathematics Knowledge Into Quran [PDF]
D.Dahuwa, K. Modu, A. Adamu, Z. Muhammad and A.Y. SanusiABSTRACT
This study is to shed some light and highlight some of the contributions made by Muslim scientists and thinkers to the development of science and technology Some people, particularly religious people had the view of seen the knowledge of science and technology as a contradiction to their religious knowledge. Some believe that the knowledge is aimed at doing away with their own religious believe and culture. Thus, they regard the knowledge as useless to them and their society in general, their perception of the content of the western knowledge being full of modem culture which in one way or the other contradicts their own. While others believe that all the knowledge was from the west therefore, it is the western property nobody else contributed to the development of the knowledge. This article will only provide the detail account history of the prominent Muslims scientists and thinkers, with their contributions in the field of physics and mathematics. Muslims has contributed in all the areas of physics particularly optics mechanics, dynamics, kinematics and also mathematics in areas such as geometry, numbers theory algebra e.t.c.
KEY WORDS; integration, physics, mathematics, Qur`an and theory
ASSESSMENT OF WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT PRACTICES BY SELECTED SUPERMARKETS IN KENEMA CITY [PDF]
Samuel Piawa. Quee Lecturer, Eastern Polytechnic, Kenema, Douffi Mamie Sheriff Sr. Lecturer, Eastern Polytechnic, Kenema and JOSEPH CHRISTIAN ADUMU MBOMA LECTURER, EASTERN POLYTECHNIC, KENEMA,The study seeks to add to existing literature the working capital management practices of selected supermarkets in Kenema city. Problem: this was motivated by the fact that business have been noted to rely on banks, the stock market and equity capital. They give less attention to efficient working capital as a viable means of raising capital. They had seen not to appreciate the feasibility of raising capital through efficient working capital management. Nonetheless, efficient working capital management is one of the major sources of raising capital, according to Nyamao et al (2012). Methodology: to achieve this, survey instrument was administered on twenty (20) employees of leading supermarkets in Kenema city with a response rate of 80%. The data collected was processes by using Microsoft excel and presented using tables, pie charts and bar charts. Findings: the results showed that the supermarkets face liquidity challenges, low profitability, worse competitive position, increased funds tied up in working capital and finally lack of ability to unlock capital to finance growth. Recommendations: it is therefore recommended that the supermarkets reexamine the factors that determine their working capital so that they come up with best practices of working capital that can militate against the challenges. The working capital management policy need to be changed from informal to formal to enhances of the supermarkets to be successful in their WCM.
A Potential Local Socio-Ecological Disaster?
Artisanal Small-scale Gold Mining at Old Mutare Mission Area in Mutasa District, Zimbabwe [PDF]
Onismo MakwashaToday, artisanal small-scale mining (ASM) in Zimbabwe is dominantly characterised by destructive mining and wasteful mineral extraction. Such activities have severe impacts on the environment which include deforestation, over-stripping, burning of bushes, and use of harmful chemicals like mercury and cyanide. From a community perspective, this article explores the ecological concerns resulting from artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) at Old Mutare Mission area in Mutasa District of Zimbabwe, focusing on the extent to which the activity has damaged the environment and created several social problems. A qualitative inquiry was conducted utilizing interviews and onsite observations. The results from the study showed that ASGM at Old Mutare is undertaken by unskilled and under-equipped gold miners known as the Makorokoza, who destroy lands by burning, as well as massive digging which leads to a substantial disturbance of ecosystems. The paper concludes that ASGM is an ecological time bomb, 'a potential disaster' which requires appropriate regulating and management to promote sustainable use of natural resources and safeguard the environment.
Curriculum Development in Language Teaching: Importance and Challenges [PDF]
Dr. Sheeba Sardar AliCurriculum development is the process of developing, implementing, updating, and evaluating language programs. The main objective of the curriculum is to ensure that students achieve integrated, coherent learning that can enhance their personal, academic, and professional learning that can contribute to developing and evaluating language programs and teaching materials. In today's world, millions of people spend a large amount of time to be mastered a second or foreign language learning. Even teachers also spend a lot of time to plan language courses, materials, and teaching their classes. The main objective of the research is to provide some of the tools to develop and review the curriculum because its role is a sine qua non for the quality and educational programs.
Keywords-curriculum, development, needs, planning, materials.
Covid-19 Cases in Savar Upazila of Bangladesh: A Geographical Inquiry [PDF]
Dr. Bibi Hafsa, Khandakar Hasan Mahmud, Raju AhmedNow present World is struggling unpresented event like Covid-19. It escalates almost all populated country (214, 09/10/20). Bangladesh also straining Covid-19 which is the second most affected country in Asia. The study area Savar Upazila is a fringe area of Dhaka city which is most affected Upazila. The study collected data from Upazila Health Complex. The aim of this study is to explore the detail data of Covid-19 cases in study area. The study denoted the Covid-19 cases in age-sex structure, affected Covid-19 cases by occupation-wise in pie chart, thematic dot map used for mapping the affected Covid-19 cases and Nearest Neighbor Index used for pattern analysis of Covid-19 cases in study area. The result of this research, working age group more affected than other groups, male is more affected than women, Worker people more affected than other occupations, it also unearthed Covid-19 affected cases reduces with distance and more populated area more affected in study area. It also reveals Covid-19 cases in study area is cluster pattern. ArcGIS, Google Earth Pro, Google Maps, SPSS and Microsoft Excel tools use to data gathering, data management and analysis. The study is very noteworthy for planning and management of Covid-19.
Assessment of the bacterial load of the fish ponds and identification of A. Hydrophilla; haemolytic and proteolytic activity [PDF]
Abdullah Albalaji , Ahmad Asmat, Fathul SahranThe aim of study to assess the bacterial load of the three fish ponds (Tilapia, cat and carp) and bacteria were counted by the previous methods. Total viable count of bacteria flora we focus on A. hydrophila isolated from Qassim area in Saudi Arabia. A total of 150 strains were obtained from three types of fish ponds (50 Tilapia fish, 50 Cat fish and 50 Carp fish). Sample from Tilapia, cat and carp were cultivated on NA (Nutrient Agar), TSA and modified Rimler–shott (mRS) agar showed 1.2×106 cfu/ml, 8.7×105 cfu/ml, 6.5×105 cfu/ml; 1.2×106 cfu/ml, 2.7×107 cfu/ml, 1.5×104 cfu/ml; 5.5×105 cfu/ml, 2.5×106 cfu/ml, 6.7×104 cfu/ml respectively. A total of 80 colonies showed a yellow color in mRS in which further biochemical and morphological study showed that 35% of isolates were confirmed as A. hydrophila from the all presumptive aeromonads. In the present study the 68 % isolates of the A. hydrophila produced β-haemolysis while 43 % isolates of A. hydrophila exhibited significant protease production. In the present study the chi-square test showed that there was no significant difference between the hemolytic and protease activity. Also there was no statistical difference found in the presence of genes. Molecular techniques revealed that isolates were confirmed as A. hydrophila with 98% similarity to the GenBank BLAST. it was resulted that the 57% isolates of A. hydrophila possess haemolysin gene (hlyA), 130 bp. While 35% isolates were positive for aerolysin gene (aer) showing expected band at 309 bp. There was a large bacterial flora found in fish ponds although the fish farms have good and optimal conditions in Qassim area of Saudia. The bacterial specie A. hydophila also identified from this flora. A. hydophila virulence showed haemolysis activity and proteases activity the genes of hemolysin and aerolysin confirmed its virulence.
Predisposing Factors to Hearing Loss among the “Jua Kali” Workers: A Case Study of "Jua Kali" Workers in Mombasa County, Kenya [PDF]
professor Robert Kinyua, Dr Joseph Msazu, Adelinah KilonzoThe “Jua Kali” sector which is an informal, unorganized small-scale enterprise employment in Kenya is a source of many livelihoods in most cities and towns. However the sector is inadequately supervised and lacks occupational health services with the workers characterized by little or no formal education, knowledge on occupational safety procedures, environmental safety requirements, and even the occupational health and safety laws and legislation making them vulnerable to many occupational health hazards. The aim of the study was to assess the predisposing factors to hearing loss among the “Jua Kali” workers in Mombasa County, Kenya. A well-structured questionnaire was used to collect social demographic and work related data while noise level measurements (noise mapping) were done randomly on elected subjects by using sound level meters. The audiometric test was done on the workers by use of clinical audiometer machine (measured at 4,000Hz) to determine the hearing levels. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 21.0. Out of 146 participants involved in the study, 47.9% had moderate hearing loss while 2.7% had severe hearing loss as per the disposing factors. There was a correlation (p<0.05) between disposing factor and hearing loss among the Jua Kali workers. Therefore, there is need to effectively regulate the informal sector, create awareness campaign on effects of noise exposure, establish hearing monitoring centers, and provide PPEs to arrest the otherwise forgotten irreversible disability causing hazard the Juakali workers are exposed to.
Key words: Predisposing factors, Hearing loss, Jua Kali, Informal sector, occupational health hazards