Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Investigation the impact of male migration on their spouse relationship []

People who travel internally or externally from one state to another state for the basic necessity of life called international migration. Generally, people migrate from one place to another with the audacity for the well-being of the family member. Migration has a positive association with budget allocation for a family but the negative association through the psychological disturbances becomes the part of the personality of the left behind the family. This study was designed to measure the possible impact of male migration on their spouse relationship. The study was carried out in the urban areas of district city Sialkot Pakistan with a sample size was 120. The data was collecting through the purposive sampling technique (qualitative and quantitative) methods. A comprehensive interview schedule was designed. A strong optimistic relationship was found between migration and socio-economic protection of the families left behind. The collected data were analyzed by Chi-squares. However, the present research concludes that the majority of the wives feel anxiety, loneliness, and social insecurity in the absence of their husbands. Keywords: Migration, Spouse relationship, Anxiety,


Abstract This study aims to determine and analyze the effect of leadership style, knowledge management on development strategies and increasing in work productivity, the influence of development strategies on increasing work productivity, and the influence of leadership style and knowledge management that have an indirect effect on increasing work productivity through development strategies at PT. Sulsel Citra Indonesia. The approach taken was a quantitative approach, data collection techniques through questionnaires, data analysis techniques with path analysis methods. The populations in this study were all employees of PT Sulsel Citra Indonesia as many as 34 respondents. The results showed that leadership style had a positive and significant effect on development strategies. Knowledge management has a direct negative and insignificant effect on development strategies, Leadeship style has a positive and significant direct effect on increasing productivity. Knowledge management has a direct positive and significant effect on improvement productivity. Development strategy has a positive and significant effect on productivity, leadership style has a negative and insignificant effect on productivity when through development strategies and knowledge management has s positive and insignificant effect on productivity when going through development strategies at PT. Sulsesl Citra Indonesia. Keywords: leadership, knowledge management, productivity and development strategy


Abstract This study aims to determine organizational culture and compensation have a direct and positive effect on job satisfaction, to determine organizational culture and compensation in relation to direct and positive effect on employee performance, to find out organizational culture and compensation and job satisfaction in relation to indirect and positive effect on employee performance through job satisfaction. The approach in this research is a quantitative approach. Data collection techniques was done through questionnaires, while data analysis techniques was conducted through path analysis method. The population in this study were all employees at Bank Rakyat Indonesia (Persero) Tbk, Sidrap Branch, namely 95 respondents. The results of the study show that there is a positive and significant influence of organizational culture on job satisfaction. There is no significant effect on compensation on job satisfaction. There is a positive and significant influence of organizational culture on employee performance, There is an insignificant effect of compensation on employee performance, There is a positive and insignificant influence of organizational culture on employee performance through job satisfaction, There is an effect of compensation on employee performance through job satisfaction, There is a negative and insignificant job satisfaction on employee performance. Keywords: organizational culture, compensation, job satisfaction and employee performance

Effectiveness of Accounting Information System (AIS) on Public Financial Reporting Quality (PFRQ); An Empirical Study in Sri Lanka []

Abstract: The research investigated whether the effectiveness of the Accounting Information System (AIS) is associated with Public Financial Reporting Quality (PFRQ). Public financial reporting is accountable to maintain public trust by protecting the accountability, openness, and transparency of public money which leads to the good governance of the country. There were many criticisms over financial reporting quality by various stakeholders of entities across the countries. The research collected primary data from the government ministries and departments in central government, Sri Lanka. The questionnaire survey method was used for the primary data collection from the sample selected by an accountant in the field. Multiple linear regression model applied with the assistance of SPSS version 20.0 software for the data analysis. The study was evident that the effectiveness of AIS has a direct association with PFRQ. Furthermore, it was admitted that the scope, timeliness, and aggregation of AIS have a direct significant influence on PFRQ. Finally, it can be recommended that the government of Sri Lanka should ensure the effectiveness of AIS of the ministries and departments to improve the public financial reporting quality of the country. Keywords: Public Financial Reporting Quality, Quality Characteristics, Accounting Information System.

Ethnographic perspective of teachers in Nepali society []

Abstract The ethnographic perspective of teachers in the society is a way of observation and acceptance by community people. There are different forms on teachers from the beginning of unification of Nepal and the social values are also different at the time period. So, finding how the teachers were accepted and defined by the community people was prime objective of this research. The historical and cultural knowledge was followed and interviews were conducted with different informants. Research concludes that teachers were the most valued and social leaders at different time frame even their role and community perspective is shifted in different angles.


Purpose: The study evaluates the emerging trend of land grabbing and its probable effects on residential real estate development in the Owode-Ede urban settlement of Osun state, Nigeria, to expose the factors necessitating land grabbers activities in the study area. Design/methodology/approach – To achieve the purpose, the researcher embarked on a reconnaissance survey of Owode-Ede Neighbourhood settlement. The three residential neighbourhoods from where 1,230 residential sites identified were selected through purposive sampling technique, and 861 plots representing 70% were randomly picked for the study and thus formed the unit of investigation. The questionnaire designed and used targeted obtaining information on respondents' socio-demographic characteristics, residential plot acquisition and ownership security, land grabbers' (omo-oniles) mode of operation, causal factors, and their effect on real estate development. Data collected were analysed using Frequency Distribution Tables, Mean and Standard Deviation, and mean weighted values. Findings: The findings revealed that 97.6% of the respondents are male, 96.2% are married, and 3.5% are single. The respondents' age distribution shows that 61.6% of the landowners sampled are between the ages of 45-54years. The age bracket is the active, working population and productive age of the society. However, the respondents' educational profile revealed 83.7%; 15.1% and 1.2% had tertiary, secondary, and primary education. The study, therefore, concluded that the need to checkmate the demented activities of land grabbers and their emerging antics that are inimical to real property development/investment through stringent measures must be emphasised. Originality/value: The study is amongst the few attempts at exploring the challenges of real estate developer/investors in the hands of omo-onile (land grabbers) and the first bold step in the study area. Keywords: Omo-onile. Land Grabbers, Residential Land, Land Ownership, Residential Real Estate.


Wastewaters originated from textile industry contain various pollutants including a high content of organic matter and color problem depending on forms of dyes, surface-active materials. Azo dyes are difficult to degrade by the current conventional treatment processes. They are characterized by the presence of the nitrogen-nitrogen bond (-N=N-) in the center and hence they are highly electron deficient. Several biological, chemical methods for degradation of textile effluents are being followed, but real challenge is to find a method that is effective, comparatively fast and cost effective. Advanced oxidation is an emerging field that uses oxidants producing hydroxyl radicals to oxidize toxic compounds into non-harmful by-products. The effectiveness of photo-oxidation on reactive black 5, a widely used complex structured azo dye, was evaluated. Dye concentrations in the range of 50-500mg/L were treated with UV alone and H2O2 /UV under 12 different residence time (5.2-60 min). The best combination was selected for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) analysis to determine the amount of chemicals retained in the effluent after treatment. The textile industry produces effluents with a pH of 10-11 and hence, the dye pH was adjusted to 10-11. The effects of UV radiation, UV/ 10 ml H2O2 and UV/ 20 ml H2O2 were evaluated and the results were compared to select the best oxidation method. The maximum degradation obtained after 60 min exposure to UV alone was 27.01% and 0.33% for 50 mg/L dye concentration and 500 mg/L dye concentration, respectively. The degradation obtained after exposure to UV/10 ml/L H2O2 was 99.70% after 25.4 min for the 50 mg/L concentration and 99.70% after 60 min for the 500 mg/L concentration. Exposure to UV/ 20 ml/L H2O2 resulted in the degradation of 99.96% after 20 min for the 50 mg/L dye concentration and 99.95% degradation after 60 min for the 500 mg/L dye concentration. Increasing the H2O2 from 10 mg/L to 20 mg/L, (UV/20 ml/L H2O2) improved the oxidation efficiency and reduced the treatment time. The Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) analysis performed on UV/20 ml/L H2O2 treated samples showed the COD of the effluent (after treatment) was 416 mg/L after 20 min for the 50 mg/L dye concentration and 256 mg/L after 60 min for the 500 mg/L dye concentrations which are higher than the COD discharge limit of 250 mg/L. The COD discharge limit of 250 mg/L could be achieved with UV/ 20 ml/L treatment by increasing the exposure time (longer than 60 min). The pH of the treated effluent is within the discharge-accepted limit of 6-9. Treatment of the dye effluent under alkaline condition was slower but it does not justify at the acidic condition due to the cost of chemicals addition to adjust the pH and the further treatment to remove the chemicals before disposal. The temperature after treatment was always found to be increased from 22ᵒC to 41ᵒC after 60 min of exposure to UV.


The article is devoted to the analysis of simple sentences’ structure of English and Uzbek languages. We propose an algorithm that solves crucial problem for machine translation of these unrelated languages, and the linguistic database that gives the possibility to implement the process of machine translation


The capital market is one of the sources of funds to increase capital for companies that go public through issuing shares and selling them to investors through the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX), while investors who want to invest in a company can do so by buying shares of the company they want through the market. capital. The movement of shares is in line with the performance of the issuer, if the issuer has a better performance, the profit that can be generated from business operations is getting bigger, so that every com-pany that issues shares pays close attention to its share price. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of leverage and profit-ability on audit delay and stock prices, to analyze the effect of audit delay on stock prices, and to analyze the effect of leverage and profitability on stock prices through audit delay. The research sample was property and real estate companies listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) using purposive sampling technique, the total sample were 37 companies with observation samples for 4 years (2016 to 2019). Data were analyzed using PLS analysis and path analysis. The results show that leverage has a positive and significant effect on audit delay, and profitability has a positive and significant effect on audit delay, and profitability has a positive and significant effect on stock prices.


Early sexual debut is the first infiltratory sexual contact in adolescent age undr18 years. It is the most serious social and public health problem in the world including Ethiopia, affecting reproductive health of adolescent age in all social class. However, little information was found and not recent in study area. The aim of this study was to assess magnitude of early sexual debut and associated factors among high school female adolescent students from Nov 19-22/ 2019 at Adama, Ethiopia. Method: A School based cross-sectional study was conducted from November 19-22/2019 in Adama. Multistage sampling technique was used to select representative sample. Data were collected by using pretested, structured, and self-administered questionnaires. Then data were entered in to Epi-Info version 7.1&transferred to Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 for analysis. Descriptive statistics were performed to describe the study population. Binary logistic and Multivariable logistic regression analysis were used to see the association bet wean dependent and independent variables. Predictor variables with p-value <0.25 were considered candidate for multivariable analysis. The collinearity effect was tested using variance inflation factors and tolerance test. P-value < 0.05 with 95% CI was considered to declare statistical significance. Model fitness test was done using Homer-Lemeshow.Result: Out of 562/ 533 respondents were complete the questioner with 94.8% response rate & 90 had sexual contact. The magnitude of early sexual debut were 16.79 (90/533, 95% CI, 13.7-19.8%) Age, living condition, and not having boyfriend were significantly associated with early sexual debut (AOR=.136; 95% CI, .024-.766) for age 14 years, living with mother, (AOR=.101; 95% CI .016-.635), living with relatives (AOR= 5.491; 95% CI, .955-31.578) and not having boyfriend (AOR= .017; 95% CI, .008-.035) were associated with early sexual debut. Conclusion: The Significant amount of school adolescents was involved in early sexual contact. The factors associated with the problem of early sexual debut, were age, having boyfriend and living with mother and relatives measured. Public health interventions should involve awareness creation and strong follow up at family, community, at school & health facility to have friendly communication and programmer and planner to consider the problem. Key words:Early sexual debut, Adolescent, teenage, children, early marriage, Adama, Ethiopia

Damsel in Distress Mobile base Safety Application []

This research relates to an android application where the main purpose is to create a safe environment for the women who are in need of help. The uniqueness of this system is, when the user is in a harmful situation the user can take a SOS call and the current GPS location of the user to the guardian and also if the user is in a harm or has faced a trouble the system will provide direction to the nearest police station or to the nearest hospital. And there is a function which is, where the user can select an option to start counting the footstep and if the footstep starts to increase and the application will detect the frequency of the increment of the foot step and ask if the user is facing a harmful full situation if the user click on yes a SOS call and the current location will be sent to the guardian. And another major problem is to be unsafe is unknowingness of the people and about the area, this system has another feature where to mark the most popular crime areas related to harassment and notify the user when they enter the area. Damsel in Distress will provide a safe environment to the user.

Gene Frequencies of ABO and Rh (D) Blood Group Alleles in two Different Regions at the Northeastern of Libya []

Total number of 3000 individuals was collected from Ajdabiya and Ghemins, then analyzed. Phenotype O blood type has the highest frequency, followed by A and B, whereas the lowest prevalent blood group was AB. The overall phenotypic frequencies of ABO blood groups were O>A>B>AB. The allelic frequencies of O, A and B alleles for Ajdabiya's samples were O (0.6511528238), A (0.1839120439) and B (0.1649351323). The allelic frequencies for Ghemins's samples were O (0.5927337795), A (0.2273881627) and B (0.180). Individuals with a positive Rh factor were the most common in the target group of this study. 1269 samples from Ajadabia were positive (86.4%), while 231 samples were negative (15.4%). The positive Rh factor for Ghemins’s samples was also most common 1307 (87.13%), whilst the negative Rh factor was 193 (12,8%). Chi-square test was performed to match the balance predictions for each blood group A, B, AB and O and the Rh factor. The predictions for each blood group A, B, AB and O in Ajdabiya were unbalanced, but they were balanced with the Rh factor. On the opposite, the predictions for each blood group A, B, AB and O in Ghemins were balanced, but they were unbalanced with the Rh factor.


Considering the advancement in technology in recent times, the knowledge of computer and its modus operandi is no longer an option. Computer programming is the core foundation of computer science education. Learning programming has been a difficult task for students especially those in first year in tertiary institutions, hence the need for teachers to look for methods to make it easier for them to learn. This paper therefore considered the approaches to effective teaching and learning of programming in computer science, it also discussed the challenges to effective teaching of computer programming which include among other, inadequate computer literacy, lack of access to computer and other resources, inadequate experienced teachers in computer programming etc. The paper also looked at some pedagogical methods that can enhance the delivery of computer programming such as Pair programming, Problem-based learning, and puzzle-based learning among others. Finally, recommendations were made for effective teaching of computer programming. Keywords: Computer Science, Computer Programming, Teaching and Learning,

The influence of Community Participation Practices on Sustainability of Community Cattle Dip projects in Moiben Sub-County, Uasin-Gishu County, Kenya []

The purpose of this study was to assess the Influence of Community Participation Practices on Sustainability of Community Cattle Dip projects in Moiben sub-county, Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The target population for the study was all Committee members of the community cattle dip who are directly involved the decision-making process of the project. These include chairpersons, Treasurers and secretaries. Moiben Sub county veterinary officer and 5 ward administrators were key informants in the study. The total target population in this study was 222 respondents from the 72 cattle dips in Moiben Sub County. The study employed simple random sampling in selecting the respondents as recommended by Kothari (2004). Consequently, the sample size included the 68 respondents. Data for the study was collected through the use of questionnaires. Both open-ended and closed questionnaires were administered to the project committee. The data collected from questionnaires were summarized according to the study objectives being factors influencing project sustainability. The findings from the study revealed that that the community in Moiben Sub county were involved in participation on Cattle Dip Projects. Community participation has an effect on every project sustainability. This is because the community are the primary stakeholders and they have the power to approve projects during the initiation stage of the project and also during decision-making process in terms of allocation of funds. The findings from the study will be useful to the Project managers and coordinators of the Community Based Organizations. It will further outline and discuss the extent to which the factors influence the sustainability of community-based projects and effectively let the project coordinators in programs geared towards community development have a grip of how they can be able to achieve maximum sustainability of their projects.

The Equity State of Employment Generation Program for the Poorest: A case in Mohonpur Upozila under Rajshahi District in Bangladesh []

Employment Generation Program for the Poorest (EGPP) scheme is one of the important workfare programs as social safety nets in Bangladesh through which the local working poor get the chance to work and survive. This is a cash-based package aiming to help rural extreme poor providing employment during lean season over two cycles for 80 days. EGPP generally involves participants for doing physical work for rural community. This paper focuses on the EGPP scheme aimed toward stating equity in two Unions—Moughachhi and Bakshimuil—in Mohonpur Upazila under Rajshahi district. It provides an assessment of EGPP focused on equity based on beneficiary selection, allowance distribution, and implementation. Following a mixed method approach where data have been collected through questionnaire survey, FGD, and KII. The findings indicate that the transfers are not always distributed among the poor and vulnerable people who deserve to receive the allocation for fighting against poverty and vulnerability. Existing discontent proved that the selection procedure of beneficiaries in EGPP scheme is not quite satisfactory and still inequitable as near about half of the beneficiaries said the distribution is not fair. The study findings also specify that people remain in vulnerable situation even after taking this scheme... Initiatives could be taken in increasing allowance, changing beneficiary selection procedure and monitoring intensification which can contribute to promote in facilitating peoples’ livelihood against poverty and vulnerability.

The Impact of Microfinance on Smallholder Agricultural Productivity in Sierra Leone: A case study of Koinadugu District. []

Agriculture contributes significantly to the economy of Sierra Leone making it the most vibrant sector employing about 75% of the population in the country with majority settling in rural areas. The rural sector of the country is blessed with productive arable parcels of land suitable for agriculture in which majority of its participants are smallholder farmers predominantly involved in small-scale farming. These farmers lack the financial wherewithal to graduate their agricultural practices from subsistence to commercial, with the aim of increasing household incomes. The only area they have relied on to augment their financial needs andfarm productivity is on microfinance, an activity that has contributed greatly to the improvement of the socio-economic condition of smallholder farmers in the country. This research discloses the impact of microfinance on smallholder agricultural productivity in Koinadugu district in Sierra Leone. Rice, the leading produce produced by farmers in the district, is used to represent agricultural productivity. A total sample size of 100 farmers was collected from the frame out of which 50 farmers were selected from each of thetwo groups- clients and non-clients through a random and purposive sampling techniques. Analyses of the collected data was done through descriptive statistics, Independent Samples T-Test, Cross-tabulations and Chi-Square test of significance and multiple regression analysis. A multiple regression model was employed to measure the determinant factors of rice output in the analysis. The study found that even though clients of microfinance realized high agricultural productivity comparative to the non-clients, the rural financial institutions which heavily rely on depositor’s money, did not provide exclusive loans for agriculture, the utilization of other loan portfolios makes it difficult for farmers to secure long-term loans, forcing them to engage into petty trading as an income diversification strategy to pay their loans on time. Major challenges such high interest rates, inadequate Information about agricultural loans, delay in loan disbursement were unearthed by the study. In future, farmers will be constrained by short-term loans if the government does not capitalize these financial institutions for exclusive agricultural lending. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Key words: Microfinance, Smallholder,Productivity, Sierra Leone, Koinadugu.

Conceptual study of Social Media marketing and its influence on fashion industry ( special reference to fashion brands ) []

In the past decade, social media has redefined the world we are living in. What began as a means to communicate, maintain contact, or reconnect with old friends, has slowly but surely evolved into a crucial part of our daily lives; severely altering the way business is done. One specific area of business that has been particularly affected by the social media revolution is the fashion industry. Through the institution of social media, what was once only available to elite insiders is now accessible by the masses. For example, because of a designer’s Facebook page, Twitter feed, or Instagram account, those previously unconnected to high fashion can now watch live footage from Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week taking place in New York City, an opportunity that was once only limited to industry insiders, celebrities, and socialites. The fashion industry, as most business by and large, has been intensely affected lately by the presentation of social media. Internet based life has changed the manner by which individuals impart, yet in addition how firms publicize and arrive at their customer. The motivation behind this exploration was to investigate the manners in which web based life impacts style utilization, explicitly among the female, school age segment.


Background: Cervical cancer is the fourth most frequent cancer in women with an estimated 530,000 new cases in 2012 representing 7.9% of all female cancers worldwide. The burden of which is most evidenced in the devel-oping (lower and middle income) countries especially sub-Saharan African countries. Cervical cancer screening programs have proven to be beneficial and are associated with decreased incidence and mortality from the disease in developed countries but the coverage of which is still a challenge in developing countries. Methodology: This study employed a cross-sectional study design, where 185 women were selected through a multistage sampling method to comprise a study sample. Data collection was done via self-administered and inter-viewer-administered semi-structured questionnaires distributed among the study participants and interview respectively. The data collected were then analyzed using a Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 23, whereby frequencies were determined, also cross-tabulations and Chi-square were used for bivariate analysis and significance test. Results: Among the 185 respondents who took part in this study, overall, 84.9% had low knowledge of cervical cancer screening among them most were middle adults 66.2%, primary education 65.6%, self-employed 71.3%, and low economic status 89.8%. Attitude on other hand was generally positive 62.7% among the respondents, whereby most of them were middle adults 66.2%, with low economic status 89.8%, and most were married 73.9%. Conclusion: Women had overall low knowledge regarding cervical cancer screening and an overall positive attitude, but since screening is considered the best approach in preventing cervical cancer in developing countries, awareness campaigns to increase cervical cancer screening acceptability are crucial.


Background: The success of the HPV vaccination program requires awareness regarding HPV, cervical cancer, and the benefits of HPV vaccination for the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, cervical cancer prevention, vaccine, and factors associated with HPV awareness among parents with female adolescents on their children's health. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is mainly the cause of cervical cancer together with other anogenital cancers, where cervical cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide. HPV vaccine as among primary prevention of cervical cancer was established in different countries, whereby awareness or level of knowledge and attitude regarding cervical cancer, cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine among parents and adolescents were regarded as factors affecting the utilization of HPV vaccine. In order to control or reduce the high incidence of cervical cancer, the elevation of knowledge level about HPV vaccine among parents and caregivers is more important since they play a major role in their children’s health. Healthcare services should take serious measures to educate parents about cervical cancer, HPV, and the potential value of HPV vaccination. Methodology: A cross-sectional study design was used to assess 190 parents with female adolescents aged 9-14 years from the Dodoma region, selected through a multistage sampling technique. Data collection was done using interviews with a semi-structured questionnaire. The data collected were then analyzed using a Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 23, whereby frequencies were determined, also cross-tabulations and Chi-square were used for bivariate analysis and significance test. Results: Overall, 190 participated in the research in which the majority 86.8% were not knowledgeable regarding HPV infection. However, this study shows that the majority 65.1% are having high knowledge regarding the HPV vaccine with statistical significance (p value< 0.05) in early adulthood, marital status, occupation, and education level. Conclusion: Most parents were not knowledgeable regarding HPV infection, however parents responded yes as they know the benefits of vaccine but most failed to mention them, therefore, people have low knowledge regarding HPV infection despite, they have heard about the presence of HPV vaccine that prevents cervical cancer infections.