Volume 8, Issue 12, December 2020 Edition - GSJ Journal Publication

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Assessment of the Levels of Heavy Metals￾Arsenic, Cadmium, Chromium, Mercury and Lead in Selected Beverages. []

This paper aims to assess the level of heavy metals content in selected beverages. The labels of selected beverages were observed from various shops due to the increase of their daily intake. The chemical components in some of these beverages have received great interest because they are related to health. This investigation showed that all the selected samples do not indicate the content of the metals under study. However, most of the beverages are suspected to contain some amount of the toxic chemical elements due to their sources of production. Hence, a thorough finding based on experimental fact should be done because of the health hazards heavy metals have in living organisms.


This research was conducted in the Kenema City Government Hospital and the Annex Ward to be specific in the Eastern Province of Sierra Leone. The main purpose for the research is to investigate the attitude of nurses towards the patients in the Annex Ward which is consider to be the only ward that is meant to handle sensitive cases with careful attention for proper administration of medication for speedy health recovery. This research critically assessed the condition of service delivery from the nurses to the patients and encompasses the nurses’ attitude to the patients.

Public Financial Management in the Philippine Government []

This paper aims to present different articles and that explains the significance of the Public Financial Management Competency Program (PFMCP). It will show the history of how the PFMCP was crafted and made into an Executive Order (EO No. 55, s. 2011), allowing public financial management practitioners to be equipped and re-tooled on the reforms on the government financial and budgetary system. Government issuances, circulars, and office orders are the primary resource of this paper. It focuses on the findings and recommendations based on the focused-group discussions conducted under said publications. Thus, the development of the PFMCP is a key strategy to provide the PFM practitioners with access to necessary skills, behavior, attitude, and knowledge that will enable them to perform their current tasks, as well as their emerging tasks in light of the reforms that are being implemented.


ABSTRACT This research paper aims to present different journals and articles that explains the importance of labor market information in addressing the employability of the job seekers in Region IV-A. It also presents the role of the Department of Labor and Employment in assisting job seekers, especially the college graduates, in finding employment after graduation. Further, discussion on employment and unemployment rate, and employability are also included. Specifically, it aims to target the job and skills mismatch in the province which will help in decreasing the unemployment rate in the region. The review revealed that knowing the local labor market information has a significant impact in addressing the unemployment rate in the region.


The Area where the temperature is high the flexible pavement in mood of permanent deformation represent serious problem. To solve this serious problem various modifying asphalt binder by polymer are check out for the purpose of devoted the issue. The resolve this serious issue we can use four type of polymer to reduce the permanent deformation, these polymers are Polyethylene Wax (PEW), Styrene Butadiene Rubber (SBR), Ethylene Propylene Dien Monomer (EPDM) and Ethylene Vinyl Acetate (EVA). The prepared mixtures composed of 4.9 % of 40/50 asphalt binder, 12.5 mm nominal aggregate maximum size and limestone dust as filler. The permanent and resilient strains have been recorded when the cylindrical specimens, 101.6 mm in diameter and 203.2 mm in height, tested by repeated loading system. The main conclusions exhibit that SBR and EPDM with the same concentration (15 % by weight of asphalt binder) reduced the permanent deformation by 30.20 % and 30.46 % respectively. Although, the PEW and EVA reduced permanent deformation by lower values, 13.24 % and 17.35 % respectively, but the incremental percentage of their action are higher. The influences of testing temperature and stress level on permanent deformation were investigated. Linear regression model was established to correlate the values of permanent deformation and the resilient modulus of asphalt mixtures.


The current solid waste management (SWM) practice of open dumping prevalent in developing countries is not sustainable. It is responsible for an unusually high amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission from the sector, this is in addition to other environmental woes it poses. Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) is an effective SWM technique. Life cycle approach was used to develop an ISWM model suitable for Yola, the capital of Adamawa State in Nigeria based on its municipal solid waste (MSW) profile. The potential for reduction of GHGs emission from the SWM sector in Yola was ascertained using the model. Data used for the analysis was obtained from literature. It was determined that if this model is implemented in the city, a reduction of 188% in the carbon footprint of the city’s SWM sector could be achieved. It was also found that the composting is the ISWM element with the highest carbon sink potential, this is because the city’s MSW has high organic matter content. The study suggested synergy between government and the organized private sector so as to be able to make the SWM sector in the city sustainable. It also suggested creating awareness on the need for responsible usage and disposal of materials by the city’s inhabitants.

Degradation of Crude Oil Polluted Soil Using Magnetic Nano-Particles []

Magnetic nano particles, magnetic nano particles mixed with hydrogen peroxide and 20:10:10 NPK fertilizer were used to remediate two types of crude contaminated soils namely clay and loamy. Functional parameters such as the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) , polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and microbial count (MC) degradation were determine over a period of 28 days. An experimental investigation was carried out on the impacted soil by polluting two different soil samples namely, loamy soil and clay soil with crude oil. NPK 20:10:10 fertilizer, nano particles and nano particles mixed with hydrogen peroxide was used as treatment through each of the polluted soil sample in different reactors. Analysis of TPH and PAH at one weak interval for four weeks using gas chromatography –flame ionization detector (GCFID) revealed that nano -particle degraded the PAH and TPH faster in hydrocarbon polluted loamy soil and clay soil than NPK. The result from the gas chromatography indicates that the TPH and PAH of nanoparticle + H2O2 loamy is lower than NPK on loamy soil thereby reducing the hydrocarbon concentration in the impacted soils. The study showed that hydrocarbon concentration reduced. For PAH at day zero to day 28. Loamy + H2O2 + Nano reduced to 7402.54118, loamy + nano reduce to 10656.26817, clay + nano reduced to 15138.76319, loamy + NPK reduced to 14642.11469, clay + NPK reduced to 18676.62528, for TPH at day zero + day 14 loamy + nano + H2O2 reduced to 13741.66411, loamy + nano reduced to 21733.74985 clay + nano reduced to 27949.33806, loamy +NPK reduced by 31024.20846, clay + NPK reduced to 37387.60515. The physio-chemical properties of soil were analyzed and result obtained showed the properties of treated soil. The results obtained from the gas chromatography. PAH and TPH was compared using a graph and both showed a good fit. The results showed that nano particles can be used to remediate crude oil polluted soil. and also for microbial count rate for loamy soil and clay soil respectively.

The Behavior of Ordinary and Geosynthetic Encased Stone Columns in Collapsible Soil: A Numerical Study []

Abstract This paper examines the basic assumptions, procedures and results of the numerical analysis in simulating the behaviour of un-encased versus geotextile encased stone column for collapsible soils to support an embankment dam, using commercially available finite element method software PLAXIS 3D. Input parameters of numerical modelling were estimated using different correlation techniques based on SPT N values of soil. Soil data for this thesis were adopted from the SPT results. The data for stone column and geosynthetic material were adopted from a research work of Iman Hossein Pour Babei. The results of this study show that, geosynthetic encased stone column (GESC) has a remarkable influence on decreasing settlements and accelerate the consolidation time. The use of GESC decreases the amount of settlement of unreinforced soil from 338mm to 257mm. It also accelerates the consolidation end time from 9719 days to 653 days. The research also recommends to conduct further study on the response to bulging effect of GESC in relation to geotextile stiffness. KEYWORDS; Finite Element Analysis, Consolidation, Collapsible soil, PLAXIS, SPT, GESC

Growth and survival rate of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed by resulted coconut testa fermentation (Saccharomyces sp) []

This study aimed to determine the effect of fermented coconut testa by Saccharomyces sp on the growth of red tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). This study was conducted at the Aquaculture Laboratory Building IV, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences, Padjadjaran University from December 2019 to February 2020. This study design use was completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments and 3 replications. Treatmens included A (0% of fermented coconut testa in the feed), B (17,59 % of fermented coconut testa in the feed), C (35,19 % of fermented coconut testa in the feed) and D (52,79% of fermented coconut testa in the feed).. The results showed that using fermented coconut testa by Saccharomyces sp diet had no significant difference (P>0,05) growth and survival rate of the fish. The conclusion of this research was using fermented coconut testa in the feed can be used up to 52,79% for red tilapia


This article examines the aspects of geopolitical and military-political security in Arabian Monarchies and factors influencing in the processes of maintaining security in those countries. During the research historical and comparative analysis were applied and factors influencing geopolitical and military-political security of Arabian Monarchies were classified.

The educational administration and the concept of educational planning []

is a set of processes that include planning, controlling, directing, implementing, and evaluating works related to private affairs in educational institutions that form schools by using the best available means and methods, [1] and educational administration is also defined as comprehensive and intertwined processes. Some of them represent the educational system applied in society, which appears in the education system in the country, and the specific educational curricula and policies it provides for the various educational stages. [2]


Performance of African Giant Land Snail (Achatina achatina) fed dried fluted pumpkin (Telfairia occidentalis) market waste amended with 20% bovine blood meal was determined. Thirty (30) snails were randomly assigned to three (3) treatment groups with two (2) replicates each in a completely randomized design (CRD). Treatment 1, 2 and 3 were fed with: only dried fluted pumpkin waste, dried fluted pumpkin market waste amended with 20% bovine blood meal and poultry starter feed respectively. The parameters measured were weight gain, feed intake, length and width of the experimental animals. From the data obtained, feed growth ratio (FGR) was determined. Proximate properties of the samples were also determined. All results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (p≥0.05). The result of the proximate analysis reveals that fluted pumpkin market waste was high in fiber (36.220 ± 0.006) and mineral composition (11.230 ± 0.006) but low in proteins (8.930 ± 0.006). On the other hand, bovine blood meal is very rich in proteins (76.250 ± 0.081). The result for the growth performance reveals that treatment 1, 2 and 3 had 1.250 ± 0.250g, 5.792 ± 0.342g and 17.875 ± 0.475g gain in weight respectively. The feed growth ratio (FGR) was also found to be 36.500 ± 8.500, 6.513 ± 0.643 and 2.649 ± 0.110 respectively for treatment 1, 2 and 3. This indicates that even though the control still had better growth performance, amending the dried vegetable market waste with 20% bovine blood meal improved the performance of the experimental animals very significantly.


This paper reviews literature and studies on alternative work arrangements and its influence on the productivity and performance of employees. Alternative work arrangements was vital to the health situation that we are in now. There are different definition of alternative work arrangements. Both gender has opposing view on this kind of work arrangement. Alternative work arrangement also influences productivity and performance of employees.


The Lugad River of Brgy. Habag, Homonhon, Guiuan, Eastern Samar have always been the water supply for the members of its community but with time, this water source have been noticed to be depleting. It is by this reason that the researchers conducted the study. The method used is the Case Study Method, under Qualitative research design. The locale is Brgy. Habag, Homonhon Island, Guiuan, Eastern Samar and 15 community members have been chosen as respondents of the study, the selection was based on their knowledge and availability for interviews and queries. The respondents were asked to answer questionnaires and interviewed at the same time either via phone, messenger or in person, observations of the river as well as daily activities of the community members were also done. The results of the study concluded the following 4 reasons for the water source depletion which includes; (1) irresponsible cutting of trees, (2) Kaingin System, (3) mining in the nearby barangays, and (4) climate change. Separate studies on the other barangays, as well as a comparative study of the mined barangays and non –mined barangays are recommended. Keywords: Lugad River Study, Resource Depletion, Water Source Depletion

A Study of Improving the Ability of Using Basic Subject – Verb Agreement among Grade 8 Students: An Action Research with Special Reference to T/Kin/Meera Nagar Muslim Vidyalayam, Thampalagamuwa, Trincomalee []

This action research was conducted with the aim of overcoming the difficulties among grade 8 students of T/Kin/Meera Nagar Muslim Vidyalayam, Thampalagamuwa in using the basic subject – verb agreement in writing and to improve the ability of using subject – verb agreement. The research setting of this study was T/Kin/Meera Nagar Muslim Vidyalayam, Thampalagamuwa and the total population of this study was 62 students in grade 8. Out of the total population, 25 students were randomly selected for data collection. The research instrument of this study was a test which consisted of pre-test and post-test. The test was designed to identify the errors in basic S – V agreement and to see the improvement in basic S – V agreement rule. The data collection method of this study was quantitative. According to the research process, first, a pre-test was conducted. Second, one month teaching process was implemented. Finally, a post-test was conducted. The findings of the data analysis show that 48% of the participants had obtained between 1 -5 score in the pre-test while just 16% of the participants had obtained between 1 -5 score in the post-test. Likewise, 36% of the participants had obtained between 6 – 10 score in the pre-test while 40% of the participants had obtained between 6 – 10 score. 44% of the participants had obtained between 11 -15 score and 16% of the participants had obtained between 11 -15 score. The ability of using the basic subject – verb agreement in writing can be improved when explicit teaching of basic S– V agreement rule with simple and relevant examples is implemented in the classroom, the textbooks are not focused if they are advanced for students, a number of interesting activities and language games on S – V agreement are used and students are guided to gain the productive skill ‘writing’ through the receptive skill ‘reading’.


Performance management is an important component of the human resource management and it is widely used method to evaluate the employees in an effective manner. Performance management was measured through different variables such as measurement of performance, training and development, setting standards and organizational culture. One performance appraisal will not give proper idea of the employees and the decision taken on that will affect the good employees and it will affect the outcome of the organization too. In addition, they rarely conduct training programs to improve the teachers’ performance. Normally examination body conducts training once a year to give an idea about syllabus changes but school conducts training programs very rarely. Further, setting standard should be done properly otherwise it will not improve performance management system of the school. Further, organizational culture plays an important role to change the effectiveness of the performance management. The main purpose of this study was to critically evaluate the effectiveness of the existing performance management systems of international schools in Sri Lanka.

The Effect Of Corportae Sosial Responsibility (CSR) And Marketing Strategy Towards Customer Loyalty And Car Sales Performance Toyota PT. Hadji Kalla, Tbk Branch Maros []

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is the commitment of a business entity to act ethically, operate legally and contribute through 3 dimensions, namely profit for the company, society (people), and the environment (planet). This study aims to determine the effect of corporate social responsibility and marketing strategy on customer loyalty and sales performance of Toyota cars at PT. Hadji Kalla, Tbk Maros Branch. The approach in this research is a quantitative approach. The population in this study were all customers of Toyota PT. Hadji Kalla, Tbk, the Maros branch in the Maros area and its surroundings totaled 400 people. The method of data collection was carried out using observation and questionnaires. Data were analyzed using path analysis. The research model was tested and implemented at PT. Hadji Kalla, Tbk, Maros Branch, as one of the largest automotive distributor companies in Eastern Indonesia, which implements CSR programs through 4 programs, namely educare, humanity and environment care, Islamic care, economic and social care. The results of the analysis show that there is a positive and significant relationship between corporate social responsibility activities and marketing strategy on customer loyalty and sales performance. The results of the mediation test show that corporate social responsibility and marketing strategy have a direct and indirect effect on sales performance. Customer loyalty can mediate the influence of corporate social responsibility and marketing strategy on sales performance at PT. Hadji Kalla, Tbk Maros branch. These empirical findings indicate that the application of CSR is an alternative strategy in increasing sales through creating customer loyalty. The theoretical implications and suggestions for future research are also outlined in the final section of this study.

Performance Evaluation of Three Phase Induction Motor in Arbitrary Reference Frame []

Steady state analysis technique in line with d-q reference frame was adopted to characterize the behaviour of the three phase induction electric motor for purpose of improved performance. Having identified the problem of low power factor and poor efficiency of the machine under study required better consideration of the operational behaviour of the three phase induction motor. This research presents the analysis and performance of a three phase induction motor with and without the presence of stator core-resistance in the d-q reference model. The parameters of the machine was obtained using experimental simulation application tool computer software, matlab (simulink) was used for the development of the electric motor equations and behaviour for analysis and comparism. The starting currents of the induction motor under investigation is initially large as a results of jerking behaviour of the starting current without the addition of core resistance, giving a poor torque behaviour of 6.8N-m. The three phase induction machine was significantly improved by the addition of core resistance which gives better torque characteristics with 14.9N-m. This means that higher torque was achieved by the insertion of stator-core resistance from 6.8N-m to 14.9N-m which seriously reduced the current and increases the torque characteristics thereby minimizing machine losses that could attract more load consumption for payments of tariff (pay for more Energy consumed) especially in the industrial set-up. Essentially, the setback of the machine parameters including the initial high currents, low power factor and poor efficiency has been remarkably improved in the measurement performance of 0.78% efficiency of the machine which will lead to reduction in energy losses to attract more commercial values and required to do more robust (capacity work). As the torque build up characteristics increase gradually as the value of the stator are resistance was added which also increase in a similar manner.


Worry and Anxiety: one of the the deadly substances in the world today ruining the joy and happiness of many people in different parts of the country. However, it ought not to have its place in the life of the believers because Jesus Christ has declare having victory over all things through his death and resurrection. why is it still have a place in the life of some believes and hoe can it be overcome? learn this from this book.


This paper aims as a catalyst to the language learning difficulties in understanding the in-depth knowledge in the teaching-learning process through philosophy of language. It will serve as a framework with a purpose to develop an appropriate learning guide for both the teachers and learners in order to bridge the perpetual language gap in teaching philosophy and social studies. This paper reviewed articles, journals, and books published online internationally from 2010-2020. The proposal focuses on the findings, conclusions and recommendations from the gathered articles researched. The review revealed the need for developing a language-based instruction in teaching philosophy and social studies, as well as the construction of localized authentic materials appropriate in the active learning process.

Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding health regarding ethics among Nursing Students []

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding healthcare ethics among nursing students of Lahore School of Nursing, The University of Lahore. Methods: 154 respondents comprising of BSN and Post-RN students were recruited from Lahore School of Nursing, The University of Lahore on behalf of this descriptive cross sectional study. A self- directed questionnaire was used to gather data. Data was analyzed by using SPSS-21. Results: More than half of the students faced ethical concerns on a regular basis. In just (22.1%) of the cases, these legal concerns were rarely discussed with the professional boss. Occasionally, 41.6 percent and 39 percent of respondents witnessed unethical behavior by doctors towards nursing students and patients. A great amount of participants (62.3 percent) had no information of the Medical and Dental Council of Pakistan's code of ethics. Only a few people were aware of the Helsinki declaration. With regard to their perspectives on conformity to the needs of patients, paternalistic behavior of doctors, care of infants without parent agreement, euthanasia, anonymity and management of non-compliant patients, there was a disparity between BSN students and post-RN. Conclusion: BSN Students representing various levels of education in Pakistan routinely face ethical dilemmas, but their present ethics education and preparation is inadequate to support them deal with these proficiently. Key Words: Health care ethics; Nursing students; Knowledge; Attitude; Practice Objective: Will student nurses have experience of the ethics of health care? What is the mindset of undergraduate nursing students towards health-care ethics? Do they follow ethics in health care? Methodology: A descriptive cross sectional study design was used for this study. A sample of 154 nursing students was selected from Lahore School of Nursing; The University of Lahore through convenient Sampling. Data was collected by a self-administered questionnaire. The data was analysed by SPSS version 21 and presented in the form of charts, tables, frequencies and percentages Conclusion: BSN Students representing various levels of education in Pakistan routinely face ethical dilemmas, but their present ethics education and preparation is inadequate to support them deal with these proficiently.

Impact of Sleep Deprivation on the Educational achievement and Cognitive Function among the Nursing Students []

ABSTRACT Introduction: In human wellbeing, sleep plays a very significant function. The low quality of sleep is also a common feature of student life. In addition to the normal sleep time, the amount and consistency of sleep are closely correlated with the students learning skills and educational achievement. Nursing students are subject to high academic standards, which can impact their sleep schedule. Insufficient sleep may impair their mental capacity required for proper academic success with extreme daytime sleepiness. Objective: This research provides an overview of the impact of sleep deprivation in nursing students on educational achievement and functions of cognition. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional design-A self-structured paper questionnaire was distributed to nursing students from the first year to the final year. For academic results, the grade point average was reported. Nursing students from the University of Lahore were the target population for this study. The sample size was 150. The length of the study was 4 months. Results: 106 (70.7 %) students got less than 6-7 hours of sleep which is less than the recommended sleep, out of 150 respondents. Students with lower GPA had sleep loss related with lower sleep length. Nursing students' cognitive skills, such as memory, focus, concentrating, were also affected. Conclusion: The students who were sleep deficient were low in their educational achievement and cognitive functions. Appropriate sleep is also an important part of improved student success and cognitive performance. Keywords: Sleep deprivation, educational achievement, and cognitive function.

Knowledge, attitude and practices University BSN Nursing Students about Undesirable Effects of Cosmetics in Lahore City []

Abstract Introduction: People like to look good, and humanity and culture are as ancient as the idea of cosmetics. The need to embellish one's own body to look beautiful has been an instinct in the human race ever since the Tribal Days.In particular, a number of cosmetics products, such as products of skin care, goods of hair, scents, oral hygiene goods and nail crops, are used by women and can contain toxic substances that are detrimental to their wellbeing. The use of cosmetics has triggered numerous antagonistic reactions, including Local responses to systemic reactions and significant symptoms are less intense. Results: Students had less knowledge about use of cosmetics. Some students gave correct answers while most of them did not. Their attitude and practice were also poor about undesirable effects of cosmetics. Objectives • To assess knowledge about use of cosmetics among students. . • To identify the attitude about use of cosmetics among students. • To determine the practice of students about use of cosmetics. • To find out the correlation between the knowledge of undesirable effects and attitude of students about use of cosmetics. Methodology: A cross- sectional analysis of 230 nursing students was conducted in the city of Lahore of BSN program. Information was collected through a questionnaire developed by the searcher to determine the awareness, attitude and practice of the participant. SPSS 25 tabulated and evaluated data using descriptive analysis and Pearson's coefficient of correlation. Conclusions: awareness level about the undesirable properties of cosmetics was poor. There was uncomplimentary Repetition of students.it is necessary to give education to students about risks of cosmetics through formal channel. Keywords: Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice, Cosmetics, students, Lahore


The study of water quality using cladocerans as bioindicators to access the deterioration of water in Ikpoba river Benin City, Edo State was carried out for a period of 6 months (December 2017 – May 2018). Water samples were collected monthly from station 1 (control) and stations 2, 3, and 4 (perturbed locations) for analysis of physicochemical parameters and zooplankton collection. Samples were analysed using standard procedures and an atomic absorption spectrometer. At a significant level of P<0.05, alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, and ammonium concentration were significantly different across the study stations. The dissolved oxygen content in the water was very low and this was probably as a result of effluents discharged into the river at the sampled stations. Seasonal variation of the parameters was determined across the stations. Twenty-three taxa were identified as belonging to five families and a total of 150 individuals were encountered. The general diversity using the Shannon Weiner index showed diversity in decreasing order of station 4>2>1>, margalef’s species richness index revealed that station 3 was the most species-rich. There was a poor correlation between the cladocerans and the physicochemical parameters analysed. Regulatory measures should be taken to prevent deterioration of water quality and to enhance the survival of the aquatic ecosystem.

Flame Retardancy in Consumer Products: An Overview of PBDE and Possible Alternatives []

Accelerated industrialization and urbanization, and unregulated disposal of waste of electric and electronic equipment (e-waste) and other consumer products in Nigeria have caused environmental pollution of brominated flame retardants (BFRs). Flame retardants (FRs) are a diverse group of chemicals used as additives in a wide range of products to inhibit, suppress, or delay ignition and to prevent the spread of fire. Halogenated FRs (HFRs) are widely used because of their low impact on other material properties and the low loading levels necessary to meet the required flame retardancy. In addition, Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a group of organobromine compounds that are used as flame retardants in many commonly used products. Their presence has been confirmed in various environmental matrices. Their usage in numerous consumer products has lent credence to their ability to retard flammable gas formation, hence their ubiquitous nature in the environment. PBDEs have been described as endocrine disrupting chemicals because of their interference with the endocrine system function in fish and other terrestrial animals. In spite of the progress in research over the years on PBDEs, full understanding of the environmental behaviour, fate of this contaminant and possible alternatives is still elusive. In this review, sources by which PBDEs enter the environment have been evaluated in conjunction with their levels, as well as their toxicity, and the transformation and transport of PBDEs in various environmental compartments. Health and environmental hazards associated with PBDEs have driven research for identifying safer alternatives. A variety of halogen-free FRs are available in the market, including organic (phosphorus and nitrogen based chemicals) and inorganic (metals) materials. Therefore possible alternatives to PBDEs such as organophosphorus compounds, nitrogen and silicon based, as well as nanocomposites (Multi-walled carbon nanotube) have all been critically discussed, with nanocomposite (CNTs) recommended as a more suitable alternative to PBDEs owing to their flame retardancy mechanism; ability to reduces the escape of volatile, combustible degradation products to the flame; as well as improve mechanical strength and electrical properties of the material. Keywords: PBDEs, Flame retardants, congeners, MWCNT, BFR

Evaluation of knowledge, attitude and practice of pregnant women toward exercise during pregnancy in teaching hospital Lahore []

Background: Physical inactivity during pregnancy raises the risk of complications connected to pregnancy. Every day, many pregnant women in world have passed due to pregnancy related complication. However to prevent these health problem women have enough awareness about physical activity during gestational period. Therefore these study was conduct to evaluate the awareness, attitude and practice of pregnant women women toward antenatal exercise. Method: It is a cross-sectional descriptive analysis in which a questionnaire for the evaluation of awareness, attitude and practice (KAP) was used to collect data from 186 pregnant women. Result: Among 186 pregnant women 100 (53,8%) had adequate knowledge, and 147(79.0.0%) have a positive attitude, and 84(46.2)only females was practice the antenatal exercise. Performed exercising including Brisk walking (22.0%),relaxation exercise (5.9%), breathing exercise(7.0%) pelvic floor exercise (2.2%) and (3.8%) yoga. 93.5% belief that pregnant women should perform exercise if health care provider recommend them. (43.5%) think that ANEx suit to our culture. Conclusion: This research shows that most of the participants were knowledgeable and more than half had a positive behaviour towards exercise during pregnancy and a very poor level of prenatal exercise practice. Therefore to reduce pregnancy-related risks, health care providers and other appropriate organizations should increase the awareness about the benefits of exercise during pregnancy. Key words: knowledge, attitude, practice, antenatal exercise, pregnant women

The Effect Of Adding Carrot Flour To The Feed On The Color Of Comet Fish Seeds (Carassius auratus) []

This study aims to determine the effect of deep carrot flour to increase color brightness and to determine the optimal concentration of carrot flour added to artificial feed to increase color brightness of Comet fish. This research was conducted at Hatchery Building 4, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Padjadjaran University from May to June 2020. The research method used was complete randomized design consisting of four treatments and three replications. Treatments were added with carrot flour by 0%, 2.5%, 5%, and 7.5% of feed quantity. The observed parameter is the color value as the main data with the use of the Toca Color Finder tool while the survival rate and water quality as supporting data. The color observation data was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis analysis. If there is a significant difference, the test is performed Z. The results of the study concluded that the addition of carrot flour by as much 5% is the best treatment with an increase in the color brightness value amounted to 3.78.